The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2023) | Viewed by 15590

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Screening Tests and Metabolic Diagnostics, Institute of Mother and Child, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: pregnancy; maternal and child health; oxidative stress; antioxidants; erythropoiesis; childhood obesity; maternal tobacco smoking; metabolic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Screening Tests and Metabolic Diagnostics, Institute of Mother and Child, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: adipokines; bone metabolism; child health; diet; nutrition; antioxidants; metabolic diseases; vitamin D
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Screening Tests and Metabolic Diagnostics, Institute of Mother and Child, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: bone metabolism; childhood obesity; adipokines; oxidative stress; child health; antioxidants; metabolic diseases; vitamin D
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Disorders of reduction–oxidation processes are important for the etiology and development of reproductive, pregnancy, fetus, and child diseases. Oxidative stress is involved in the fetal programming of many diseases, so special attention will be given to the balance between prooxidants and antioxidants in metabolic disorders of childhood, including rare diseases. Free radical damage can be a common denominator for many biochemical processes, including inflammatory, autoimmune, and neurotoxic processes. Therefore, an efficient and integrated antioxidant defense system is extremely important for balancing ROS content. The contribution of both endogenous (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, glutathione) and exogenous (e.g., vitamins, minerals) antioxidants to free radical stabilization is still an engaging research topic. The role of adipokines as anti- (e.g., adiponectin, omentin) and prooxidant (e.g., leptin, resistin) factors seems to be particularly interesting yet has received relatively little recognition.

The use of a wide range of biochemical markers to determine the severity of oxidative stress and to assess the efficiency of antioxidant systems in pathological states provides opportunities to advance our knowledge of the etiology of many diseases and the potential use of antioxidant supplementation in their course.

We invite you to submit your latest research findings or review articles to this Special Issue, which will gather current research on the role of antioxidants in preventing ROS damage in pregnant women, newborns, and children and the potential application of therapeutic strategies for reducing oxidative-stress-mediated disorders.

