Special Issue "Artificial Intelligence Applications to Smart City and Smart Enterprise"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Computing and Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Donato Impedovo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, University of Bari
Interests: biometrics; automatic signature verification; artificial intelligence; pattern recognition, signal processing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Giuseppe PIRLO
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
Interests: biometrics; automatic signature verification; artificial intelligence; pattern recognition; signal processing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The existence of smart cities requires a new organization structure that takes into account every aspect of how a city runs. Smart cities work under a more resource-efficient management and economy than ordinary cities. As such, advanced business models have emerged around smart cities, which lead to the creation of smart enterprises or organizations that depend on advanced software and computer applications. Smart cities and smart enterprises deal with the integration of artificial intelligence, web technologies, smart mobile platforms, telecommunications, e-commerce, e-business, and other technologies. Fields of applications are related to services for users and citizens, such as transportation, buildings, e-health, utilities, etc.

Prof. Eng. Donato IMPEDOVO
Prof. Giuseppe PIRLO
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Application, deployment, testbed, and experiment experiences in smart cities
  • Big data for urban informatics
  • Cloud computing and network infrastructure that supports smart cities
  • Cellular networking in smart cities
  • Delay tolerant networks and systems for urban data collection
  • E-health systems
  • Environment and urban monitoring
  • Enabling wireless and mobile technologies for smart cities
  • Fault tolerance, reliability, and survivability in smart systems
  • Green computing, networking, and energy efficiency
  • Human mobility modeling and analytics
  • Mobile crowdsourcing for urban analytics
  • QoS and QoE of smart city systems, applications, and services
  • Sensing and IoT for smart cities
  • Social computing and networks
  • Software defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) in a smart city environment
  • Smart grid
  • Smart transportation
  • Smart buildings
  • Safety, security, and privacy for smart cities
  • Smartphone and mobile systems and applications
  • Vehicular networks
  • Collaboration and Negotiation Technologies
  • Multi-Agent Systems and Artificial Intelligence
  • e-Business and e-Commerce
  • Semantic Web
  • Intelligent Web Applications
  • Ubiquitous Computing
  • Cloud Computing
  • Collective Intelligence
  • Green Computing
  • Surveys on Sustainable Information Systems

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Artificial Intelligence Applications to Smart City and Smart Enterprise
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2944; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082944 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
Smart cities work under a more resource-efficient management and economy than ordinary cities. As such, advanced business models have emerged around smart cities, which have led to the creation of smart enterprises and organizations that depend on advanced technologies. In this Special Issue, [...] Read more.
Smart cities work under a more resource-efficient management and economy than ordinary cities. As such, advanced business models have emerged around smart cities, which have led to the creation of smart enterprises and organizations that depend on advanced technologies. In this Special Issue, 21 selected and peer-reviewed articles contributed in the wide spectrum of artificial intelligence applications to smart cities. Published works refer to the following areas of interest: vehicular traffic prediction; social big data analysis; smart city management; driving and routing; localization; and safety, health, and life quality. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Global Spatial-Temporal Graph Convolutional Network for Urban Traffic Speed Prediction
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041509 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Traffic speed prediction plays a significant role in the intelligent traffic system (ITS). However, due to the complex spatial-temporal correlations of traffic data, it is very challenging to predict traffic speed timely and accurately. The traffic speed renders not only short-term neighboring and [...] Read more.
Traffic speed prediction plays a significant role in the intelligent traffic system (ITS). However, due to the complex spatial-temporal correlations of traffic data, it is very challenging to predict traffic speed timely and accurately. The traffic speed renders not only short-term neighboring and multiple long-term periodic dependencies in the temporal dimension but also local and global dependencies in the spatial dimension. To address this problem, we propose a novel deep-learning-based model, Global Spatial-Temporal Graph Convolutional Network (GSTGCN), for urban traffic speed prediction. The model consists of three spatial-temporal components with the same structure and an external component. The three spatial-temporal components are used to model the recent, daily-periodic, and weekly-periodic spatial-temporal correlations of the traffic data, respectively. More specifically, each spatial-temporal component consists of a dynamic temporal module and a global correlated spatial module. The former contains multiple residual blocks which are stacked by dilated casual convolutions, while the latter contains a localized graph convolution and a global correlated mechanism. The external component is used to extract the effect of external factors, such as holidays and weather conditions, on the traffic speed. Experimental results on two real-world traffic datasets have demonstrated that the proposed GSTGCN outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sehaa: A Big Data Analytics Tool for Healthcare Symptoms and Diseases Detection Using Twitter, Apache Spark, and Machine Learning
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041398 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Smartness, which underpins smart cities and societies, is defined by our ability to engage with our environments, analyze them, and make decisions, all in a timely manner. Healthcare is the prime candidate needing the transformative capability of this smartness. Social media could enable [...] Read more.
