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Results of the II National Research Project of AIAr: Archaeometric Study of the Frescoes by Saturnino Gatti and Workshop at the Church of San Panfilo in Tornimparte (AQ, Italy)

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 17855

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Special Issue Editors

Dipartimento di Scienzza dei Materiali, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via. R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milan, Italy
Interests: physics applied to cultural heritage; archaeometry; TL dating; OSL dating X-ray fluorescence; ancient material characterization
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Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Science, University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Italy
Interests: cultural heritage; characterization of stone building materials and their decay; experimentation of innovative protective products; archaeometric study of chronologically different ceramic remains in subaerial and underwater environments
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Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences (DiBEST), University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Italy
Interests: non-destructive spectroscopy investigations for materials characterization; radiography imaging and multispectral investigation for studying artistic techniques and conservation state; analyses and monitoring to evaluate degradation phenomena and to assess effectiveness of conservative treatment

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Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Turin, Italy
Interests: ion beam analysis techniques; digital X-ray imaging; provenance study of lapis lazuli

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ISPC-CNR, Area Della Ricerca Firenze, Via Madonna Del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: development and application of non-invasive techniques to identify and characterize painting materials and their state of conservation (UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy, XRF, TR-FTIR); characterization of pigments and binding media in polychrome art works by means of micro-invasive spectroscopic techniques and analysis of painting polished cross-sections (FT-IR, SEM-EDS, XRD, OM, PLM); application of imaging techniques (UVf, IR, IRfc, VIL) to localize materials and study the painting technique; study of ancient residual polychromy on marble art facts; analysis of provenancing for ancient marble By non –invasive techniques; environmental monitoring

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Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio di Benevento, Via De Sanctis snc, 82100 Benevento, Italy
Interests: applied petrography to cultural heritage and archaeological science; archaeological and traditional ceramics; stone materials of the historical building / historical building stones; petrography and petrology of igneous rocks / igneous petrology

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Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche—Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, V.le Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres, 37I-98158 Messina, Italy
Interests: archaeometry; vibrational spectroscopy; instrument development; SERS nanomaterials; neutron studies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The archaeometric study of the frescoes by the painter Saturnino Gatti (1463-1518) in the apse of the Church of San Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (L'Aquila) is the subject of the II National Research Project conducted by members of the Italian Association of Archaeometry (AIAr). The research activities were carried out as part of a scientific agreement of the AIAr, signed in 2020  by the Abruzzo Regional Secretariat of the Ministry for Culture and Superintendence of Archaeology, Fine Arts and Landscape for the provinces of L'Aquila and Teramo. Several in situ non-destructive investigations and laboratory analyses on micro-fragments sampled from the different levels of pictorial cycle were carried out thanks to the co-working of 21 Research Groups with more than 60 AIAr researchers involved in the different stages of scientific studies of pictorial materials and of the environmental conditions in which the frescoes are now preserved. The present Special Issue represents an important opportunity to illustrate for the first time the results of the pre-restoration diagnostic study. The macro-objectives followed by the working groups coordinated by the Governing Council AIAr members were:

  • To document the state of conservation of the architectural building and the painted surfaces;
  • To analyse microclimate and inertia level of the church with respect to outdoor conditions;
  • To understand the degradation phenomena of the pictorial surfaces and the mural structures;
  • To identify and map non-original materials overlapped to pictorial surfaces during previous restoration works;
  • To characterize the original materials of the frescoes and “a secco” mural paintings;
  • To identify the artistic technique and typical features of Saturnino Gatti and the others painters who worked at the frescoes in San Panfilo.

Dr. Anna Galli
Dr. Mauro Francesco La Russa
Dr. Maria Francesca Alberghina
Dr. Alessandro Re
Dr. Donata Magrini
Dr. Celestino Grifa
Dr. Rosina Celeste Ponterio
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • frescoes
  • microclimate analysis
  • photogrammetric 3D restitution
  • non-invasive analyses
  • minero-petrographic characterization

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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13 pages, 6413 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Results of the II National Research Project of AIAr: Archaeometric Study of the Frescoes by Saturnino Gatti and Workshop at the Church of San Panfilo in Tornimparte (AQ, Italy)
by Anna Galli, Maria Francesca Alberghina, Alessandro Re, Donata Magrini, Celestino Grifa, Rosina Celeste Ponterio and Mauro Francesco La Russa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8924; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158924 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
The archaeometric study of the frescoes by the painter Saturnino Gatti (1463–1518) in the apse of the Church of San Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (L’Aquila) was the subject of the II National Research Project [...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