Prof. Dr. Magdalena Chełchowska
Dr. Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz
Dr. Joanna Gajewska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • pregnancy
  • newborns
  • children
  • glutathione
  • adipokines
  • vitamins
  • microelements
  • reproductive health
  • metabolic disease
  • lifestyle factors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 5706 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Dexmedetomidine against Hyperoxia-Damaged Cerebellar Neurodevelopment in the Juvenile Rat
by Robert Puls, Clarissa von Haefen, Christoph Bührer and Stefanie Endesfelder
Antioxidants 2023, 12(4), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040980 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Impaired cerebellar development of premature infants and the associated impairment of cerebellar functions in cognitive development could be crucial factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Anesthetic- and hyperoxia-induced neurotoxicity of the immature brain can lead to learning and behavioral disorders. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), which is associated [...] Read more.
Impaired cerebellar development of premature infants and the associated impairment of cerebellar functions in cognitive development could be crucial factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Anesthetic- and hyperoxia-induced neurotoxicity of the immature brain can lead to learning and behavioral disorders. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), which is associated with neuroprotective properties, is increasingly being studied for off-label use in the NICU. For this purpose, six-day-old Wistar rats (P6) were exposed to hyperoxia (80% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) for 24 h after DEX (5 µg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl) application. An initial detection in the immature rat cerebellum was performed after the termination of hyperoxia at P7 and then after recovery in room air at P9, P11, and P14. Hyperoxia reduced the proportion of Calb1+-Purkinje cells and affected the dendrite length at P7 and/or P9/P11. Proliferating Pax6+-granule progenitors remained reduced after hyperoxia and until P14. The expression of neurotrophins and neuronal transcription factors/markers of proliferation, migration, and survival were also reduced by oxidative stress in different manners. DEX demonstrated protective effects on hyperoxia-injured Purkinje cells, and DEX without hyperoxia modulated neuronal transcription in the short term without any effects at the cellular level. DEX protects hyperoxia-damaged Purkinje cells and appears to differentially affect cerebellar granular cell neurogenesis following oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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13 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Associations between Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Circulating Adipokines in Non-Obese Children with Prader–Willi Syndrome
by Joanna Gajewska, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Grażyna Rowicka, Małgorzata Strucińska, Witold Klemarczyk and Magdalena Chełchowska
Antioxidants 2023, 12(4), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040927 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), but there are no data on these disorders in non-obese children with PWS. Therefore, the presented study examined total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the oxidative stress index (OSI), and [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), but there are no data on these disorders in non-obese children with PWS. Therefore, the presented study examined total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the oxidative stress index (OSI), and adipokine levels in 22 non-obese children with PWS during dietary intervention and growth hormone treatment compared with 25 non-obese healthy children. Serum concentrations of TOC, TAC, nesfatin-1, leptin, hepcidin, ferroportin, and ferritin were determined using immunoenzymatic methods. We found that TOC concentrations were higher by 50% (p = 0.006) in patients with PWS than in healthy children, but no significant differences in TAC concentrations were observed between these groups. The OSI was higher in children with PWS than in the controls (p = 0.002). We found positive associations between TOC values and the percentage of the Estimated Energy Requirement, body mass index (BMI) Z-score, percentage of fat mass, and leptin, nesfatin-1, and hepcidin concentrations in patients with PWS. A positive association was also found between the OSI and nesfatin-1 levels. These observations suggest that higher daily energy intake and weight gain may be accompanied by an increasing prooxidant state in these patients. Adipokines such as leptin, nesfatin-1, or hepcidin may also play a role in the prooxidant state in non-obese children with PWS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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13 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
The Association of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Maternal and Cord Blood Anti-Oxidative Capacity and HDL Functionality: Findings of DALI Study
by Saghi Zafaranieh, Julia T. Stadler, Anja Pammer, Gunther Marsche, Mireille N. M. van Poppel, Gernot Desoye and DALI Core Investigator Group
Antioxidants 2023, 12(4), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040827 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Obesity is one of the most common health issues in pregnancy with short and long-term consequences for both mother and her offspring. Promoting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decreasing sedentary time (ST) could have a positive impact on weight and obesity [...] Read more.
Obesity is one of the most common health issues in pregnancy with short and long-term consequences for both mother and her offspring. Promoting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decreasing sedentary time (ST) could have a positive impact on weight and obesity management, and therefore adiposity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherogenesis. However, the effects of MVPA and ST on anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic markers in pregnancy have not been studied to date. This study aimed to assess the association of longitudinally and objectively measured MVPA and ST in 122 overweight/obese women (BMI ≥ 29 kg/m2) with maternal and cord blood markers of oxidative stress measured by advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), anti-oxidative capacity, as well as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) related paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and cholesterol efflux. Linear regression models showed no associations of MVPA and ST with outcomes in maternal blood. In contrast, MVPA at <20 weeks and 24–28 weeks of gestation were positively associated with anti-oxidative capacity, as well as PON-1 activity of HDL in cord blood. MVPA at 35–37 weeks correlated with higher AOPP, as well as higher anti-oxidative capacity. ST <20 weeks was also positively associated with inhibition of oxidation in cord blood. We speculate that increasing MVPA of overweight/obese women during pregnancy attenuates the oxidative stress state in the new-born. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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14 pages, 980 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Defense Expressed as Glutathione Status and Keap1-Nrf2 System Action in Relation to Anthropometric Parameters and Body Composition in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
by Magdalena Chełchowska, Justyna Jurczewska, Joanna Gajewska, Joanna Mazur, Dorota Szostak-Węgierek, Ewa Rudnicka and Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030730 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3285
Abstract
Metabolic disorders present in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the associated risk of obesity may result in increased oxidative stress and reproductive failure. Therefore, we evaluated the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reductase (GR), [...] Read more.
Metabolic disorders present in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the associated risk of obesity may result in increased oxidative stress and reproductive failure. Therefore, we evaluated the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reductase (GR), as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein1 (Keap1) in the serum of 56 women with PCOS divided according to the visceral to subcutaneous fat surface ratio (VAT/SAT) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) values. Antioxidant parameter levels were measured by competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay technique. As the VAT/SAT ratio and WHR increased, we observed significantly higher concentrations of GSSG and Keap1 protein and a lower value of the GSSG/GSH ratio (R-index), which is considered an index of cellular redox (p < 0.05). Negative correlations were found between the R-index and body weight, BMI, WHR, subcutaneous and visceral fat surface and the VAT/SAT ratio, and total body fat; positive links were found with fat free mass and total body water. Opposite associations were noted between GSSG level and the aforementioned body composition parameters. Oxidative stress characterized by a depleted reduced-to-oxidized glutathione index is associated with anthropometric and body composition parameters in women with PCOS. In particular, abdominal obesity expressed by the VAT/SAT ratio and/or WHR seems to have a negative impact on glutathione status, which may lead to a disruption of many biological cell processes. The observed negative association of Keap1 with R-index suggests that the elevated oxidative changes dependent on the VAT/SAT ratio may lead to Nrf2 activation to promote antioxidant enzyme expression. Although the GSH/GSSG index as well as the VAT/SAT ratio appear to be good indicators of oxidative status, studies on a larger group of patients should continue to confirm these links among women with PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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14 pages, 921 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Prepubertal Children following Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diets
by Grażyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Małgorzata Strucińska, Ewa Kawiak-Jawor, Halina Weker and Magdalena Chełchowska
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030682 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Oxidant-antioxidant balance is crucial for maintaining one’s health, and the diet is possibly one of the most important factors affecting this balance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the oxidant-antioxidant balance in children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. The study was [...] Read more.
Oxidant-antioxidant balance is crucial for maintaining one’s health, and the diet is possibly one of the most important factors affecting this balance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the oxidant-antioxidant balance in children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. The study was conducted between January 2020 and December 2021. The concentrations of total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced (GSH), and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and calprotectin were measured in serum samples of 72 healthy prepubertal children (32 vegetarians and 40 omnivores). The oxidative stress index (OSI) and the GSH/GSSG ratio (R-index) were calculated. Children on a vegetarian diet had significantly lower median values of TOC, GSH, and GSSG, and higher TAC compared with the omnivores. OSI was significantly lower in vegetarians, while R-index, as well as median values of CRP and calprotectin did not differ between both groups of children. Significant negative correlations were observed between TOC and TAC levels in the whole group of children and in vegetarians. GSH and GSSG levels correlated positively in the groups of vegetarians, omnivores, and in all the children. There were significant positive correlations between TOC and GSH, as well as GSSG levels in all the studied groups of children. Our study results suggest that the vegetarian model of nutrition allows to maintain the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the serum of prepubertal children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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28 pages, 3813 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Early Caffeine Administration in Hyperoxia-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Juvenile Rat
by Julia Heise, Thomas Schmitz, Christoph Bührer and Stefanie Endesfelder
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020295 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
High-risk preterm infants are affected by a higher incidence of cognitive developmental deficits due to the unavoidable risk factor of oxygen toxicity. Caffeine is known to have a protective effect in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated with improved neurologic outcomes, although very early initiation [...] Read more.
High-risk preterm infants are affected by a higher incidence of cognitive developmental deficits due to the unavoidable risk factor of oxygen toxicity. Caffeine is known to have a protective effect in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated with improved neurologic outcomes, although very early initiation of therapy is controversial. In this study, we used newborn rats in an oxygen injury model to test the hypothesis that near-birth caffeine administration modulates neuronal maturation and differentiation in the hippocampus of the developing brain. For this purpose, newborn Wistar rats were exposed to 21% or 80% oxygen on the day of birth for 3 or 5 days and treated with vehicle or caffeine (10 mg/kg/48 h). Postnatal exposure to 80% oxygen resulted in a drastic reduction of associated neuronal mediators for radial glia, mitotic/postmitotic neurons, and impaired cell-cycle regulation, predominantly persistent even after recovery to room air until postnatal day 15. Systemic caffeine administration significantly counteracted the effects of oxygen insult on neuronal maturation in the hippocampus. Interestingly, under normoxia, caffeine inhibited the transcription of neuronal mediators of maturing and mature neurons. The early administration of caffeine modulated hyperoxia-induced decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and showed neuroprotective properties in the neonatal rat oxygen toxicity model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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Review