Smartness, which underpins smart cities and societies, is defined by our ability to engage with our environments, analyze them, and make decisions, all in a timely manner. Healthcare is the prime candidate needing the transformative capability of this smartness. Social media could enable a ubiquitous and continuous engagement between healthcare stakeholders, leading to better public health. Current works are limited in their scope, functionality, and scalability. This paper proposes Sehaa, a big data analytics tool for healthcare in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using Twitter data in Arabic. Sehaa uses Naive Bayes, Logistic Regression, and multiple feature extraction methods to detect various diseases in the KSA. Sehaa found that the top five diseases in Saudi Arabia in terms of the actual afflicted cases are dermal diseases, heart diseases, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Riyadh and Jeddah need to do more in creating awareness about the top diseases. Taif is the healthiest city in the KSA in terms of the detected diseases and awareness activities. Sehaa is developed over Apache Spark allowing true scalability. The dataset used comprises 18.9 million tweets collected from November 2018 to September 2019. The results are evaluated using well-known numerical criteria (Accuracy and F1-Score) and are validated against externally available statistics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vision-Based Potential Pedestrian Risk Analysis on Unsignalized Crosswalk Using Data Mining Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031057 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Though the technological advancement of smart city infrastructure has significantly improved urban pedestrians’ health and safety, there remains a large number of road traffic accident victims, making it a pressing current transportation concern. In particular, unsignalized crosswalks present a major threat to pedestrians, [...] Read more.
Though the technological advancement of smart city infrastructure has significantly improved urban pedestrians’ health and safety, there remains a large number of road traffic accident victims, making it a pressing current transportation concern. In particular, unsignalized crosswalks present a major threat to pedestrians, but we lack dense behavioral data to understand the risks they face. In this study, we propose a new model for potential pedestrian risky event (PPRE) analysis, using video footage gathered by road security cameras already installed at such crossings. Our system automatically detects vehicles and pedestrians, calculates trajectories, and extracts frame-level behavioral features. We use k-means clustering and decision tree algorithms to classify these events into six clusters, then visualize and interpret these clusters to show how they may or may not contribute to pedestrian risk at these crosswalks. We confirmed the feasibility of the model by applying it to video footage from unsignalized crosswalks in Osan city, South Korea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Managing a Smart City Integrated Model through Smart Program Management
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020714 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Context. A Smart city is intended as a city able to offer advanced integrated services, based on information and communication technology (ICT) technologies and intelligent (smart) use of urban infrastructures for improving the quality of life of its citizens. This goal is [...] Read more.
Context. A Smart city is intended as a city able to offer advanced integrated services, based on information and communication technology (ICT) technologies and intelligent (smart) use of urban infrastructures for improving the quality of life of its citizens. This goal is pursued by numerous cities worldwide, through smart projects that should contribute to the realization of an integrated vision capable of harmonizing the technologies used and the services developed in various application domains on which a Smart city operates. However, the current scenario is quite different. The projects carried out are independent of each other, often redundant in the services provided, unable to fully exploit the available technologies and reuse the results already obtained in previous projects. Each project is more like a silo than a brick that contributes to the creation of an integrated vision. Therefore, reference models and managerial practices are needed to bring together the efforts in progress towards a shared, integrated, and intelligent vision of a Smart city. Objective. Given these premises, the goal of this research work is to propose a Smart City Integrated Model together with a Smart Program Management approach for managing the interdependencies between project, strategy, and execution, and investigate the potential benefits that derive from using them. Method. Starting from a Smart city worldwide analysis, the Italian scenario was selected, and we carried out a retrospective analysis on a set of 378 projects belonging to nine different Italian Smart cities. Each project was evaluated according to three different perspectives: application domain transversality, technological depth, and interdependences. Results. The results obtained show that the current scenario is far from being considered “smart” and motivates the adoption of a Smart integrated model and Smart program management in the context of a Smart city. Conclusions. The development of a Smart city requires the use of Smart program management, which may significantly improve the level of integration between the application domain transversality and technological depth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conceptual Framework of an Intelligent Decision Support System for Smart City Disaster Management
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020666 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to protect human lives and infrastructure, as well as to minimize the risk of damage, it is important to predict and respond to natural disasters in advance. However, currently, the standardized disaster response system in South Korea still needs further advancement, [...] Read more.