19 pages, 19647 KiB  
Article
Petrographic and Chemical Characterization of the Frescoes by Saturnino Gatti (Central Italy, 15th Century)
by Luigi Germinario, Lorena C. Giannossa, Marco Lezzerini, Annarosa Mangone, Claudio Mazzoli, Stefano Pagnotta, Marcello Spampinato, Alfonso Zoleo and Giacomo Eramo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7223; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127223 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
This study presents the petrographic and chemical characterization of the frescoes in the Church of San Panfilo in Tornimparte (AQ, Italy) by Saturnino Gatti, a prominent painter of the late 15th–early 16th century, known for his exquisite technique, composition, and use of color. [...] Read more.
This study presents the petrographic and chemical characterization of the frescoes in the Church of San Panfilo in Tornimparte (AQ, Italy) by Saturnino Gatti, a prominent painter of the late 15th–early 16th century, known for his exquisite technique, composition, and use of color. The characterization of the frescoes is essential for understanding the materials and techniques used by Gatti, as well as for identifying the stratigraphy and painting phases. Eighteen samples were collected from the original paint layers, later additions (17th century), and restored surfaces, and analyzed by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), μ-Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The analyses revealed a microstratigraphy often made of three main layers: (1) preparation, consisting of lime plaster and sand; (2) pigmented lime, applied by the fresco technique; and (3) additional pigmented layer on the surface. The most often recurring pigments are black, red, yellow (all generally linked with the fresco technique), and blue (applied “a secco”). The presence of two painting phases was also noted in one sample, probably resulting from a rethinking or restoration. These findings contribute to the understanding of the history and past restoration works of this cultural heritage site, providing important insights not only for conservators and restorers, but also for a broader understanding of Italian fresco painting and art history of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Full article
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13 pages, 5660 KiB  
Article
Archaeometric Study of the Mural Paintings by Saturnino Gatti and Workshop in the Church of San Panfilo, Tornimparte (AQ): The Study of Organic Materials in Original and Restored Areas
by Alessia Andreotti, Francesca Caterina Izzo and Ilaria Bonaduce
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7153; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127153 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
In the context of the archaeometrical study of Saturnino Gatti’s wall paintings, a significant aspect concerned the study of the organic component to understand both the original binders used in the original areas and the products used for pictorial reintegration and restoration of [...] Read more.
In the context of the archaeometrical study of Saturnino Gatti’s wall paintings, a significant aspect concerned the study of the organic component to understand both the original binders used in the original areas and the products used for pictorial reintegration and restoration of the painted surfaces. Thanks to the results obtained from various non-invasive and multi-band imaging techniques, it was possible to define Gatti’s original painting technique and identify the materials subsequently applied in significant samples. To this end, molecular analyses based on mass spectrometry were carried out. Different procedures in gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and in pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were adopted. The analyses revealed a variety of organic materials on the mural paintings, most of which are from past restoration interventions and have synthetic origin. The overspread presence of paraffin is likely due to the application of a mineral wax-based coating/consolidant. In particular, the execution technique encompassed the use of tempera-based paints, while retouched areas were characterised by the presence of oil-based resins. Full article
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16 pages, 10664 KiB  
Article
Looking for the Original Materials and Evidence of Restoration at the Vault of the San Panfilo Church in Tornimparte (AQ)
by Francesco Armetta, Dario Giuffrida, Rosina C. Ponterio, Maria Fernanda Falcon Martinez, Francesca Briani, Elena Pecchioni, Alba Patrizia Santo, Veronica C. Ciaramitaro and Maria Luisa Saladino
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7088; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127088 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
This paper reports the investigation of six microsamples collected from the vault of the San Panfilo Church in Tornimparte (AQ). The aim was to detect the composition of the pigments and protective/varnishes, and to investigate the executive technique, the conservation state, and the [...] Read more.
This paper reports the investigation of six microsamples collected from the vault of the San Panfilo Church in Tornimparte (AQ). The aim was to detect the composition of the pigments and protective/varnishes, and to investigate the executive technique, the conservation state, and the evidence of the restoration works carried out in the past. Six microsamples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The investigations were carried out within the framework of the Tornimparte project “Archeometric investigation of the pictorial cycle of Saturnino Gatti in Tornimparte (AQ, Italy)” sponsored in 2021 by the Italian Association of Archeometry (AIAr). Full article
