Special Issue "Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Wafaa Qasem
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antioxidants in infant nutrition are a combination/integration of the chemistry of free radicals and the different ways in which nutrient requirements of the newborn can be met. With the advent of assays and technology from the free radical side, and the interest in subtle ways in which newborn nutrition can affect the whole of the life cycle, an opportunity arises to discover a new paradigm. The journal has offered us the opportunity to collate articles addressing this issue. We are looking for novel research in these areas that will expand our perspective in both fields. Of importance is the way in which the developmental biochemical processes can interact with both optimal food intakes so that all pathways can be examined.

The fact that these early life interactions play a role in both early and late development, makes this research important indeed. This Special Issue will publish original research papers and reviews on all aspects of the interaction between oxidant status and infant nutrition. The oxidant status of both the infant themselves and the foods and subsequent effects will be prioritized. As there is not an excess of this type of research in full-term infants the status of premature infants will be included.

Prof. Dr. James Friel
Dr. Wafaa Qasem
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Co-Enzyme Q10 and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Reverse Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Growth Restriction and Improved Antioxidant Profiles in Neonatal Rats
Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040103 - 16 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) increases the risk for many morbidities in extremely low birth weight/gestational age (ELBW/ELGA) neonates with compromised antioxidant systems and poor growth. We hypothesized that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinol) or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during neonatal [...] Read more.
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) increases the risk for many morbidities in extremely low birth weight/gestational age (ELBW/ELGA) neonates with compromised antioxidant systems and poor growth. We hypothesized that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinol) or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during neonatal IH improves antioxidant profiles and somatic growth in neonatal rats. Newborn rats were exposed to two IH paradigms at birth (P0): (1) 50% O2 with brief hypoxic episodes (12% O2); or (2) room air (RA) with brief hypoxia, until P14 during which they received daily oral CoQ10 in olive oil, n-3 PUFAs in fish oil, or olive oil only from P0 to P14. Pups were studied at P14 or placed in RA until P21 for recovery from IH (IHR). Body weight and length; organ weights; and serum antioxidants and growth factors were determined at P14 and P21. Neonatal IH resulted in sustained reductions in somatic growth, an effect that was reversed with n-3 PUFAs. Improved growth was associated with higher serum growth factors. CoQ10 decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione, but increased catalase, suggesting reduced oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to determine the synergistic effects of CoQ10 and n-3 PUFA co-administration for the prevention of IH-induced oxidative stress and postnatal growth deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Iron and the Breastfed Infant
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040054 - 06 Apr 2018
Abstract
The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother’s milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron [...] Read more.
The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother’s milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron content and iron transport from the mammary gland as well as when and what foods should be added to the solely breastfed infant. We examine these topics in light of new molecular biology findings in the mammary gland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040049 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. Conclusion: our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
The Energy Costs of Prematurity and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Experience
Antioxidants 2018, 7(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7030037 - 02 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Premature neonates are in an energy deficient state due to (1) oxygen desaturation and hypoxia events, (2) painful and stressful stimuli, (3) illness, and (4) neurodevelopmental energy requirements. Failure to correct energy deficiency in premature infants may lead to adverse effects such as [...] Read more.
Premature neonates are in an energy deficient state due to (1) oxygen desaturation and hypoxia events, (2) painful and stressful stimuli, (3) illness, and (4) neurodevelopmental energy requirements. Failure to correct energy deficiency in premature infants may lead to adverse effects such as neurodevelopmental delay and negative long-term metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. The effects of energy dysregulation and the challenges that clinicians in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) face in meeting the premature infant’s metabolic demands are discussed. Specifically, the focus is on the effects of pain and stress on energy homeostasis. Energy deficiency is a complex problem and requires a multi-faceted solution to promote optimum development of premature infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Phytochemicals in Human Milk and Their Potential Antioxidative Protection
Antioxidants 2018, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020032 - 22 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake [...] Read more.
Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Research has shown that some these phytochemicals are present in the mother’s milk and can contribute to its oxidative stability. For infants, human milk (HM) represents the primary and preferred source of nutrition because it is a complete food. Studies have reported that the benefit provided by HM goes beyond basic nutrition. It can, for example, reduce oxidative stress in infants, thereby reducing the risk of lung and intestinal diseases in infants. This paper summarizes the phytochemicals present in HM and their potential contribution to infant health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition)
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