In order to protect human lives and infrastructure, as well as to minimize the risk of damage, it is important to predict and respond to natural disasters in advance. However, currently, the standardized disaster response system in South Korea still needs further advancement, and the response phase systems need to be improved to ensure that they are properly equipped to cope with natural disasters. Existing studies on intelligent disaster management systems (IDSSs) in South Korea have focused only on storms, floods, and earthquakes, and they have not used past data. This research proposes a new conceptual framework of an IDSS for disaster management, with particular attention paid to wildfires and cold/heat waves. The IDSS uses big data collected from open application programming interface (API) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to help decision-makers make faster and more accurate decisions. In addition, a simple example of the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect fire in surveillance video has been developed, which can be used for automatic fire detection and provide an appropriate response. The system will also consider connecting to open source intelligence (OSINT) to identify vulnerabilities, mitigate risks, and develop more robust security policies than those currently in place to prevent cyber-attacks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Deep Learning Based Human-Centered Threat Assessment for Application to Automated Driving Vehicle
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010253 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper describes the development of deep learning based human-centered threat assessment for application to automated driving vehicle. To achieve naturalistic driver model that would feel natural while safe to a human driver, manual driving characteristics are investigated through real-world driving test data. [...] Read more.
This paper describes the development of deep learning based human-centered threat assessment for application to automated driving vehicle. To achieve naturalistic driver model that would feel natural while safe to a human driver, manual driving characteristics are investigated through real-world driving test data. A probabilistic threat assessment with predicted collision time and collision probability is conducted to evaluate driving situations. On the basis of collision risk analysis, two kinds of deep learning have been implemented to reflect human driving characteristics for automated driving. A deep neural network (DNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) are designed by neural architecture search (NAS), and by learning from the sequential data, respectively. The NAS is used to automatically design the individual driver’s neural network for efficient and effortless design process while ensuring training performance. Sequential trends in the host vehicle’s state can be incorporated through hand-made RNN. It has been shown from human-centered risk assessment simulations that two successfully designed deep learning driver models can provide conservative and progressive driving behavior similar to a manual human driver in both acceleration and deceleration situations by preventing collision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
TrafficWave: Generative Deep Learning Architecture for Vehicular Traffic Flow Prediction
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245504 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Vehicular traffic flow prediction for a specific day of the week in a specific time span is valuable information. Local police can use this information to preventively control the traffic in more critical areas and improve the viability by decreasing, also, the number [...] Read more.
Vehicular traffic flow prediction for a specific day of the week in a specific time span is valuable information. Local police can use this information to preventively control the traffic in more critical areas and improve the viability by decreasing, also, the number of accidents. In this paper, a novel generative deep learning architecture for time series analysis, inspired by the Google DeepMind’ Wavenet network, called TrafficWave, is proposed and applied to traffic prediction problem. The technique is compared with the most performing state-of-the-art approaches: stacked auto encoders, long–short term memory and gated recurrent unit. Results show that the proposed system performs a valuable MAPE error rate reduction when compared with other state of art techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Solution of the Routing Problem in Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks: A Dual, Deep Learning Perspective
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5254; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235254 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The exponential growth of cities has brought important challenges such as waste management, pollution and overpopulation, and the administration of transportation. To mitigate these problems, the idea of the smart city was born, seeking to provide robust solutions integrating sensors and electronics, information [...] Read more.
