Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 17073

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The Directorate of Research, Development and Innovation Management (DMCDI), The Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Constantin Daicoviciu Street, no. 15, 400020 Cluj-Napoca, Cluj County, Romania
Interests: mechanical and tribological characterization of macro–micro–nanostructures; topographical and morphological characterization of three-dimensional surfaces at micro/nanoscale; experimental techniques for micro/nanomechanical and micro/nanotribological characterization; development of new mathematical tools in the investigation of 3D surface quality; theoretic and applied research in advanced materials science in engineering; fractal and multifractal geometry analysis and applications
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Faculty of Technical Sciences, Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: nanostructured materials; thin film deposition; nanomaterials synthesis; material characteristics
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Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UB RAS, 1 Korolev St., 614013 Perm, Russia
Interests: atomic force microscopy; nanocomposites, thin films; structural-mechanical analysis; surface characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ability to manufacture products of increasingly lower surface roughness for functionally relevant surfaces is a necessity today. For quality assurance and process control, the precise and accurate measurement of three-dimensional (3D) surface topography represents a major technological issue in the science, engineering, and manufacturing industry, for assessing the quality of high-performance micro/nanosurfaces, and in ultraprecision machining. In the modern approach within material science, the characterization of nanometric engineering surfaces based on the application of stereometric, spectral analysis, fractal/multifractal theory, and Minkowsky functionals has remained a challenging task of substantial research. This activity can provide a better understanding of the relationship between surface topography, microstructure, mechanical and physical–chemical properties. Such a research topic involves a multidisciplinary point of view, including knowledge from diverse scientific areas such as scanning microscopy, metrology, and mathematics. This Special Issue covers all aspects of 3D surface characterization techniques, ranging from descriptive statistics, stereometric analysis, spectral analysis, fractal/multifractal theory, and Minkowsky functionals. Studies focusing on the theoretical simulation of the micromorphology, computerized procedures, mathematical algorithms, and optimal research techniques for description of 3D surface of materials at micro/nanoscale are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ştefan Ţălu
Dr. Sławomir Kulesza
Dr. Ilya A. Morozov
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Topography and morphology of 3D surfaces at micro/nanoscale
  • Experimental correlation between surface morphology structure and materials properties (mechanical, optical, physicochemical)
  • Topographical and morphological 3D characterization technology: of surfaces: classical and new methods
  • Multiscale characterization of surface topography
  • 3D surface microtexture
  • Stereometric analysis, spectral analysis, fractal/multifractal analysis, and Minkowsky functionals for characterization of surface topography
  • Mathematical models of the 3D surface microtexture
  • Theoretical studies, computerized simulation, and reconstruction of the 3D micromorphology of surfaces
  • Characterization of atomic surface roughness in nanometric machining molecular dynamics simulations

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale
by Ştefan Ţălu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7729; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157729 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Nowadays, understanding the structural properties of materials with a specific internal microstructure on all length scales is the key to discovering new products based on new technologies [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 5966 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Focused Ion and Electron Beam Platinum Carbon Nano-Tips with Transmission Electron Microscopy for Quantum Tunneling Vacuum Gap Applications
by Michael Haub, Thomas Günther, Martin Bogner and André Zimmermann
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11793; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411793 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
To realize quantum tunneling applications with movable electrodes, sharp tips with radii down to several tens of nanometers are necessary. The use of a focused ion beam (FIB) and focused electron beam (FEB) with a gas injection system (GIS) allows the integration of [...] Read more.
To realize quantum tunneling applications with movable electrodes, sharp tips with radii down to several tens of nanometers are necessary. The use of a focused ion beam (FIB) and focused electron beam (FEB) with a gas injection system (GIS) allows the integration of geometries in the nanoscale directly into micro and nano systems. However, the implementation of the tunneling effect clearly depends on the material. In this work, a metal-organic precursor is used. The investigation of the prepared tunneling electrodes enables an insight into FIB/FEB parameters for the realization of quantum tunneling applications. For this purpose, a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis is performed. The results show a dependence of the material nanostructure regarding platinum (Pt) grain size and distribution in an amorphous carbon matrix from the used beam and the FIB currents. The integration of the tips into a polysilicon (PolySi) beam and measuring the current signal by approaching the tips show significant differences in the results. Moreover, the approach of FEB tips shows a non-contact behavior even when the tips are squeezed together. The contact behavior depends on the grain size, proportion of platinum, and the amount of amorphous carbon in the microstructure, especially at the edge area of the tips. This study shows significant differences in the nanostructure between FIB and FEB tips, particularly for the FIB tips: The higher the ion current, the greater the platinum content, the finer the grain size, and the higher the probability of a tunneling current by approaching the tips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale)
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23 pages, 30244 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Method for the Remediation of Brilliant Green Dye Using Halloysite Nanotube: Isotherm, Kinetic and Modeling Studies
by Shareefraza J. Ukkund, Prasad Puthiyillam, Hashim M. Alshehri, Marjan Goodarzi, Syed Noeman Taqui, Ali E. Anqi, Mohammad Reza Safaei, Masood Ashraf Ali, Usman Taqui Syed, Rayees Afzal Mir, Ashraf Elfasakhany, Emad M. Eed, Md Irfanul Haque Siddiqui, Imran Mokashi and Manzoore Elahi M. Soudagar
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8088; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178088 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
The first-ever use of halloysite nanotube (HNT), a relatively low-cost nanomaterial abundantly available with minor toxicity for removing brilliant green dye from aqueous media, is reported. The factors affecting adsorption were studied by assessing the adsorption capacity, kinetics, and equilibrium thermodynamic properties. All [...] Read more.
