The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Women’s and Children’s Health—2nd Edition

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 3691

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Screening Tests and Metabolic Diagnostics, Institute of Mother and Child, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: pregnancy; maternal and child health; oxidative stress; antioxidants; erythropoiesis; childhood obesity; maternal tobacco smoking; metabolic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Screening Tests and Metabolic Diagnostics, Institute of Mother and Child, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: adipokines; bone metabolism; child health; diet; nutrition; antioxidants; metabolic diseases; vitamin D
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Screening Tests and Metabolic Diagnostics, Institute of Mother and Child, Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: bone metabolism; childhood obesity; adipokines; oxidative stress; child health; antioxidants; metabolic diseases; vitamin D
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are proposing a second volume of our Special Issue, "The Role of Antioxidants in Pregnant Women’s and Children's Health" to provide clinicians, biochemists, and the rest of the research community with an opportunity to deepen their knowledge on this important and fascinating topic. Disorders of reduction-oxidation processes are important for the etiology and development of reproductive, pregnancy, fetus, and child diseases. Oxidative stress is involved in the fetal programming of many diseases, so special attention will be given to the relationship between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in metabolic disorders manifesting in childhood, including rare diseases. Free radical damage is a common denominator of many biochemical processes, including inflammatory, autoimmune, and neurotoxic processes. Therefore, an efficient and integrated antioxidant defense system is critical for balancing ROS content. The contribution of both endogenous (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, glutathione) and exogenous (e.g., vitamins, minerals) antioxidants to free radical stabilization remains an ongoing research topic. The role of adipokines as anti- (e.g., adiponectin, omentin) and pro-oxidant (e.g., leptin, resistin) factors is particularly interesting, despite receiving relatively little recognition.

The use of a wide range of biochemical markers to determine the severity of oxidative stress and to assess the efficiency of antioxidant systems in pathological states provides opportunities to advance our knowledge of the etiology of many diseases and the potential use of antioxidant supplementation in their course.

We invite you to submit your latest research findings or review articles to the second volume of this Special Issue, which will gather current research on the role of antioxidants in preventing ROS damage in pregnant women, newborns, and children and the potential application of therapeutic strategies for reducing oxidative-stress-mediated disorders.

Dr. Magdalena Chełchowska
Dr. Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz
Dr. Joanna Gajewska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • pregnancy
  • newborns
  • infants
  • children
  • glutathione
  • adipokines
  • vitamins
  • microelements
  • reproductive health
  • metabolic disease
  • lifestyle factors

