Special Issue "Advance of the Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry and Oral Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 9227

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the oral environment, restorative, prosthetic materials and appliances are exposed to chemical, thermal and mechanical challenges. The mechanical properties of a material define how it responds to the application of a physical force. Mechanical properties of importance to dentistry include brittleness, compressive strength, ductility, elastic modulus, fatigue limit, flexural modulus, flexural strength, fracture toughness, hardness, impact strength, malleability, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, shear and tensile strength, torsional strength and Young’s modulus. All these are measures of the resistance of materials to deformation, crack or fracture under an applied force or pressure. Measured responses can be both elastic (reversible on force removal) and plastic (irreversible on force removal).

Recent advances in nanotechnology and 3D printing have rapidly spread and manufacturers continuously develop new materials and solutions to provide high-quality dental care with particular attention in the long-term follow-up. Restorative, prosthodontics, oral surgery, implants, periodontology, and orthodontics are all involved in this continuing evolution.

This Special Issue focuses on all the recent technology that can enhance the mechanical properties of materials used in all the different branches of dentistry. For this purpose, we invite you to submit original research articles and systematic reviews to any of the topics mentioned above.

Thank you in advance for your contribution!

Dr. Giovanni Bruno
Dr. Alberto De Stefani
Prof. Antonio Gracco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • mechanical properties
  • restorative dentistry
  • prosthodontics
  • implants
  • orthodontics
  • nanotechnology
  • 3D printing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Al2O3 Preforms Infiltrated with Poly(methyl methacrylate) for Dental Prosthesis Manufacturing
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7583; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167583 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
The combination of biocompatible polymers and ceramics shows great promise in the development of composites with suitable mechanical properties for dental applications. In an attempt to further expand this research line, Al2O3 commercial powders (Vitro-ceram, Alglass, In-ceram) were sintered at [...] Read more.
The combination of biocompatible polymers and ceramics shows great promise in the development of composites with suitable mechanical properties for dental applications. In an attempt to further expand this research line, Al2O3 commercial powders (Vitro-ceram, Alglass, In-ceram) were sintered at 1400 °C for 2 h and infiltrated with poly(methyl methacrylate) for potential use in dental prostheses. The infiltration was performed using a homemade apparatus under a pressure of 7 bar for 6 and 12 h. The microstructure (studied using a scanning electron microscope), Archimedes density, 3-point bending flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the prepared composites were assessed and quantitatively compared. In general, microstructural analyses showed ceramic- and polymer-based interpenetrating network in all materials. The preforms infiltrated for 12 h showed superior properties; among them, the Vitro-ceram-based composite also demonstrated a near-zero open porosity and optimum mechanical characteristics. Specifically, its density, strength and hardness were 2.6 ± 0.07 g/cm3, 119.3 ± 5.0 MPa and 1055.1 ± 111.0 HV, respectively, passing the acceptance criteria of ISO 6872 and making it suitable for consideration as a metal-free structure for dental crowns and fixed partial prostheses until three anterior units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of the Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials)
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Article
Invisalign® vs. Spark™ Template: Which Is the Most Effective in the Attachment Bonding Procedure? A Randomized Controlled Trial
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6716; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156716 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4118
Abstract
Aim: The primary aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the percentage of attachments’ debonding at the template’s removal both in Invisalign® and Spark™ systems. The secondary aim was to define the percentage of patients who did not show attachments’ [...] Read more.
Aim: The primary aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the percentage of attachments’ debonding at the template’s removal both in Invisalign® and Spark™ systems. The secondary aim was to define the percentage of patients who did not show attachments’ debonding at the template’s removal. Materials and methods: Eighty patients who needed an orthodontic treatment were included in the study and randomly assigned to a treatment to be performed with Spark™ or Invisalign® clear aligners system. The patients were equally divided into two groups: Spark group (n = 40) and Invisalign group (n = 40). At the template removal by the teeth surface after the attachment bonding procedure, in each patient of both groups, it was assessed if some attachment debonding occurred and the number of attachments detached. Results: The Spark group showed, in general, a lower frequency in debonding in comparison with the Invisalign group, as 87.5% of patients in the Spark group did not show any bonding failure versus 27.5% in those of the Invisalign group. Conclusions: At template removal, the Spark™ template showed less attachment debonding compared to the Invisalign® template. The Spark™ template can be considered more effective in attachments’ transferring to the tooth surface than the Invisalign® one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of the Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials)
Article
In-Vitro Comparative Adhesion Evaluation of Bioceramic and Dual-Cure Resin Endodontic Sealers Using SEM, AFM, Push-Out and FTIR
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4454; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104454 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
(1) Background: Which are the adhesion characteristics of four root canal sealers: two experimental (dual cure resin based endodontic sealer (E1-DCR) and bioceramic based sealer (E2-BC)), and two commercial (RealSeal and TotallFill BC (FKG Germany)). (2) Methods. One-hundred-twenty extracted monoradicular teeth received mechanic-antiseptic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Which are the adhesion characteristics of four root canal sealers: two experimental (dual cure resin based endodontic sealer (E1-DCR) and bioceramic based sealer (E2-BC)), and two commercial (RealSeal and TotallFill BC (FKG Germany)). (2) Methods. One-hundred-twenty extracted monoradicular teeth received mechanic-antiseptic preparation and then endodontic filling using gutta-percha in combination with one of the four sealers. Samples from the apical third were selected from each tooth and were randomly distributed for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and push-out bond strength. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was made exclusively for experimental sealers. (3) Results. The two experimental materials did not present a significant difference in apical sealing ability based on SEM evaluation. Gaps were identified in case of RealSeal samples and also lower penetration into the dentinal tubules compared to TotalFill BC. On AFM analysis a more pronounced penetration into the tubules was observed in case of E2-BC sealer was observed. E1-DCR registered a lower bond strength (0.7177 ± 0.55) in the apical third compared to Total Fill BC (p = 0.01). (4) Conclusions. Within the limitations of the current study, it can be stated that the two experimental sealers’ characteristics are comparable to that of the two consecrated materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of the Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials)
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Article
The Effect of Taper and Apical Diameter on the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Rotary Endodontic Files Using an Experimental Electronic Device
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020863 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the taper and apical diameter of nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic rotary files on the dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance. A total of 50 unused conventional NiTi wire alloy endodontic rotary instruments were used in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the taper and apical diameter of nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic rotary files on the dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance. A total of 50 unused conventional NiTi wire alloy endodontic rotary instruments were used in this study. All NiTi endodontic rotary files were submitted to a custom-made dynamic cyclic fatigue device until fracture occurred. The time to failure, the number of cycles to failure, the number of pecking movements, and the length of the fractured file tip were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. In addition, the Weibull characteristic strength and Weibull modulus were also calculated. The paired t-test revealed statistically significant differences between the time to failure, number of cycles to failure, and number of cycles of in-and-out movement of both the apical diameter (p ˂ 0.001) and the taper (p ˂ 0.001) of NiTi endodontic rotary files; however, the results did not show statistically significant differences between the mean length of the fractured files regarding the apical diameter (p = 0.344) and taper study groups (p = 0.344). Increased apical diameter and taper of NiTi endodontic rotary files decreased their dynamic resistance to cyclic fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of the Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials)
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Review