The first-ever use of halloysite nanotube (HNT), a relatively low-cost nanomaterial abundantly available with minor toxicity for removing brilliant green dye from aqueous media, is reported. The factors affecting adsorption were studied by assessing the adsorption capacity, kinetics, and equilibrium thermodynamic properties. All the experiments were designed at a pH level of around 7. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model fits best amongst the nine isotherm models studied. The kinetic studies data confirmed a pseudo model of the second order. Robotic investigations propose a rate-controlling advance being overwhelmed by intraparticle dispersion. The adsorbent features were interpreted using infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Process optimization was carried out using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through a dual section Fractional Factorial Experimental Design to contemplate the impact of boundaries on the course of adsorption. The examination of fluctuation (ANOVA) was utilized to consider the joined impact of the boundaries. The possibilities of the use of dye adsorbing HNT (“sludge”) for the fabrication of the composites using plastic waste are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale)
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19 pages, 6153 KiB  
Article
Correlating Structure and Morphology of Andiroba Leaf (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) by Microscopy and Fractal Theory Analyses
by Robert S. Matos, Ştefan Ţălu, Gunar V. S. Mota, Erveton P. Pinto, Marcelo A. Pires, Leida G. Abraçado and Nilson S. Ferreira
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5848; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135848 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
The Amazon rainforest is considered a megadiverse biome, where several species of its rich flora are still unknown. The anatomy of their leaves usually identifies species. In this paper, we present a complete characterization of the leaf surface of Amazon Carapa guianensis Aubl. [...] Read more.
The Amazon rainforest is considered a megadiverse biome, where several species of its rich flora are still unknown. The anatomy of their leaves usually identifies species. In this paper, we present a complete characterization of the leaf surface of Amazon Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Andiroba), using microscopy and fractal theory to be considered a possible tool for investigating different leaves spatial patterns, especially in species with similar leaf architecture. The SEM results revealed the cellular structures and other non-cellular structures that make up the leaf architecture, both for the abaxial and adaxial sides. The cells responsible for the plant photosynthesis process were observed in the internal structure of the leaf. The wettability analysis showed that the abaxial side is more hydrophobic, while the adaxial side is more hydrophilic. AFM images exposed the relevant details of the microstructure of the leaf abaxial side, such as stomata, pores, furrows, contour, particles, and rough profiles generated by topographic irregularities. The statistical parameters revealed that the scale size influences the topographic roughness, surface asymmetry, and shape of the height distribution, also observed by advanced parameters obtained according to the standard of the international organization for standardization (ISO). The fractal and advanced fractal parameters confirmed changes in spatial patterns as a function of scale size. The largest area exhibited greater spatial complexity, low dominant spatial frequencies, more excellent surface percolation, intermediate topographic homogeneity, and high uniformity of spatial patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale)
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19 pages, 18297 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cut-Off, Evaluation Length, and Measurement Area in Profile and Areal Surface Texture Characterization of As-Built Metal Additive Manufactured Components
by Arun Prasanth Nagalingam, Moiz Sabbir Vohra, Pulkit Kapur and Swee Hock Yeo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5089; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115089 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3367
Abstract
Surface texture characterization of components built using additive manufacturing (AM) remains a challenge. The presence of various asperities and random roughness distributions across a surface poses several challenges to users in selecting an appropriate cut-off wavelength (λc), evaluation length (ln [...] Read more.