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13 pages, 8947 KiB  
Article
Application of Sonic, Hygrometric Tests and Infrared Thermography for Diagnostic Investigations of Wall Paintings in St. Panfilo’s Church
by Sara Calandra, Irene Centauro, Stefano Laureti, Marco Ricci, Teresa Salvatici and Stefano Sfarra
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 7026; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13127026 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Prior to restoration work, the frescoes created at the end of the XV century by the painter Saturnino Gatti (1463–1518) in the apse of the Church of St. Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (L’Aquila) were the subject of a thorough diagnostic study involving [...] Read more.
Prior to restoration work, the frescoes created at the end of the XV century by the painter Saturnino Gatti (1463–1518) in the apse of the Church of St. Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (L’Aquila) were the subject of a thorough diagnostic study involving several tests, from in situ non-destructive analysis to laboratory micro-destructive analysis on the collected samples. In this paper, we report the application of the sonic pulse velocity test, hygrometric tests, and infrared thermography to assess the state of conservation of the frescoes, i.e., the combined system of plaster and wall support. The complete analysis of the frescoes’ state of conservation revealed significant insights. The integrity of the plaster was evaluated through sonic pulse velocity tests, which highlighted several areas of detachment or degradation phenomena. Hygrometric analysis described humidity variations, particularly near the boundary between the conch area and the church naves. Passive infrared thermography detected temperature inhomogeneities, emphasizing differences in the wall texture and the masonry structure. Moreover, by comparing sonic pulse velocity and passive thermography images, a certain degree of correlation between hot areas and slow areas in the presence of possible detachments was noticed. In addition, pulse-compression active thermography was applied in a few spots, and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the virtual wave concept was applied to the cultural heritage field. This strategy helps in better associating anomalies with depth. The measurement campaign was part of a research project conducted by members of the Italian Association of Archaeometry (AIAr), and the results were compared and integrated with those of other non-destructive and analytical methods. Full article
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16 pages, 9511 KiB  
Article
Materials and Technique: The First Look at Saturnino Gatti
by Letizia Bonizzoni, Simone Caglio, Anna Galli, Luca Lanteri and Claudia Pelosi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6842; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116842 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
As part of the study project of the pictorial cycle, attributed to Saturnino Gatti, in the church of San Panfilo at Villagrande di Tornimparte (AQ), image analyses were performed in order to document the general conservation conditions of the surfaces, and to map [...] Read more.
As part of the study project of the pictorial cycle, attributed to Saturnino Gatti, in the church of San Panfilo at Villagrande di Tornimparte (AQ), image analyses were performed in order to document the general conservation conditions of the surfaces, and to map the different painting materials to be subsequently examined using spectroscopic techniques. To acquire the images, radiation sources, ranging from ultraviolet to near infrared, were used; analyses of ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), infrared reflectography (IRR), infrared false colors (IRFC), and optical microscopy in visible light (OM) were carried out on all the panels of the mural painting of the apsidal conch. The Hypercolorimetric Multispectral Imaging (HMI) technique was also applied in selected areas of two panels. Due to the accurate calibration system, this technique is able to obtain high-precision colorimetric and reflectance measurements, which can be repeated for proper surface monitoring. The integrated analysis of the different wavelengths’ images—in particular, the ones processed in false colors—made it possible to distinguish the portions affected by retouching or repainting and to recover the legibility of some figures that showed chromatic alterations of the original pictorial layers. The IR reflectography, in addition to highlighting the portions that lost materials and were subject to non-original interventions, emphasized the presence of the underdrawing, which was detected using the spolvero technique. UVF photography led to a preliminary mapping of the organic and inorganic materials that exhibited characteristic induced fluorescence, such as a binder in correspondence with the original azurite painting or the wide use of white zinc in the retouched areas. The collected data made it possible to form a better iconographic interpretation. Moreover, it also enabled us to accurately select the areas to be investigated using spectroscopic analyses, both in situ and on micro-samples, in order to deepen our knowledge of the techniques used by the artist to create the original painting, and to detect subsequent interventions. Full article
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17 pages, 7153 KiB  
Article
Indoor Microclimate Analysis of the San Panfilo Church in Tornimparte, Italy
by Silvia Ferrarese, Davide Bertoni, Alessio Golzio, Luca Lanteri, Claudia Pelosi and Alessandro Re