The exponential growth of cities has brought important challenges such as waste management, pollution and overpopulation, and the administration of transportation. To mitigate these problems, the idea of the smart city was born, seeking to provide robust solutions integrating sensors and electronics, information technologies, and communication networks. More particularly, to face transportation challenges, intelligent transportation systems are a vital component in this quest, helped by vehicular communication networks, which offer a communication framework for vehicles, road infrastructure, and pedestrians. The extreme conditions of vehicular environments, nonetheless, make communication between nodes that may be moving at very high speeds very difficult to achieve, so non-deterministic approaches are necessary to maximize the chances of packet delivery. In this paper, we address this problem using artificial intelligence from a hybrid perspective, focusing on both the best next message to replicate and the best next hop in its path. Furthermore, we propose a deep learning–based router (DLR+), a router with a prioritized type of message scheduler and a routing algorithm based on deep learning. Simulations done to assess the router performance show important gains in terms of network overhead and hop count, while maintaining an acceptable packet delivery ratio and delivery delays, with respect to other popular routing protocols in vehicular networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Cities Big Data Algorithms for Sensors Location
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4196; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194196 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A significant and very extended approach for Smart Cities is the use of sensors and the analysis of the data generated for the interpretation of phenomena. The proper sensor location represents a key factor for suitable data collection, especially for big data. There [...] Read more.
A significant and very extended approach for Smart Cities is the use of sensors and the analysis of the data generated for the interpretation of phenomena. The proper sensor location represents a key factor for suitable data collection, especially for big data. There are different methodologies to select the places to install sensors. Such methodologies range from a simple grid of the area to the use of complex statistical models to provide their optimal number and distribution, or even the use of a random function within a set of defined positions. We propose the use of the same data generated by the sensor to locate or relocate them in real-time, through what we denominate as a ‘hot-zone’, a perimeter with significant data related to the observed phenomenon. In this paper, we present a process with four phases to calculate the best georeferenced locations for sensors and their visualization on a map. The process was applied to the Guadalajara Metropolitan Zone in Mexico where, during the last twenty years, air quality has been monitored through sensors in ten different locations. As a result, two algorithms were developed. The first one classifies data inputs in order to generate a matrix with frequencies that works along with a matrix of territorial adjacencies. The second algorithm uses training data with machine learning techniques, both running in parallel modes, in order to diagnose the installation of new sensors within the detected hot-zones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
LSTM DSS Automatism and Dataset Optimization for Diabetes Prediction
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3532; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173532 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The paper is focused on the application of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network enabling patient health status prediction focusing the attention on diabetes. The proposed topic is an upgrade of a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) algorithm that can be fully embedded into an [...] Read more.
The paper is focused on the application of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network enabling patient health status prediction focusing the attention on diabetes. The proposed topic is an upgrade of a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) algorithm that can be fully embedded into an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) platform. The LSTM approach is applied for multi-attribute data processing and it is integrated into an information system based on patient management. To validate the proposed model, we have adopted a typical dataset used in the literature for data mining model testing. The study is focused on the procedure to follow for a correct LSTM data analysis by using artificial records (LSTM-AR-), improving the training dataset stability and test accuracy if compared with traditional MLP and LSTM approaches. The increase of the artificial data is important for all cases where only a few data of the training dataset are available, as for more practical cases. The paper represents a practical application about the LSTM approach into the decision support systems (DSSs) suitable for homecare assistance and for de-hospitalization processes. The paper goal is mainly to provide guidelines for the application of LSTM neural network in type I and II diabetes prediction adopting automatic procedures. A percentage improvement of test set accuracy of 6.5% has been observed by applying the LSTM-AR- approach, comparing results with up-to-date MLP works. The LSTM-AR- neural network can be applied as an alternative approach for all homecare platforms where not enough training sequential dataset is available. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Convolutional Models for the Detection of Firearms in Surveillance Videos
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9152965 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Closed-circuit television monitoring systems used for surveillance do not provide an immediate response in situations of danger such as armed robbery. In addition, they have multiple limitations when human operators perform the monitoring. For these reasons, a firearms detection system was developed using [...] Read more.
