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Advanced Manufacturing Processes

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 11944

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Firenze, Via di Santa Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy
2. CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: explosive welding; welding; additive manufacturing; WAAM; metallurgy; metallurgical characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. ESAD.CR, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Rua Isidoro Inácio Alves de Carvalho, 2500-321 Caldas da Rainha, Portugal
2. CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: welding technology; processing technology; microstructural and mechanical characterization; friction stir welding; explosion welding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. ISEL, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
2. CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: solid-state welding; friction stir welding; explosion welding; dissimilar materials welding; solid-state processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advancement of engineering and the emergence of increasingly individualized and specific applications boost the need to develop advanced manufacturing processes capable of delivering all the required characteristics. These processes, which have very particular features or were developed more recently, deserve special attention in current manufacturing engineering research to overcome their challenges. This progress will spread the use of these processes, resulting in better quality components with lower manufacturing costs and lower environmental impact.

This Special Issue will publish high-quality, original research and review papers addressing manufacturing processes such as additive manufacturing technologies, solid-state welding processes (e.g., friction stir welding, explosive welding, magnetic pulse welding), advanced fusion welding and coating processes, powder metallurgy, among others. Different aspects related to these processes may be addressed, including process development, metallurgical characterization, machining, corrosion resistance, industrial applications, improvements in energy efficiency, sustainability and environmental impact, heat treatment and post-processing, case studies, and numerical modeling and simulation.

Dr. Gustavo H. S. F. L. Carvalho
Dr. Rui Manuel Leal
Dr. Ivan Galvão 
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • solid-state welding
  • friction stir welding
  • impact welding processes
  • explosive welding
  • magnetic pulse welding
  • advanced fusion welding processes
  • powder metallurgy/sintering
  • numerical modeling and simulation

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 5489 KiB  
Article
The Experimental and FEM Studies of Friction Welding Process of Tungsten Heavy Alloy with Aluminium Alloy
by Radosław Winiczenko, Andrzej Skibicki and Paweł Skoczylas
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14052038 - 29 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
Experimental and finite element studies of the rotary friction welding (RFW) process of tungsten heavy alloy (THA) with aluminium alloy 5XXX series are presented. A 2.5D torsion simulation model including the circumferential effects was developed in this study. The temperature distributions, effective stress, [...] Read more.
Experimental and finite element studies of the rotary friction welding (RFW) process of tungsten heavy alloy (THA) with aluminium alloy 5XXX series are presented. A 2.5D torsion simulation model including the circumferential effects was developed in this study. The temperature distributions, effective stress, flash dimensions and axial shortening were calculated on un-rotated friction welding aluminium parts. The peak temperatures were measured both in the axis and at the half-radius of the specimen. The maximum interface temperature of 581 °C for the friction weld was below the melting temperature of the aluminium alloy. The experimental and numerical results of the temperature and final weld geometries show good agreement between them. The results indicate very small deviations of 4.45%, 2.96%, and 2.34% on the flash width, flash height and axial shortening of friction welds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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16 pages, 15198 KiB  
Article
Evolutionary Algorithm to Optimize Process Parameters of Al/Steel Magnetic Pulse Welding
by Jiyeon Shim and Illsoo Kim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12881; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312881 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) process uses only electromagnetic force to create a solid-state metallurgical bond between a working coil and outer workpiece. The electromagnetic force drives the outer tube to collide with the inner rod, resulting in successful bonding. However, due to [...] Read more.
The Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) process uses only electromagnetic force to create a solid-state metallurgical bond between a working coil and outer workpiece. The electromagnetic force drives the outer tube to collide with the inner rod, resulting in successful bonding. However, due to the dissimilarity of the MPW joint, only a portion of the interface forms a metallurgical bond, which affects the quality of the joint. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of process parameters on joint quality through experimental work using RSM. Furthermore, an optimization algorithm is utilized to optimize the process parameters used in magnetic pulse welding. A1070 aluminum and S45C carbon steel were used as the materials, while peak current, gap between working coil and outer tube, and frequency were chosen as the process parameters for MPW. The welding conditions are determined through experimental design. After welding, the maximum load and weld length are measured to analyze the effect of the process parameters, and a prediction model is developed. Specifically, to achieve a high-quality joint, the process parameters are optimized using the Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The results reveal that the peak current is a significant parameter, and the developed prediction model exhibits high accuracy. Furthermore, the ICA algorithm proves very effective in determining the process parameters for achieving a high-quality Al/Steel MPW joint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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13 pages, 9303 KiB  
Article
Digital Simulation and Analysis of Assembly-Deviation Prediction Based on Measurement Data
by Ninglu Zhang, Yingna Wu, Rui Yang and Guangping Xie
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12193; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212193 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
For various power equipment items such as aircraft engines and gas turbines with numerous components demanding requirements on processing accuracy and high structural complexity, processing errors tend to cause such problems as assembly rework, forced assembly and prolonged research and development cycle. In [...] Read more.