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26 pages, 2678 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Role of Mediterranean and Westernized Diets and Their Main Nutrients in the Modulation of Oxidative Stress in the Placenta: A Narrative Review
by Cielo García-Montero, Oscar Fraile-Martinez, Diego De Leon-Oliva, Diego Liviu Boaru, Luis M. Garcia-Puente, Juan A. De León-Luis, Coral Bravo, Raul Diaz-Pedrero, Laura Lopez-Gonzalez, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, Natalio García-Honduvilla, Miguel A. Saez and Miguel A. Ortega
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111918 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a major cellular event that occurs in the placenta, fulfilling critical physiological roles in non-pathological pregnancies. However, exacerbated oxidative stress is a pivotal feature of different obstetric complications, like pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and other diseases. Compelling evidence supports the [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a major cellular event that occurs in the placenta, fulfilling critical physiological roles in non-pathological pregnancies. However, exacerbated oxidative stress is a pivotal feature of different obstetric complications, like pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and other diseases. Compelling evidence supports the relevant role of diet during pregnancy, with pleiotropic consequences for maternal well-being. The present review aims to examine the complex background between oxidative stress and placental development and function in physiological conditions, also intending to understand the relationship between different dietary patterns and the human placenta, particularly how this could influence oxidative stress processes. The effects of Westernized diets (WDs) and high-fat diets (HFDs) rich in ultra-processed foods and different additives are compared with healthy patterns such as a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) abundant in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, dietary fiber, and vitamins. Although multiple studies have focused on the role of specific nutrients, mostly in animal models and in vitro, further observational and intervention studies focusing on the placental structure and function in women with different dietary patterns should be conducted to understand the precise influence of diet on this organ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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19 pages, 725 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Role of Chemerin in the Pathophysiology of Pre-Eclampsia
by Katarzyna Pankiewicz and Tadeusz Issat
Antioxidants 2023, 12(4), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040830 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Chemerin is a multifaceted adipokine that is involved in multiple biological processes, including inflammation, angiogenesis, adipogenesis, and energy metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. There is a vast body of evidence for a crucial role of chemerin in the development of different cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Chemerin is a multifaceted adipokine that is involved in multiple biological processes, including inflammation, angiogenesis, adipogenesis, and energy metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. There is a vast body of evidence for a crucial role of chemerin in the development of different cardiovascular diseases. Blood chemerin levels, as well as its placental expression, are elevated in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) and correlate positively with the severity of the disease. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge about the potential role of chemerin during PE development, with a particular focus on its involvement in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Woman and Child’s Health)
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