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6770; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116770 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
This work presents the results of a microclimatic analysis in the church of San Panfilo in Tornimparte, in the Abruzzo region, Italy. The church of San Panfilo, dating from the XII–XIII century, preserves in the presbytery some marvelous frescoes of Saturnino Gatti (1494). [...] Read more.
This work presents the results of a microclimatic analysis in the church of San Panfilo in Tornimparte, in the Abruzzo region, Italy. The church of San Panfilo, dating from the XII–XIII century, preserves in the presbytery some marvelous frescoes of Saturnino Gatti (1494). A measurement campaign was organized from February 2021 to April 2022 with the aim of investigating the microclimate inside the church in view of the organization of fresco restoration. The monitoring activity was performed with intensive measurements on specific days during the year and with continuous measurements throughout the whole year. The main microclimatic parameters, relative humidity and temperature, were monitored in various sites inside and outside the church. Some physical quantities, such as dew point temperature, dew point spread and specific humidity, were computed from measured data. Measured and computed data permitted to evaluate the daily and monthly values, their evolution during the year, the daily fluctuations and delay times caused by the building. The resulting discussion allowed to identify potentially dangerous events for the conservation of the frescoes. Moreover, the historic climate inside the church was detected. Full article
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15 pages, 3797 KiB  
Article
Identifying Original and Restoration Materials through Spectroscopic Analyses on Saturnino Gatti Mural Paintings: How Far a Noninvasive Approach Can Go
by Letizia Bonizzoni, Simone Caglio, Anna Galli, Chiara Germinario, Francesco Izzo and Donata Magrini
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6638; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116638 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
This paper presents the results obtained for the mural paintings (XV century CE) in the church of San Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (AQ, Italy) by means of noninvasive spectroscopic techniques; this research is a part of the project on the Saturnino Gatti [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results obtained for the mural paintings (XV century CE) in the church of San Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (AQ, Italy) by means of noninvasive spectroscopic techniques; this research is a part of the project on the Saturnino Gatti pictorial cycle, promoted and coordinated by the AIAr (the Italian Archaeometry Association). Digital optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy in the UV–Vis–NIR range (FORS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the external reflection mode (ER-FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy were performed on the points selected based on the image analysis results and the few available records on previous intervention, with the aim of characterizing both the original and restoration organic and inorganic materials. The synergic application of complementary techniques allowed us to obtain a complete picture of the palette and the main alteration products and organic substances (of rather ubiquitous lipid materials and less widespread resin and proteinaceous materials in specific points). The identification of modern compounds permitted the individuation of restoration areas; this was confirmed by the comparison with multiband imaging results, as in the case of specific green and blue pigments, strictly related to the presence of high signals of zinc. This analytical protocol left only very few ambiguities and allowed to minimizing the number of samples taken to clarifying, by sample laboratory analyses, the few doubts still open. Full article
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15 pages, 5625 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Soluble Salts on the Frescoes by Saturnino Gatti in the Church of San Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (L’Aquila)
by Valeria Comite, Andrea Bergomi, Chiara Andrea Lombardi, Mattia Borelli and Paola Fermo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6623; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116623 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Salt crystallization is one of the most dangerous forms of degradation affecting frescoes. This phenomenon can lead to cracking, flaking and detachment of the pictorial layer, ultimately ruining the work of art. However, the characterization of soluble salts via chemical analysis can be [...] Read more.