For various power equipment items such as aircraft engines and gas turbines with numerous components demanding requirements on processing accuracy and high structural complexity, processing errors tend to cause such problems as assembly rework, forced assembly and prolonged research and development cycle. In this paper, the core machine of micro gas turbine is taken as the research object to construct a simulation model of assembly-deviation prediction based on the design tolerance and actual measurement data. Then, an analysis is conducted on the assemblability of the design model and the key factors causing the deviation of the assembly. After conducting deviation calculations and simulation analysis, it was determined that the current mounting position is deemed to be suboptimal. In light of this finding, an optimized solution is proposed, which involves advancing the mounting phase by 0.47 mm. This adjustment effectively resolves the interference issue resulting from the design error. Moreover, the geometry, shape and three-dimensional contour of the key components are measured with high accuracy and precision to identify the key characteristic parameters affecting the outcome of the assembly. With an assembly-deviation-prediction and -analysis model established on the basis of actual measurement data, the results of the assembly-deviation analysis are compared with the outcome of the assembly, showing high consistency. The assembly-deviation-prediction method proposed in this paper on the basis of design tolerance and actual measurement data is applicable to the manufacture of aviation and combustion engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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16 pages, 107656 KiB  
Article
Effect of Temperature Distribution on Interfacial Bonding Process between CFRTP Composite and Aluminum Alloy during Laser Direct Joining
by Qi Wang, Rao Fu, Fuji Wang, Chaoyang Luo, Jiankang Li and Zhenyuan Jia
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 11973; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132111973 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Laser direct joining enables non-destructive and lightweight joining of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) composites and aluminum alloys. The interfacial bonding process determines the joint performance and is influenced by the time-varying temperature distribution. However, the interfacial bonding process occurs inside the joint, [...] Read more.
Laser direct joining enables non-destructive and lightweight joining of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) composites and aluminum alloys. The interfacial bonding process determines the joint performance and is influenced by the time-varying temperature distribution. However, the interfacial bonding process occurs inside the joint, making it difficult to study the effect of temperature distribution. To resolve this issue, a novel online observation device for the interfacial bonding process between CFRTP composites and aluminum alloys is design, and the polymer melting, flowing, and bonding with metal during laser direct joining are observed. Further, temperature field simulation models for laser direct joining are established, and temperature distribution and gradient are calculated. The results show that the temperature distribution determines the melting of CFRTP composites, and bubbles generated by the thermal decomposition of the polymer hinder the melting. The temperature gradient is related to the movement of the molten matrix and fibers, and the movement towards the aluminum alloy induces cracking and delamination. Once the interface is filled with polymer, the motion changes to along the laser scanning direction and the joining defects are reduced. The study can provide a foundation for promoting interfacial bonding and reducing the defects of laser direct joining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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15 pages, 7799 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of the Tool Wear of Ceramic and Coated Carbide Inserts in Finishing Turning under the Influence of Age-Strengthening Gray Cast Iron
by N. E. González-Sierra, Javier Flores Méndez, M. A. Meraz-Melo, Ana C. Piñón Reyes, German Ardul Munoz-Hernandez, Alfredo Morales-Sánchez, Mario Moreno Moreno and Gustavo M. Minquiz
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10248; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810248 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Gray cast iron (GCI) is a common material in the automotive industry due to its mechanical characteristics, which change primarily for materials employed for the foundry and cooling rate of material. According to the workpiece, the material of the cutting tool and cutting [...] Read more.
Gray cast iron (GCI) is a common material in the automotive industry due to its mechanical characteristics, which change primarily for materials employed for the foundry and cooling rate of material. According to the workpiece, the material of the cutting tool and cutting parameters are analyzed to improve the machining and to increment the lifetime of the tools. In this research, the foundry and machining process of an automotive component using ceramic and coated carbide tools were the study case, and the effect that they have on the age strengthening of GCI on the tool wear of the cutting tools was studied. Both inserts have the capability to machine the material with a rough surface between 1.5 to 2.0 μm. The wear mechanism of inserts and the microstructure of GCI were characterized with microscopy techniques, atomic force microscope (AFM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructure of the workpiece shows a casting with flake graphite morphology that is linked with the induction of microcracks in the material. The experimental analysis shows that the GCI with 12 days of aging has an increased tensile strength. This improves the tool life of ceramic and coated carbide tools. There is a 50% reduction in flank wear with inserts that are machined with the GCI within five days of aging, compared with the material within twelve days. The rake face and flank wear show that abrasive and adhesive wear are the main mechanisms of ceramic inserts due to the high cutting speed. Meanwhile, adhesive and oxidative wear in the flank were the predominant type of wear for coated carbide tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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21 pages, 10989 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization of Micro-Milling Parameters—The Trade-Offs between Machining Quality, Efficiency, and Sustainability in the Fabrication of Thin-Walled Microstructures
by Peng Wang, Qingshun Bai, Kai Cheng, Liang Zhao and Yabo Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9392; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169392 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Micro-milling has found extensive applications in machining components with thin-walled microstructures, such as terahertz slow-wave structures, microfluidic chips, and micro-molds. Due to the influence of size effects, micro-milling exhibits higher specific energy consumption compared with traditional milling, implying that more energy is consumed [...] Read more.