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2171 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid in a Rat Preclinical Model of Preeclampsia: Focus on Maternal Signs, Fetal Growth and Placental Function
by Gabriela Barrientos, Mariano L. Schuman, Maria S. Landa, Elizabeth Robello, Claudio Incardona, Melanie L. Conrad, Monica Galleano and Silvia I. García
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060730 - 16 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Chronic hypertension is a major risk factor for preeclampsia (PE), associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. We previously demonstrated that pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) display a spontaneous PE-like phenotype with distinct placental, fetal, and maternal features. Here, we hypothesized that [...] Read more.
Chronic hypertension is a major risk factor for preeclampsia (PE), associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. We previously demonstrated that pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) display a spontaneous PE-like phenotype with distinct placental, fetal, and maternal features. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation with alpha lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, during early pregnancy could ameliorate the PE phenotype in this model. To test this hypothesis, timed pregnancies were established using 10 to 12-week-old SHRSP females (n = 19–16/group), which were assigned to two treatment groups: ALA (injected intraperitoneally with 25 mg/kg body weight ALA on gestation day (GD1, GD8, and GD12) or control, receiving saline following the same protocol. Our analysis of maternal signs showed that ALA prevented the pregnancy-dependent maternal blood pressure rise (GD14 blood pressure control 169.3 ± 19.4 mmHg vs. 146.1 ± 13.4 mmHg, p = 0.0001) and ameliorated renal function, as noted by the increased creatinine clearance and improved glomerular histology in treated dams. Treatment also improved the fetal growth restriction (FGR) phenotype, leading to increased fetal weights (ALA 2.19 ± 0.5 g vs. control 1.98 ± 0.3 g, p = 0.0074) and decreased cephalization indexes, indicating a more symmetric fetal growth pattern. This was associated with improved placental efficiency, decreased oxidative stress marker expression on GD14, and serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) levels on GD20. In conclusion, ALA supplementation mitigated maternal signs and improved placental function and fetal growth in SHRSP pregnancies, emerging as a promising therapy in pregnancies at high risk for PE. Full article
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20 pages, 3462 KiB  
Article
Transwell Culture with Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Fertilized Eggs Mimics the In Vivo Development of Fertilized Eggs to Blastocysts in the Fallopian Tube: An Animal Study
by Toyofumi Hirakawa, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Noriko Ito, Kenichiro Hata, Shiori Imi, Mami Shibata, Daichi Urushiyama, Kohei Miyata, Fusanori Yotsumoto, Shin’ichiro Yasunaga, Tsukasa Baba and Shingo Miyamoto
Antioxidants 2024, 13(6), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13060704 - 8 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Many countries, including Japan, are experiencing declining birth rates. Assisted reproductive technologies have consistently demonstrated good results in resolving infertility. Although the development of fertilized eggs into blastocysts has been recognized as a crucial step in assisted reproductive technologies, the involved mechanisms are [...] Read more.
Many countries, including Japan, are experiencing declining birth rates. Assisted reproductive technologies have consistently demonstrated good results in resolving infertility. Although the development of fertilized eggs into blastocysts has been recognized as a crucial step in assisted reproductive technologies, the involved mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we established a new culture system for the in vitro development of fertilized eggs into blastocysts. In the Transwell culture system, the rate of blastocysts hatching from fertilized eggs cultured with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) was significantly higher than that of blastocysts cultured only with fertilized eggs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the developed blastocysts displayed essential gene expression patterns in mature blastocysts. Additionally, when cultured with 3rd-passage ASCs, the developed blastocysts expressed the core genes for blastocyst maturation and antioxidant properties compared to those cultured only with fertilized eggs or cultured with 20th-passage ASCs. These results suggest that the Transwell culture system may imitate the in vivo tubal culture state for fertilized eggs. Exosomes derived from stem cells with stemness potential play a powerful role in the development of blastocysts from fertilized eggs. Additionally, the exosomes expressed specific microRNAs; therefore, the Transwell culture system resulted in a higher rate of pregnancy. In future, the extraction of their own extracellular vesicles from the culture medium might contribute to the development of novel assisted reproductive technologies. Full article
20 pages, 4669 KiB  
Article
Cord Blood Adductomics Reveals Oxidative Stress Exposure Pathways of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
by Erika T. Lin, Yeunook Bae, Robert Birkett, Abhineet M. Sharma, Runze Zhang, Kathleen M. Fisch, William Funk and Karen K. Mestan
Antioxidants 2024, 13(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13040494 - 20 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Fetal and neonatal exposures to perinatal oxidative stress (OS) are key mediators of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To characterize these exposures, adductomics is an exposure science approach that captures electrophilic addition products (adducts) in blood protein. Adducts are bound to the nucleophilic cysteine loci [...] Read more.
Fetal and neonatal exposures to perinatal oxidative stress (OS) are key mediators of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To characterize these exposures, adductomics is an exposure science approach that captures electrophilic addition products (adducts) in blood protein. Adducts are bound to the nucleophilic cysteine loci of human serum albumin (HSA), which has a prolonged half-life. We conducted targeted and untargeted adductomics to test the hypothesis that adducts of OS vary with BPD. We studied 205 preterm infants (≤28 weeks) and 51 full-term infants from an ongoing birth cohort. Infant plasma was collected at birth (cord blood), 1-week, 1-month, and 36-weeks postmenstrual age. HSA was isolated from plasma, trypsin digested, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to quantify previously annotated (known) and unknown adducts. We identified 105 adducts in cord and postnatal blood. A total of 51 known adducts (small thiols, direct oxidation products, and reactive aldehydes) were increased with BPD. Postnatally, serial concentrations of several known OS adducts correlated directly with supplemental oxygen exposure. The application of large-scale adductomics elucidated OS-mediated pathways of BPD. This is the first study to investigate the “neonatal–perinatal exposome” and to identify oxidative stress-related exposure biomarkers that may inform antioxidant strategies to protect the health of future generations of infants. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 1475 KiB  
Review
Melatonin Use during Pregnancy and Lactation Complicated by Oxidative Stress: Focus on Offspring’s Cardiovascular–Kidney–Metabolic Health in Animal Models
by You-Lin Tain and Chien-Ning Hsu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13020226 - 12 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Cardiovascular–kidney–metabolic (CKM) syndrome has emerged as a major global public health concern, posing a substantial threat to human health. Early-life exposure to oxidative stress may heighten vulnerability to the developmental programming of adult diseases, encompassing various aspects of CKM syndrome. Conversely, the initiation [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular–kidney–metabolic (CKM) syndrome has emerged as a major global public health concern, posing a substantial threat to human health. Early-life exposure to oxidative stress may heighten vulnerability to the developmental programming of adult diseases, encompassing various aspects of CKM syndrome. Conversely, the initiation of adverse programming processes can potentially be thwarted through early-life antioxidant interventions. Melatonin, originally recognized for its antioxidant properties, is an endogenous hormone with diverse biological functions. While melatonin has demonstrated benefits in addressing disorders linked to oxidative stress, there has been comparatively less focus on investigating its reprogramming effects on CKM syndrome. This review consolidates the current knowledge on the role of oxidative stress during pregnancy and lactation in inducing CKM traits in offspring, emphasizing the underlying mechanisms. The multifaceted role of melatonin in regulating oxidative stress, mediating fetal programming, and preventing adverse outcomes in offspring positions it as a promising reprogramming strategy. Currently, there is a lack of sufficient information in humans, and the available evidence primarily originates from animal studies. This opens up new avenues for novel preventive intervention in CKM syndrome. Full article
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