Surface texture characterization of components built using additive manufacturing (AM) remains a challenge. The presence of various asperities and random roughness distributions across a surface poses several challenges to users in selecting an appropriate cut-off wavelength (λc), evaluation length (ln), and measurement area. This paper investigates a modified framework for surface texture characterization of AM components. First, the surface asperities in an AM component were identified through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The maximum diameter (φm) of the surface asperities were determined through image processing and were used as cut-off for surface texture evaluation. Second, another set of surface texture results were extracted using standard measurement procedures per ISO 4287, 4288, 25178-1, -2, and -3. Third, the investigative measurement framework’s effectiveness and suitability were explored by comparing the results with ISO standard results. Last, the effects of using non-standard cut-off wavelength, evaluation length, and measurement area during surface texture characterization were studied, and their percentage deviations from the standard values were discussed. The key findings prove that (a) the evaluation length could be compromised instead of cut-off, (b) measurement area must be 2.5 times the maximum asperity size present in the surface, and (c) it is possible to identify, distinguish, and evaluate specific features from the AM surface by selecting appropriate filters, thereby characterizing them specifically. The investigations and the obtained results serve as valuable data for users to select appropriate measurement settings for surface texture evaluation of AM components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale)
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16 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
Fractal-Stereometric Correlation of Nanoscale Spatial Patterns of GdMnO3 Thin Films Deposited by Spin Coating
by Yonny Romaguera-Barcelay, Ştefan Ţălu, Robert Saraiva Matos, Rosane Maria Pessoa Betânio Oliveira, Joaquim Agostinho Moreira, Javier Perez de Cruz and Henrique Duarte da Fonseca Filho
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3886; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093886 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Multiferroic systems are of great interest for technological applications. To improve the fabrication of thin films, stereometric and fractal analysis of surface morphology have been extensively performed to understand the influence of physical parameters on the quality of spatial patterns. In this work, [...] Read more.
Multiferroic systems are of great interest for technological applications. To improve the fabrication of thin films, stereometric and fractal analysis of surface morphology have been extensively performed to understand the influence of physical parameters on the quality of spatial patterns. In this work, GaMnO3 was synthesized and thin films were deposited on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using a spin coating apparatus to study the correlation between their stereometric and fractal parameters. All films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), where the structure and microstructure of the film sintered at 850 °C was investigated by Rietveld refinement. Topographic maps of the films were obtained using an atomic force microscope (AFM) in tapping mode. The results show that the film sintered at 850 °C exhibited a clear formation of a GdMnO3 orthorhombic structure with crystallite size of ~14 nm and a microstrain higher than other values reported in the literature. Its surface morphology presented a rougher topography, which was confirmed by the height parameters. Topographic differences due to different asymmetries and shapes of the height distributions between the films were observed. Specific stereometric parameters also showed differences in the morphology and microtexture of the films. Qualitative rendering obtained by commercial image processing software revealed substantial differences between the microtextures of the films. Fractal and advanced fractal parameters showed that the film sintered at 850 °C had greater spatial complexity, which was due to their higher topographic roughness, lower surface percolation and greater topographic uniformity, being dominated by low dominant special frequencies. Our combination of stereometric and fractal measurements can be useful to improve the fabrication process by optimizing spatial patterns as a function of the sintering temperature of the film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale)
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13 pages, 20486 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis of Nanofiber Mat AFM Images by Gray-Scale-Resolved Hurst Exponent Distributions
by Tomasz Blachowicz, Krzysztof Domino, Michał Koruszowic, Jacek Grzybowski, Tobias Böhm and Andrea Ehrmann
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052436 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
Two-dimensional structures, either periodic or random, can be classified by diverse mathematical methods. Quantitative descriptions of such surfaces, however, are scarce since bijective definitions must be found to measure unique dependency between described structures and the chosen quantitative parameters. To solve this problem, [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional structures, either periodic or random, can be classified by diverse mathematical methods. Quantitative descriptions of such surfaces, however, are scarce since bijective definitions must be found to measure unique dependency between described structures and the chosen quantitative parameters. To solve this problem, we use statistical analysis of periodic fibrous structures by Hurst exponent distributions. Although such a Hurst exponent approach was suggested some years ago, the quantitative analysis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of nanofiber mats in such a way was described only recently. In this paper, we discuss the influence of typical AFM image post-processing steps on the gray-scale-resolved Hurst exponent distribution. Examples of these steps are polynomial background subtraction, aligning rows, deleting horizontal errors and sharpening. Our results show that while characteristic features of these false-color images may be shifted in terms of gray-channel and Hurst exponent, they can still be used to identify AFM images and, in the next step, to quantitatively describe AFM images of nanofibrous surfaces. Such a gray-channel approach can be regarded as a simple way to include some information about the 3D structure of the image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizations of Three-Dimensional Surfaces at Micro/Nanoscale)
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