Micro-milling has found extensive applications in machining components with thin-walled microstructures, such as terahertz slow-wave structures, microfluidic chips, and micro-molds. Due to the influence of size effects, micro-milling exhibits higher specific energy consumption compared with traditional milling, implying that more energy is consumed to remove a unit volume of material, particularly in challenging-to-machine materials like Ti-6Al-4V. Historically, research on parameter optimization for micro-milling has predominantly focused on enhancing machining quality and efficiency, with limited attention given to energy efficiency. However, in the context of the “double carbon” strategy, energy conservation and emissions reduction have garnered significant attention in the manufacturing industry. Therefore, this paper proposes a micro-milling parameter-based power consumption model. Based on this, a specific energy consumption model can be obtained. Moreover, evolutionary algorithms are utilized for the optimization of micro-milling parameters, which aims to achieve comprehensive enhancements in both machinability and sustainability. The optimization objectives encompass improving surface quality, dimensional accuracy, material removal rate, and specific energy consumption during the micro-milling process for thin-walled micro-structures. Among them, NSGA-III achieves the best optimization results. Under conditions in which cutting energy consumption and processing efficiency are very close, the optimization outcomes based on NSGA-III lead to the best machining quality, including the minimum surface roughness and dimensional errors, and the largest surface fractal dimension. The optimal combination of micro-milling parameters is n = 28,800 rpm, fz = 2.6 μm/t, and ap = 62 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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16 pages, 3392 KiB  
Article
Surface Quality of Al2O3 Ceramic and Tool Wear in Diamond Wire Sawing Combined with Oil Film-Assisted Electrochemical Discharge Machining
by Zhixin Jia, Kaiyue Zhang and Jin Wang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 9030; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13159030 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Diamond wire sawing is one of the most widely used methods of cutting Al2O3 ceramic because it has good machining accuracy and causes less surface damage. However, its material removal rate (MRR) needs to be improved with the increasing demand [...] Read more.
Diamond wire sawing is one of the most widely used methods of cutting Al2O3 ceramic because it has good machining accuracy and causes less surface damage. However, its material removal rate (MRR) needs to be improved with the increasing demand for Al2O3 ceramic parts. In this paper, spark discharges are generated around the diamond wire based on the electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) process. An oil film-assisted ECDM process is applied to solve the difficulty of generating spark discharges when the thickness of the workpiece exceeds 5.0 mm due to the difficulty of forming a hydrogen gas film. Experimental results show that the combination of oil film-assisted ECDM and diamond wire sawing improved the MRR of Al2O3 ceramic. Oil film-assisted ECDM may improve the surface quality of machined parts and reduce the wear on diamond wire. Therefore, this research focuses on the surface quality of Al2O3 ceramic and tool wear in diamond wire sawing combined with oil film-assisted ECDM. Surface roughness and topography, recast layer, and elements of the machined surface are analyzed. The tool wear is studied using SEM images of diamond wire. The results provide a valuable basis for application of diamond wire sawing combined with oil film-assisted ECDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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14 pages, 4157 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Tool Rotation Speed on the Formation of Eutectic Structure during Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum to Magnesium
by Kiarash Torabi, Reza Beygi, Ghasem Eisaabadi Bozchaloei and Lucas F. M. da Silva
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7133; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127133 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process capable of joining a wide range of light metals. However, liquation and solidification may occur during joining of dissimilar metals which leads to eutectic formation. This article aims to discover the influence of tool [...] Read more.