Closed-circuit television monitoring systems used for surveillance do not provide an immediate response in situations of danger such as armed robbery. In addition, they have multiple limitations when human operators perform the monitoring. For these reasons, a firearms detection system was developed using a new large database that was created from images extracted from surveillance videos of situations in which there are people with firearms. The system is made up of two parts—the “Front End” and “Back End”. The Front End is comprised of the YOLO object detection and localization system, and the Back End is made up of the firearms detection model that is developed in this work. These two systems are used to focus the detection system only in areas of the image where there are people, disregarding all other irrelevant areas. The performance of the firearm detection system was analyzed using multiple convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, finding values up to 86% in metrics like recall and precision in a network configuration based on VGG Net using grayscale images. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Texting & Driving” Detection Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 2962; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9152962 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The effects of distracted driving are one of the main causes of deaths and injuries on U.S. roads. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), among the different types of distractions, the use of cellphones is highly related to car accidents, [...] Read more.
The effects of distracted driving are one of the main causes of deaths and injuries on U.S. roads. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), among the different types of distractions, the use of cellphones is highly related to car accidents, commonly known as “texting and driving”, with around 481,000 drivers distracted by their cellphones while driving, about 3450 people killed and 391,000 injured in car accidents involving distracted drivers in 2016 alone. Therefore, in this research, a novel methodology to detect distracted drivers using their cellphone is proposed. For this, a ceiling mounted wide angle camera coupled to a deep learning–convolutional neural network (CNN) are implemented to detect such distracted drivers. The CNN is constructed by the Inception V3 deep neural network, being trained to detect “texting and driving” subjects. The final CNN was trained and validated on a dataset of 85,401 images, achieving an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.891 in the training set, an AUC of 0.86 on a blind test and a sensitivity value of 0.97 on the blind test. In this research, for the first time, a CNN is used to detect the problem of texting and driving, achieving a significant performance. The proposed methodology can be incorporated into a smart infotainment car, thus helping raise drivers’ awareness of their driving habits and associated risks, thus helping to reduce careless driving and promoting safe driving practices to reduce the accident rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Foreign Tourists’ Nationality from Mobility Traces via LSTM Neural Network and Location Embeddings
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2861; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142861 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The interest in human mobility analysis has increased with the rapid growth of positioning technology and motion tracking, leading to a variety of studies based on trajectory recordings. Mapping the routes that people commonly perform was revealed to be very useful for location-based [...] Read more.
The interest in human mobility analysis has increased with the rapid growth of positioning technology and motion tracking, leading to a variety of studies based on trajectory recordings. Mapping the routes that people commonly perform was revealed to be very useful for location-based service applications, where individual mobility behaviors can potentially disclose meaningful information about each customer and be fruitfully used for personalized recommendation systems. This paper tackles a novel trajectory labeling problem related to the context of user profiling in “smart” tourism, inferring the nationality of individual users on the basis of their motion trajectories. In particular, we use large-scale motion traces of short-term foreign visitors as a way of detecting the nationality of individuals. This task is not trivial, relying on the hypothesis that foreign tourists of different nationalities may not only visit different locations, but also move in a different way between the same locations. The problem is defined as a multinomial classification with a few tens of classes (nationalities) and sparse location-based trajectory data. We hereby propose a machine learning-based methodology, consisting of a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network trained on vector representations of locations, in order to capture the underlying semantics of user mobility patterns. Experiments conducted on a real-world big dataset demonstrate that our method achieves considerably higher performances than baseline and traditional approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deep Learning System for Vehicular Re-Routing and Congestion Avoidance
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132717 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Delays in transportation due to congestion generated by public and private transportation are common in many urban areas of the world. To make transportation systems more efficient, intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are currently being developed. One of the objectives of ITS is to [...] Read more.
Delays in transportation due to congestion generated by public and private transportation are common in many urban areas of the world. To make transportation systems more efficient, intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are currently being developed. One of the objectives of ITS is to detect congested areas and redirect vehicles away from them. However, most existing approaches only react once the traffic jam has occurred and, therefore, the delay has already spread to more areas of the traffic network. We propose a vehicle redirection system to avoid congestion that uses a model based on deep learning to predict the future state of the traffic network. The model uses the information obtained from the previous step to determine the zones with possible congestion, and redirects the vehicles that are about to cross them. Alternative routes are generated using the entropy-balanced k Shortest Path algorithm (EBkSP). The proposal uses information obtained in real time by a set of probe cars to detect non-recurrent congestion. The results obtained from simulations in various scenarios have shown that the proposal is capable of reducing the average travel time (ATT) by up to 19%, benefiting a maximum of 38% of the vehicles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PARNet: A Joint Loss Function and Dynamic Weights Network for Pedestrian Semantic Attributes Recognition of Smart Surveillance Image
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102027 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The capability for recognizing pedestrian semantic attributes, such as gender, clothes color and other semantic attributes is of practical significance in bank smart surveillance, intelligent transportation and so on. In order to recognize the key multi attributes of pedestrians in indoor and outdoor [...] Read more.
