Special Issue "Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Athanasios Jamurtas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Karies, Trikala 42100, Greece
Interests: exercise induced muscle damage and oxidative stress; inflammation; exercise metabolism; exercise and the opioid system; sports nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with muscle soreness or discomfort and a marked decline of muscle strength during the first 12–72 hours post-exercise. Furthermore, EIMD leads to the onset of an inflammatory response that is associated with activation of leukocytes, muscle oedema, deterioration of muscle function, delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and several intracellular events that aim to restore the integrity and function of the affected muscle. Oxidative stress on the other hand indicates a condition where the cellular production of pro-oxidant molecules exceeds the ability of the antioxidant system to reduce reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (RONS). Research indicates that oxidative stress is evident following muscle damaging exercise. Perturbations in oxidative stress seem to have a potent role in the adaptation process following EIMD. The purpose of this Special Issue of Antioxidants is to highlight recent developments on the field of EIMD and its association with inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, you are invited to submit original research papers, or exceptionally, a review article that focuses upon issues that relate to causes of EIMD, like different exercise protocols, age, gender, genetics, etc., the cellular events that trigger inflammation and oxidative stress and the adaptive responses at the structural and performance level of the muscle following EIMD.

Prof. Dr. Athanasios Jamurtas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Muscle damage
  • Delayed onset muscle soreness
  • Oxidative stress
  • Free radicals
  • Aseptic inflammation
  • Antioxidants
  • Eccentric exercise
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Repeated bout effect
  • Redox status and exercise
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Performance
  • Muscle Strength

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040050 - 28 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with muscle soreness or discomfort and a
marked decline of muscle strength during the first 12–72 hours post-exercise [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Tempol Supplementation Restores Diaphragm Force and Metabolic Enzyme Activities in mdx Mice
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040101 - 06 Dec 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by striated muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Since oxidative stress is recognized as a secondary pathology in DMD, the efficacy of antioxidant intervention, using the superoxide scavenger tempol, was examined on functional and biochemical status of [...] Read more.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by striated muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Since oxidative stress is recognized as a secondary pathology in DMD, the efficacy of antioxidant intervention, using the superoxide scavenger tempol, was examined on functional and biochemical status of dystrophin-deficient diaphragm muscle. Diaphragm muscle function was assessed, ex vivo, in adult male wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, with and without a 14-day antioxidant intervention. The enzymatic activities of muscle citrate synthase, phosphofructokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were assessed using spectrophotometric assays. Dystrophic diaphragm displayed mechanical dysfunction and altered biochemical status. Chronic tempol supplementation in the drinking water increased diaphragm functional capacity and citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities, restoring all values to wild-type levels. Chronic supplementation with tempol recovers force-generating capacity and metabolic enzyme activity in mdx diaphragm. These findings may have relevance in the search for therapeutic strategies in neuromuscular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Trans-Plasma Membrane Electron Transport and Ascorbate Efflux by Skeletal Muscle
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040089 - 09 Nov 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) and the antioxidant roles of ascorbate reportedly play a role in protection of cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle comprises the largest whole-body [...] Read more.
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) and the antioxidant roles of ascorbate reportedly play a role in protection of cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle comprises the largest whole-body organ fraction suggesting a potential role of tPMET and ascorbate export as a major source of extracellular antioxidant. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle is capable of tPMET and ascorbate efflux. To measure these processes, we assayed the ability of cultured muscle cells, satellite cells, and isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) to reduce two extracellular electron acceptors, water soluble tetrazolium salt 1 (WST-1), and dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP). Ascorbate oxidase (AO) was utilized to determine which portion of WST-1 reduction was dependent on ascorbate efflux. We found that muscle cells can reduce extracellular electron acceptors. In C2C12 myotubes and satellite cells, a substantial portion of this reduction was dependent on ascorbate. In myotubes, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) inhibitors along with a pan-GLUT inhibitor suppressed tPMET and ascorbate efflux, while a GLUT4 inhibitor had no effect. The adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase activator 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) suppressed both tPMET and ascorbate efflux by myotubes, while insulin had no effect. Taken together, our data suggest that muscle cells are capable of tPMET and ascorbate efflux supported by GLUT1, thus illustrating a model in which resting muscle exports electrons and antioxidant to the extracellular environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040079 - 17 Oct 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a [...] Read more.
Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg−1 body weight∙day−1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p < 0.001) for both taurine and placebo, indicating the attainment of muscle damage. Significant treatment effects were observed only for peak eccentric torque (p < 0.05). No significant time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05). Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice daily for 72 h following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage may help improve eccentric performance recovery of the biceps brachii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Hormetic Property of Ginseng Steroids on Anti-Oxidant Status against Exercise Challenge in Rat Skeletal Muscle
Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6020036 - 19 May 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Existing literature on anti-oxidant capacity of ginseng has been inconsistent due to variance in the profile of ginseng steroids (Ginsenosides) that is because of differences in seasons and species. Methods: We used various doses of ginseng steroids to determine its effect on [...] Read more.