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process capable of joining a wide range of light metals. However, liquation and solidification may occur during joining of dissimilar metals which leads to eutectic formation. This article aims to discover the influence of tool rotation speed on the formation of eutectic structure during friction stir welding of aluminum to magnesium. To do so, friction stir welding was performed at 600 and 950 rpm to join pure aluminum and ECO-AZ91 magnesium alloy in a lap configuration. In order to investigate the influence of the welding speed, the welding speeds of 23.5 and 37.5 mm/min were also chosen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the microstructure of the joints. A shear-tensile test was used to evaluate the joints’ strengths. The fracture surfaces were also studied by SEM. The results revealed that changing the rotation speed directly affects the eutectic formation, whereas the welding speed had no influence. A lower rotation speed resulted in a thin, continuous intermetallic layer, whereas a higher speed led to the formation of a massive Mg-Al12Mg17 eutectic microstructure. The formation of eutectic, as an indicative of liquation, may affect the material flow during the process due to decreasing the friction coefficient between the tool and material. The macrostructure analyses showed that the phase evolution as well as the mechanism of material flow are highly affected by liquation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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16 pages, 5757 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Tool Path Planning Algorithm of Propeller Blade Double-Sided Collaborative Machining
by Rui Wang, Yuhao Ge and Xiangyu Guo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6529; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116529 - 27 May 2023
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The concomitant vibration and deformation produced by propeller blades in single-sided machining seriously affect the surface machining precision. Double-sided symmetrical machining can improve system rigidity through mutual shoring on both sides which abates the concomitant vibration and deformation. However, the actual double-sided symmetrical [...] Read more.
The concomitant vibration and deformation produced by propeller blades in single-sided machining seriously affect the surface machining precision. Double-sided symmetrical machining can improve system rigidity through mutual shoring on both sides which abates the concomitant vibration and deformation. However, the actual double-sided symmetrical machining cannot be applied to blade machining due to its shape complexity. The double-sided collaborative machining method combining symmetrical machining and staggered machining is devised in this paper, and its tool path planning algorithm is investigated. Firstly, the algorithm achieves smooth fitting and correspondence of bilateral cutter position points through double-curve interpolation and position data alignment. Secondly, the blade surface is divided into four regions by two partition parameters: tip region, internal region, variable region, and edge region. Then, the conversion between symmetrical machining and staggered machining is completed through the Sigmoid deformation curve in the variable region. Finally, the feasibility and superiority of double-sided collaborative machining are verified through machining experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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15 pages, 4412 KiB  
Article
Surface Quality Evolution Model and Consistency Control Method of Large Shaft Multi-Pass Grinding
by Liping Wang, Shuailei Fu, Dong Wang and Xuekun Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031502 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Large shaft usually achieves high surface quality through multi-pass grinding in practice. Common surface quality indexes include surface roughness and glossiness, which are not only required numerically, but also require high consistency of distribution along the whole shaft. In multi-pass grinding, these two [...] Read more.
Large shaft usually achieves high surface quality through multi-pass grinding in practice. Common surface quality indexes include surface roughness and glossiness, which are not only required numerically, but also require high consistency of distribution along the whole shaft. In multi-pass grinding, these two indexes are affected by the process parameters and the surface quality of the previous grinding pass, which leads to the difficulty of modeling. In addition, due to the uneven distribution of actual grinding depth, the surface quality along the whole shaft is usually inconsistent, resulting in the need for multiple spark-out grinding passes to ensure consistency. In this study, the surface quality evolution models for surface roughness and glossiness based on Elman neural network are developed, which build regressions between process parameters, surface quality indexes of the previous grinding pass, and surface quality indexes of the current grinding pass. Moreover, a consistency control method of surface quality is proposed by adjusting the actual grinding depth within the dimensional accuracy tolerance range at the rough grinding stage. Experimental results show that the surface roughness and glossiness prediction errors of the surface quality evolution models are only 5.5% and 5.1%. The consistency control method guarantees the consistency of surface quality, reduces the grinding passes, and increases the grinding efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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18 pages, 4679 KiB  
Article
The Variation of Surface Shape in the Gas Jet Forming
by Xinming Zhang, Mingwei Wang and Weijie Fu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010504 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
This study investigated the the gas jet forming process for optical aspherical mirror blanks. The trend of the influence of the gas jet parameters on the surface shape of the mirror blanks was inferred by analysing the variation in the morphology of the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the the gas jet forming process for optical aspherical mirror blanks. The trend of the influence of the gas jet parameters on the surface shape of the mirror blanks was inferred by analysing the variation in the morphology of the gas jet stream. Based on the theoretical analysis, the inference was verified by numerical simulation. The experimental results were compared with the simulation predictions, and it was found that the average prediction deviation for the diameter was 1.07 mm, while the average prediction deviation for the principal curvature was 0.03665 mm−1, which is challenging to correct in simulation. Therefore, we developed a dimensionless prediction model of the surface curvature and surface diameter of the mirror blanks by considering the jet parameters using experimental data. The model’s average prediction error for the surface diameter of the formed surface was 0.3192 mm, and the average prediction error of the principal curvature for the formed surface was 0.00269 mm−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Processes)
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