The capability for recognizing pedestrian semantic attributes, such as gender, clothes color and other semantic attributes is of practical significance in bank smart surveillance, intelligent transportation and so on. In order to recognize the key multi attributes of pedestrians in indoor and outdoor scenes, this paper proposes a deep network with dynamic weights and joint loss function for pedestrian key attribute recognition. First, a new multi-label and multi-attribute pedestrian dataset, which is named NEU-dataset, is built. Second, we propose a new deep model based on DeepMAR model. The new network develops a loss function, which joins the sigmoid function and the softmax loss to solve the multi-label and multi-attribute problem. Furthermore, the dynamic weight in the loss function is adopted to solve the unbalanced samples problem. The experiment results show that the new attribute recognition method has good generalization performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supervised Machine-Learning Predictive Analytics for National Quality of Life Scoring
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081613 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
For many years there has been a focus on individual welfare and societal advancement. In addition to the economic system, diverse experiences and the habitats of people are crucial factors that contribute to the well-being and progress of the nation. The predictor of [...] Read more.
For many years there has been a focus on individual welfare and societal advancement. In addition to the economic system, diverse experiences and the habitats of people are crucial factors that contribute to the well-being and progress of the nation. The predictor of quality of life called the Better Life Index (BLI) visualizes and compares key elements—environment, jobs, health, civic engagement, governance, education, access to services, housing, community, and income—that contribute to well-being in different countries. This paper presents a supervised machine-learning analytical model that predicts the life satisfaction score of any specific country based on these given parameters. This work is a stacked generalization based on a novel approach that combines different machine-learning approaches to generate a meta-machine-learning model that further aids in maximizing prediction accuracy. The work utilized an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) regional statistics dataset with four years of data, from 2014 to 2017. The novel model achieved a high root mean squared error (RMSE) value of 0.3 with 10-fold cross-validation on the balanced class data. Compared to base models, the ensemble model based on the stacked generalization framework was a significantly better predictor of the life satisfaction of a nation. It is clear from the results that the ensemble model presents more precise and consistent predictions in comparison to the base learners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Grassmann Manifold Based State Analysis Method of Traffic Surveillance Video
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071319 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
For a contemporary intelligent transport system, congestion state analysis of traffic surveillance video (TSV) is one of the most crucial and intricate research topics because of the rapid development of transportation systems, the sustained growth of surveillance facilities on road, which lead to [...] Read more.
For a contemporary intelligent transport system, congestion state analysis of traffic surveillance video (TSV) is one of the most crucial and intricate research topics because of the rapid development of transportation systems, the sustained growth of surveillance facilities on road, which lead to massive traffic flow data, and the inherent characteristics of our analysis target. Traditional methods on feature extractions are usually operated on Euclidean space in general, which are not accurate for high-dimensional TSV data analysis. This paper proposes a Grassmann manifold based neural network model to analysis TSV data , by mapping the video data from high dimensional Euclidean space to Grassmann manifold space, and considering the inner relation among adjacent cameras. The accuracy of the traffic congestion is improved, compared with several traditional methods. Experimental results are conducted to validate the accuracy of our method and to investigate the effects of different factors on performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Foraging-Based Algorithm for Optimizing the Power Generation of an Isolated Microgrid
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061261 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
An Isolated Microgrid (IMG) is an electrical distribution network combined with modern information technologies aiming at reducing costs and pollution to the environment. In this article, we implement the Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) to optimize an IMG model, which includes renewable energy [...] Read more.