Background: Existing literature on anti-oxidant capacity of ginseng has been inconsistent due to variance in the profile of ginseng steroids (Ginsenosides) that is because of differences in seasons and species. Methods: We used various doses of ginseng steroids to determine its effect on oxidative stress and anti-oxidant capacity of rat skeletal muscle against exercise. Results: Under non-exercise conditions, we found increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in rat skeletal muscle as dose increases (p < 0.05), which indicates the pro-oxidant property of ginseng steroids at baseline. Intriguingly, exhaustive exercise-induced increased TBARS and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were attenuated with low and medium doses of ginseng steroids (20 and 40 mg per kg), but not with high dose (120 mg per kg). At rest, anti-oxidant enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased above vehicle-treated level, but not with the high dose, suggesting a hormetic dose-response of ginseng steroids. Conclusion: The results of this study provide an explanation for the inconsistent findings on anti-oxidative property among previous ginseng studies. For optimizing the anti-oxidant outcome, ginseng supplementation at high dose should be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Gender and Menstrual Phase on Serum Creatine Kinase Activity and Muscle Soreness Following Downhill Running
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6010016 - 23 Feb 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic [...] Read more.
Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity reflects muscle membrane disruption. Oestrogen has antioxidant and membrane stabilising properties, yet no study has compared the CK and muscle soreness (DOMS) response to unaccustomed exercise between genders when all menstrual phases are represented in women. Fifteen eumenorrhoeic women (early follicular, EF (n = 5); late follicular, LF (n = 5); mid-luteal, ML (n = 5) phase) and six men performed 20 min of downhill running (−10% gradient) at 9 km/h. Serum CK activity and visual analogue scale rating of perceived muscle soreness were measured before, immediately, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h after exercise. The 24-h peak CK response (relative to pre-exercise) was similar between women and men (mean change (95% confidence interval): 58.5 (25.2 to 91.7) IU/L; 68.8 (31.3 to 106.3) IU/L, respectively). However, serum CK activity was restored to pre-exercise levels quicker in women (regardless of menstrual phase) than men; after 48-h post exercise in women (16.3 (−4.4 to 37.0) IU/L; 56.3 (37.0 to 75.6) IU/L, respectively) but only after 72-h in men (14.9 (−14.8 to 44.6) IU/L). Parallel to the CK response, muscle soreness recovered by 72-h in men. Conversely, the women still reported muscle soreness at 72-h despite CK levels being restored by 48-h; delayed recovery of muscle soreness appeared mainly in EF and LF. The CK and DOMS response to downhill running is gender-specific. The CK response recovers quicker in women than men. The CK and DOMS response occur in concert in men but not in women. The DOMS response in women is prolonged and may be influenced by menstrual phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Ability of Exercise-Associated Oxidative Stress to Trigger Redox-Sensitive Signalling Responses
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030063 - 10 Aug 2017
Cited by 14
Abstract
In this review, we discuss exercise as an oxidative stressor, and elucidate the mechanisms and downstream consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the mitochondria of contracting skeletal myocytes; also, their diffusion across the myocyte membrane allows their [...] Read more.
In this review, we discuss exercise as an oxidative stressor, and elucidate the mechanisms and downstream consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the mitochondria of contracting skeletal myocytes; also, their diffusion across the myocyte membrane allows their transport to neighbouring muscle tissue and to other regions of the body. Although very intense exercise can induce oxidative damage within myocytes, the magnitudes of moderate-intensity exercise-associated increases in ROS are quite modest (~two-fold increases in intracellular and extracellular ROS concentrations during exercise), and so the effects of such increases are likely to involve redox-sensitive signalling effects rather than oxidative damage. Therefore, the responses of muscle and non-muscle cells to exercise-associated redox-sensitive signalling effects will be reviewed; for example, transcription factors such as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and Liver X-Receptor-alpha (LXRα) comprise redox-activable signalling systems, and we and others have reported exercise-associated modulation of PPARγ and/or LXRα-regulated genes in skeletal myocyte and in non-muscle cell-types such as monocyte-macrophages. Finally, the consequences of such responses in the context of management of chronic inflammatory conditions, and also their implications for the design of exercise training programmes (particularly the use of dietary antioxidants alongside exercise), will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessReview
Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population
Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6010006 - 17 Jan 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less [...] Read more.
Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessReview
Role of Redox Signaling and Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Adaptations to Training
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040048 - 13 Dec 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported [...] Read more.
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported regarding oxidative stress, inflammation can have both detrimental and beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. In this review we will address the role of inflammation on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. Specifically, we will review studies showing that treatment with cyclooxygenase-inhibiting drugs modulate the protein synthesis response to one bout of resistance exercise and to training. Understanding how these drugs work is important for the millions of individuals worldwide that consume them regularly. We will also discuss the importance of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines in muscle adaptations to exercise and the Janus faced of the use of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs by athletes for optimizing their performance, especially during the periods in which muscle hypertrophy is expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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