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Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 36;

Hormetic Property of Ginseng Steroids on Anti-Oxidant Status against Exercise Challenge in Rat Skeletal Muscle

Graduate Institute of Sports Training, University of Taipei, 11153 Taipei, Taiwan
Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, 26047 Ilan, Taiwan
Department of Sports Sciences, University of Taipei, 11153 Taipei, Taiwan
Department of Anesthesiology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, 22060 New Taipei, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, 41354 Taichung, Taiwan
Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Exercise and Health Science, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 11219 Taipei, Taiwan
Pegasus Pharmaceuticals Group Inc. Richmond, V6X 1Z7 BC, Canada
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Jamurtas
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Background: Existing literature on anti-oxidant capacity of ginseng has been inconsistent due to variance in the profile of ginseng steroids (Ginsenosides) that is because of differences in seasons and species. Methods: We used various doses of ginseng steroids to determine its effect on oxidative stress and anti-oxidant capacity of rat skeletal muscle against exercise. Results: Under non-exercise conditions, we found increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in rat skeletal muscle as dose increases (p < 0.05), which indicates the pro-oxidant property of ginseng steroids at baseline. Intriguingly, exhaustive exercise-induced increased TBARS and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were attenuated with low and medium doses of ginseng steroids (20 and 40 mg per kg), but not with high dose (120 mg per kg). At rest, anti-oxidant enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased above vehicle-treated level, but not with the high dose, suggesting a hormetic dose-response of ginseng steroids. Conclusion: The results of this study provide an explanation for the inconsistent findings on anti-oxidative property among previous ginseng studies. For optimizing the anti-oxidant outcome, ginseng supplementation at high dose should be avoided. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptogen; anti-oxidant enzyme; ginsenosides; MDA; ROS; dammarane sapogenins adaptogen; anti-oxidant enzyme; ginsenosides; MDA; ROS; dammarane sapogenins

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Hsu, M.-F.; Yu, S.-H.; Korivi, M.; Jean, W.-H.; Lee, S.-D.; Huang, C.-Y.; Liao, Y.-H.; Lu, J.; Kuo, C.-H. Hormetic Property of Ginseng Steroids on Anti-Oxidant Status against Exercise Challenge in Rat Skeletal Muscle. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 36.

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