An Isolated Microgrid (IMG) is an electrical distribution network combined with modern information technologies aiming at reducing costs and pollution to the environment. In this article, we implement the Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) to optimize an IMG model, which includes renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, as well as a conventional generation unit based on diesel fuel. Two novel versions of the BFOA were implemented and tested: Two-Swim Modified BFOA (TS-MBFOA), and Normalized TS-MBFOA (NTS-MBFOA). In a first experiment, the TS-MBFOA parameters were calibrated through a set of 87 independent runs. In a second experiment, 30 independent runs of both TS-MBFOA and NTS-MBFOA were conducted to compare their performance on minimizing the IMG using the best parameter tuning. Results showed that TS-MBFOA obtained better numerical solutions compared to NTS-MBFOA and LSHADE-CV, an Evolutionary Algorithm, found in the literature. However, the best solution found by NTS-MBFOA is better from a mechatronic point of view because it favors the lifetime of the IMG, resulting in economic savings in the long term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feature Adaptive and Cyclic Dynamic Learning Based on Infinite Term Memory Extreme Learning Machine
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050895 - 02 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Online learning is the capability of a machine-learning model to update knowledge without retraining the system when new, labeled data becomes available. Good online learning performance can be achieved through the ability to handle changing features and preserve existing knowledge for future use. [...] Read more.
Online learning is the capability of a machine-learning model to update knowledge without retraining the system when new, labeled data becomes available. Good online learning performance can be achieved through the ability to handle changing features and preserve existing knowledge for future use. This can occur in different real world applications such as Wi-Fi localization and intrusion detection. In this study, we generated a cyclic dynamic generator (CDG), which we used to convert an existing dataset into a time series dataset with cyclic and changing features. Furthermore, we developed the infinite-term memory online sequential extreme learning machine (ITM-OSELM) on the basis of the feature-adaptive online sequential extreme learning machine (FA-OSELM) transfer learning, which incorporates an external memory to preserve old knowledge. This model was compared to the FA-OSELM and online sequential extreme learning machine (OSELM) on the basis of data generated from the CDG using three datasets: UJIndoorLoc, TampereU, and KDD 99. Results corroborate that the ITM-OSELM is superior to the FA-OSELM and OSELM using a statistical t-test. In addition, the accuracy of ITM-OSELM was 91.69% while the accuracy of FA-OSELM and OSELM was 24.39% and 19.56%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of EPB Shield Performance with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Genetic Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040780 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 23
Abstract
The prediction of earth pressure balance (EPB) shield performance is an essential part of project scheduling and cost estimation of tunneling projects. This paper establishes an efficient multi-objective optimization model to predict the shield performance during the tunneling process. This model integrates the [...] Read more.
The prediction of earth pressure balance (EPB) shield performance is an essential part of project scheduling and cost estimation of tunneling projects. This paper establishes an efficient multi-objective optimization model to predict the shield performance during the tunneling process. This model integrates the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with the genetic algorithm (GA). The hybrid model uses shield operational parameters as inputs and computes the advance rate as output. GA enhances the accuracy of ANFIS for runtime parameters tuning by multi-objective fitness function. Prior to modeling, datasets were established, and critical operating parameters were identified through principal component analysis. Then, the tunneling case for Guangzhou metro line number 9 was adopted to verify the applicability of the proposed model. Results were then compared with those of the ANFIS model. The comparison showed that the multi-objective ANFIS-GA model is more successful than the ANFIS model in predicting the advance rate with a high accuracy, which can be used to guide the tunnel performance in the field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Spatio-Temporal Residual Networks for Bus Traffic Flow Prediction
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040615 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Buses, as the most commonly used public transport, play a significant role in cities. Predicting bus traffic flow cannot only build an efficient and safe transportation network but also improve the current situation of road traffic congestion, which is very important for urban [...] Read more.
Buses, as the most commonly used public transport, play a significant role in cities. Predicting bus traffic flow cannot only build an efficient and safe transportation network but also improve the current situation of road traffic congestion, which is very important for urban development. However, bus traffic flow has complex spatial and temporal correlations, as well as specific scenario patterns compared with other modes of transportation, which is one of the biggest challenges when building models to predict bus traffic flow. In this study, we explore bus traffic flow and its specific scenario patterns, then we build improved spatio-temporal residual networks to predict bus traffic flow, which uses fully connected neural networks to capture the bus scenario patterns and improved residual networks to capture the bus traffic flow spatio-temporal correlation. Experiments on Beijing transportation smart card data demonstrate that our method achieves better results than the four baseline methods. Full article
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