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Review
Properties of CAD/CAM 3D Printing Dental Materials and Their Clinical Applications in Orthodontics: Where Are We Now?
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020551 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
In the last years, both medicine and dentistry have come across a revolution represented by the introduction of more and more digital technologies for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Additive manufacturing is a relatively new technology consisting of a computer-aided design and computer-aided [...] Read more.
In the last years, both medicine and dentistry have come across a revolution represented by the introduction of more and more digital technologies for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Additive manufacturing is a relatively new technology consisting of a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) workflow, which allows the substitution of many materials with digital data. This process requires three fundamental steps represented by the digitalization of an item through a scanner, the editing of the data acquired using a software, and the manufacturing technology to transform the digital data into a final product, respectively. This narrative review aims to discuss the recent introduction in dentistry of the abovementioned digital workflow. The main advantages and disadvantages of the process will be discussed, along with a brief description of the possible applications on orthodontics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of the Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials)
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Review
Pulse Oximetry as a Diagnostic Tool to Determine Pulp Vitality: A Systematic Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062747 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Pulse oximetry (PO) can be used as a technique to assess vascularization. Although it is commonly used in the field of medicine, it still has limited use in dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of a systematic review, [...] Read more.
Pulse oximetry (PO) can be used as a technique to assess vascularization. Although it is commonly used in the field of medicine, it still has limited use in dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate, by means of a systematic review, if pulse oximetry is a viable and effective system to determine pulp vitality and assess the clinical criteria for its use. A literature search was performed in Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Clinical studies using pulse oximetry as a tool to determine pulp vitality in permanent teeth were eligible. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed following the Quality Assessment for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) guidelines. A total of 24 articles were included in the review. The subjective test most compared to PO was the cold test. PO has shown a good sensibility and specificity, and it has been used in different clinical situations. Pulse oximetry has a high potential as a tool for the diagnosis of pulp vitality. However, the absence of a specific pulse oximeter for a dental practice, among other limitations, added to the lack of evidence on how different systemic and oral pathologies may affect the pulp’s oxygen saturation levels, which hinders its clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of the Mechanical Properties of Dental Materials)
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