Salt crystallization is one of the most dangerous forms of degradation affecting frescoes. This phenomenon can lead to cracking, flaking and detachment of the pictorial layer, ultimately ruining the work of art. However, the characterization of soluble salts via chemical analysis can be employed to determine the conditions of the artifact and establish the proper restoration and/or conservation strategies to be adopted. In this archaeometric study, a first-ever characterization of the soluble salts and related degradation phenomena on the frescoes by Saturnino Gatti in the church of San Panfilo in Villagrande di Tornimparte (L’Aquila) was carried out. Sampling was performed in areas with evident detachments, exfoliations and saline crystallization (efflorescences). Eleven samples of powder and fragments were taken from different panels of the fresco: nine were taken from Panels A, C, D and E and two from the top part of the vault. Chemical characterizations were performed using two analytical techniques: ion chromatography (IC) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Ion chromatography was used for the quantification of the main ions and to evaluate the presence of soluble salts, whereas infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the mineralogical phases. The results show efflorescence consisting of newly formed gypsum and carbonate in samples taken closer to the ground. Furthermore, a good correlation between sodium and chloride ions was observed, indicating the presence of an efflorescence composed of newly formed sodium chloride. Capillary rise and infiltration were highlighted as the main sources of soluble salts. This information will be crucial in guiding future restoration or conservation operations. Full article
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17 pages, 6882 KiB  
Article
Multi-Technique Characterization of Painting Drawings of the Pictorial Cycle at the San Panfilo Church in Tornimparte (AQ)
by Francesca Briani, Francesco Caridi, Francesco Ferella, Anna Maria Gueli, Francesca Marchegiani, Stefano Nisi, Giuseppe Paladini, Elena Pecchioni, Giuseppe Politi, Alba Patrizia Santo, Giuseppe Stella and Valentina Venuti
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6492; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116492 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
We present some results, obtained using a multi-scale approach, based on the employment of different and complementary techniques, i.e., Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and µ-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy equipped with [...] Read more.
We present some results, obtained using a multi-scale approach, based on the employment of different and complementary techniques, i.e., Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and µ-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy equipped with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) analyses, Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), of an integrated activity focused on the characterization of micro-fragments of original and previously restored paintings of the pictorial cycle at the San Panfilo Church in Tornimparte, sampled from specific areas of interest. The study was aimed, on one hand, at the identification of the overlapping restoration materials used during previous conservation interventions (documented and not), and, on the other hand, at understanding the degradation phenomena (current or previous) of the painted surfaces and the architectural structures. The study of stratigraphy allowed us to evaluate the number of layers and the materials (pigments, minerals, and varnishes) present in each layer. As the main result, the identification of blue, black, yellow, and red pigments (both ancient and modern) was achieved. In the case of blue pigments, original (azurite and lazurite) and retouching (Prussian blue and phthalo blue) materials were recognized, together with alteration products (malachite and atacamite). Traces of yellow ochre were found in the yellow areas, and carbon black in the blue and brown areas. In the latter, hematite and red ochre pigments were also recognized. The obtained results are crucial to support the methodological choices during the restoration intervention of the site, and help to ensure the compatibility principles of the materials on which a correct conservative approach is based. Full article
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16 pages, 13276 KiB  
Article
3D Photogrammetric Survey, Raking Light Photography and Mapping of Degradation Phenomena of the Early Renaissance Wall Paintings by Saturnino Gatti—Case Study of the St. Panfilo Church in Tornimparte (L’Aquila, Italy)
by Luca Lanteri, Sara Calandra, Francesca Briani, Chiara Germinario, Francesco Izzo, Sabrina Pagano, Claudia Pelosi and Alba Patrizia Santo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5689; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095689 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
This paper provides the results of a 3D photogrammetric survey of the apsidal conch of St. Panfilo Church in Tornimparte (L’Aquila, Italy). The images were acquired and then processed in order to obtain a three-dimensional model available on Sketchfab platform. The five panels [...] Read more.
This paper provides the results of a 3D photogrammetric survey of the apsidal conch of St. Panfilo Church in Tornimparte (L’Aquila, Italy). The images were acquired and then processed in order to obtain a three-dimensional model available on Sketchfab platform. The five panels and the vault of the apsidal conch were exported from the 3D model as orthomosaics and then imported into CAD software for the mapping of the main degradation phenomena. The examined surface was almost entirely covered by mural painting and restoring mortars, the latter mainly located in the lower part of the apsidal conch. The whole surface of the apsidal conch was also examined by means of raking light that enabled highlighting of conservation problems and the presence of incision marks and giornata/pontate boundaries indicating the use of the fresco painting technique. Several degradation phenomena, attributable both to the executive technique of wall painting and the microclimate conditions, could be observed. According to the overlapping of weathering forms and the material involved, most of the examined surfaces exhibited moderate to very severe degradation. Full article
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