The Global Need for New Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agents

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "The Global Need for Effective Antibiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 24435

Special Issue Editors

Department of STEBICEF, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: antimicrobial peptides; antibiofilm agents; antivirulence agents; antimicrobial nanoparticles; biomedical systems with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Earth and Marine Sciences (DiSTeM), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: molecular microbiology; antimicrobials; antibiofilm activity; antimicrobial peptides; antivirulence drugs; antibiotic resistance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, Palermo, Italy
Interests: molecular microbiology; food safety; animal health; zoonosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern medicine and even the structure of society are established on the ability to control infectious diseases. Antibiotics and vaccines represent the two fundamental pillars on which the ability to manage and fight pathogens is based. However, one of the two pillars falters due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Bacterial resistance may develop at cellular level (mutations or horizontal gene transfer) and sessile community, based on adaptive resistance and tolerance involving shift from free-living cells to a biofilm community. It is estimated that, in clinical settings, at least 60% of infections are due to biofilms, which are often the cause of polymicrobial and chronic infections. Moreover, in many cases, antimicrobials used in agriculture and animal breeding are equal to the ones used in clinical settings, increasing the risk of the rise and spread of resistant bacteria, including common pathogens for both animals and humans. Reducing antibiotic usage in farms and replacing it with new molecules could be a short-term approach to facing AMR.

New antimicrobials that are able to hit resistant pathogens and biofilm are strongly needed. It is time for action in order to address antibiotic-resistant strains, especially carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), which are resistant to last-resort antibiotics.

This Special Issue is aimed at researchers who focus their scientific interest on drug discovery strategies to develop new molecules with antimicrobial action and antibiofilm. Potential topics may include but are not limited to antimicrobial peptides of various organisms, natural substances, nanoparticles of microbial origin, and small synthetic organic molecules. Topics such as strategies aimed at improving the efficiency of conventional antibiotics through nano/micro-release and micro-release systems with functionalized polymers are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Domenico Schillaci
Dr. Valentina Catania
Dr. Maria Vitale
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial agents
  • antibiofilm agents
  • anti-virulence agents
  • antimicrobial peptides
  • natural substance
  • synthetic small organic molecules
  • improvement of conventional antibiotics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 3587 KiB  
Article
Polyphosphate Ester-Type Transporters Improve Antimicrobial Properties of Oxytetracycline
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030616 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Prolonged use of antibiotics can cause toxicity in human and animal cells and lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. The development of drug delivery systems for enhanced antibacterial properties of antibiotics could reduce toxic effects and minimize the development of resistance. The [...] Read more.
Prolonged use of antibiotics can cause toxicity in human and animal cells and lead to the development of antibiotic resistance. The development of drug delivery systems for enhanced antibacterial properties of antibiotics could reduce toxic effects and minimize the development of resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oxytetracycline in complexes with new polyphosphate ester-type transporters and to investigate the antimicrobial effect of these complexes on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus growth in vitro. Two polyphosphate ester-type transporters with different molecular weights were synthesized, and oxytetracycline was attached through the phosphorus groups. To determine the sensitivities of microorganisms, oxytetracycline hydrochloride and oxytetracycline complexes with polyphosphate ester-type transporters (P4 and P6) were added to liquid and solid media with E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus in different doses. Oxytetracycline in complex with polyphosphate ester-type transporters at low doses (2.3 to 3.8 μg/disk or μg/mL) in both solid and liquid media inhibits the growth of S. aureus more effectively than oxytetracycline alone. The maximum influence on E. coli growth on solid media is observed at a dose of 8 μg/disk of oxytetracycline in combination with both P4 and P6 polyphosphate ester-type transporters. P. aeruginosa growth under the influence of oxytetracycline in combination with polyphosphate-ester type transporters in a liquid medium depends on the dose of antibiotic and the day of cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Need for New Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agents)
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10 pages, 3618 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Evaluation of Layered Bi2WO6 Nanosheets as a New Antibacterial Agent
Antibiotics 2021, 10(9), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091068 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Background: Pathogenic microorganisms are causing increasing cases of mortality and morbidity, along with alarming rates of ineffectiveness as a result of acquired antimicrobial resistance. Bi2WO6 showed good potential to be used as an antibacterial substance when exposed to visible [...] Read more.
Background: Pathogenic microorganisms are causing increasing cases of mortality and morbidity, along with alarming rates of ineffectiveness as a result of acquired antimicrobial resistance. Bi2WO6 showed good potential to be used as an antibacterial substance when exposed to visible light. This study demonstrates for the first time the dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of layered Bi2WO6 nanosheets. Materials and methods: The synthesized layered Bi2WO6 nanosheets were prepared by the hydrothermal method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Antibacterial and antibiotic-modulation activities were performed in triplicate by the microdilution method associated with visible light irradiation (LEDs). Results: Bi2WO6 nanosheets were effective against all types of bacteria tested, with MIC values of 256 μg/mL against Escherichia coli standard and resistant strains, and 256 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus standard and resistant strains, respectively. Two-dimensional (2D) Bi2WO6 nanosheets showed antibacterial efficiency against both strains studied without the presence of light. Conclusions: Layered Bi2WO6 nanosheets revealed dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of the Bi2WO6 system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Need for New Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agents)
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Review

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38 pages, 2463 KiB  
Review
Antibiotic Discovery and Resistance: The Chase and the Race
Antibiotics 2022, 11(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11020182 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 13924
Abstract
The history of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) evolution and the diversity of the environmental resistome indicate that AMR is an ancient natural phenomenon. Acquired resistance is a public health concern influenced by the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, leading to the selection of resistant genes. [...] Read more.
The history of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) evolution and the diversity of the environmental resistome indicate that AMR is an ancient natural phenomenon. Acquired resistance is a public health concern influenced by the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, leading to the selection of resistant genes. Data show that AMR is spreading globally at different rates, outpacing all efforts to mitigate this crisis. The search for new antibiotic classes is one of the key strategies in the fight against AMR. Since the 1980s, newly marketed antibiotics were either modifications or improvements of known molecules. The World Health Organization (WHO) describes the current pipeline as bleak, and warns about the scarcity of new leads. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the pre-clinical and clinical pipeline indicates that few antibiotics may reach the market in a few years, predominantly not those that fit the innovative requirements to tackle the challenging spread of AMR. Diversity and innovation are the mainstays to cope with the rapid evolution of AMR. The discovery and development of antibiotics must address resistance to old and novel antibiotics. Here, we review the history and challenges of antibiotics discovery and describe different innovative new leads mechanisms expected to replenish the pipeline, while maintaining a promising possibility to shift the chase and the race between the spread of AMR, preserving antibiotic effectiveness, and meeting innovative leads requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Need for New Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agents)
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34 pages, 4622 KiB  
Review
Pharmaceutical Approaches on Antimicrobial Resistance: Prospects and Challenges
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10080981 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5603
Abstract
The rapid increase in pathogenic microorganisms with antimicrobial resistant profiles has become a significant public health problem globally. The management of this issue using conventional antimicrobial preparations frequently results in an increase in pathogen resistance and a shortage of effective antimicrobials for future [...] Read more.
The rapid increase in pathogenic microorganisms with antimicrobial resistant profiles has become a significant public health problem globally. The management of this issue using conventional antimicrobial preparations frequently results in an increase in pathogen resistance and a shortage of effective antimicrobials for future use against the same pathogens. In this review, we discuss the emergence of AMR and argue for the importance of addressing this issue by discovering novel synthetic or naturally occurring antibacterial compounds and providing insights into the application of various drug delivery approaches, delivered through numerous routes, in comparison with conventional delivery systems. In addition, we discuss the effectiveness of these delivery systems in different types of infectious diseases associated with antimicrobial resistance. Finally, future considerations in the development of highly effective antimicrobial delivery systems to combat antimicrobial resistance are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Need for New Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agents)
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