Special Issue "The Role of Microorganism in Bovine Mastitis"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Cattle".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Volker Krömker
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bovine mastitis is an inflammation that is related to microorganisms in many ways. Microorganisms colonize the teat skin and teat canal, they penetrate the mammary gland, adapt to the glandular epithelium, form biofilms there, interact with the microbiome, dissolve and stimulate inflammatory processes and destroy the glandular tissue and the blood-milk barrier and penetrate the blood vessel system. In all these processes, they compete with each other and interact with their environment in many ways. In doing so, they are influenced in their development by the conditions of the animal environment, the mammary gland and the milk. The further development of microbiological methods enables new insights that change the prophylaxis and therapy of mastitis. The planned issue is intended to make this diversity visible and thus open up new strategies for combating mastitis.  These protect the health and welfare of animals, the quality of milk and thus human health.

Prof. Volker Krömker
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Bovine mastitis
  • microorganism
  • microbiome
  • biofilm
  • environment,
  • contagious

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication
Streptococcus dysgalactiae—Contagious or Environmental?
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112185 - 22 Nov 2020
Abstract
Streptococcus dysgalactiae is among the most important pathogens causing bovine mastitis. Unfortunately, there is presently a lack of clear knowledge about the mode of transmission—contagious or environmental—of this pathogen. To obtain more information on this, knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolated [...] Read more.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae is among the most important pathogens causing bovine mastitis. Unfortunately, there is presently a lack of clear knowledge about the mode of transmission—contagious or environmental—of this pathogen. To obtain more information on this, knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolated microorganisms at the farm level can be useful. To observe the strain variety in different herds of cattle, isolates of Strep. dysgalactiae were collected from clinical mastitis samples at different farms, and the strains were typed using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Overall, we performed strain typing on 93 isolates from 16 farms in Germany and used an index to describe the degree of contagiosity of Strep. dysgalactiae at each farm. This index (CI) represents the number of isolates divided by the number of strains found in mastitis milk of clinical cases within a period of 14 months. The results differed between the farms. In one farm, all six Strep. dysgalactiae cases that occurred during the study period were caused by a single strain (CI = 6), while in another farm the six cases that occurred were caused by five different strains (CI = 1.2). All other farms fell between these two extremes. This indicates that Strep. dysgalactiae infections can occur via several routes of transmission. At the farm level, strain comparisons are necessary to determine the routes of transmission. Two strains were able to survive on the farm for a minimum of 14 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Microorganism in Bovine Mastitis)
Open AccessCommunication
Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Recovered from Bovine Mastitis and Nasal Samples
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112143 - 18 Nov 2020
Abstract
In the present study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from transient and persistent intramammary infections and nares/muzzles in dairy cows. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance of 189 S. aureus strains using a broad antimicrobial [...] Read more.
In the present study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from transient and persistent intramammary infections and nares/muzzles in dairy cows. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance of 189 S. aureus strains using a broad antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Furthermore, 107 S. aureus isolates were strain-typed using staphylococcal protein-A (spa) typing. A large proportion of strains exhibited multidrug resistance to antimicrobials, including resistance to critically important antimicrobials, although no methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were found. Our study did not strengthen the idea that extramammary niches (i.e., nares/muzzles) are an important source of S. aureus for bovine mastitis. A discrepancy in the antimicrobial resistance between S. aureus strains isolated from nares/muzzles and milk samples was observed. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates from transient and persistent intramammary infections (IMIs) did not differ by spa typing, suggesting that the persistence of bovine IMIs was determined by cow factors. Thus, the high level of multidrug-resistant S. aureus found in the two herds, considered together with the predominance of a well udder-adapted S. aureus strain, may contribute to our knowledge of the history of the high prevalence of mastitis caused by S. aureus, which is of great concern for animal and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Microorganism in Bovine Mastitis)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Load of the Teat Apex Skin and Associated Factors at Herd Level
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091647 - 14 Sep 2020
Abstract
In order to reduce antimicrobial treatment and prevent environmental mastitis, the aim of the present study was to investigate associations between herd level factors and microbial load on teat ends with environmental mastitis pathogens. Quarterly farm visits of 31 dairy farms over a [...] Read more.
In order to reduce antimicrobial treatment and prevent environmental mastitis, the aim of the present study was to investigate associations between herd level factors and microbial load on teat ends with environmental mastitis pathogens. Quarterly farm visits of 31 dairy farms over a one-year period were used for statistical analysis. During each farm visit, teat-skin swabs, bedding and air samples were taken and management practices and herd parameters were documented. Total mesophilic bacteria, esculin-positive streptococci and coliform bacteria were examined in the laboratory procedures from teat skin and environmental samples. Esculin-positive streptococci and coliform bacteria on teat ends increased with high temperature–humidity indices (THI) in the barn during the spring and summer. Significantly more coliform bacteria on teat ends were found in herds with an increased percentage of normal or slightly rough teat ends. Cleaning cubicles more frequently, pre-cleaning teats before milking as well as post-dipping them after milking had a decreasing effect of teat-skin load with total mesophilic and coliform bacteria at the herd level. To conclude, teat-skin bacterial load with environmental pathogens is subject to fluctuations and can be influenced by aspects of farm hygiene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Microorganism in Bovine Mastitis)
Open AccessArticle
Internal Teat Sealant Administered at Drying off Reduces Intramammary Infections during the Dry and Early Lactation Periods of Dairy Cows
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091522 - 28 Aug 2020
Abstract
The effect of an internal teat sealant (ITS) on subsequent infection of the mammary gland was evaluated on the following mammary gland health indicators: (a) bacteriological cure of preexisting intramammary infections at drying off, (b) risk of postpartum new intramammary infections (NIMI), (c) [...] Read more.
The effect of an internal teat sealant (ITS) on subsequent infection of the mammary gland was evaluated on the following mammary gland health indicators: (a) bacteriological cure of preexisting intramammary infections at drying off, (b) risk of postpartum new intramammary infections (NIMI), (c) cure and risk of new cases of subclinical mastitis (SCM), and (d) risk of postpartum clinical mastitis (CM). A total of 553 cows during late gestation were randomly assigned into two treatment protocols at drying off: (a) Dry cow therapy with 0.25 g of intramammary anhydrous cefalonium (ADCT; Cepravin®, MSD Animal Health); or (b) ADCT combined with ITS (SDCT; 4 g bismuth subnitrate; Masti-Seal®, MSD Animal Health, São Paulo, Brazil). Mammary quarter (MQ) milk samples were collected for microbiological culture and somatic cell count (SCC) at drying off and early lactation, and data from 1756 MQ were used in the multivariate logistic regression. There was no effect on the risk of bacteriological cure, SCM cure, and new cases of postpartum SCM. Still, SDCT reduced the risk of CM up to 60 days postpartum (DPP), overall NIMI risk, and the NIMI caused by major pathogens compared to ADCT. Thus, the DCT combined with ITS at drying off is effective for preventing NIMI during the dry period and CM up to 60 DPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Microorganism in Bovine Mastitis)
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Open AccessArticle
Intramammary Infections in Heifers—Time of Onset and Associated Risk Factors
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061053 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
To reduce the negative effects of mastitis in dairy heifers in early lactation on the future milking performance, the aim of this study was to define the time-related period of intramammary infections and to relate this to risk factors at heifer and quarter [...] Read more.
To reduce the negative effects of mastitis in dairy heifers in early lactation on the future milking performance, the aim of this study was to define the time-related period of intramammary infections and to relate this to risk factors at heifer and quarter level for intramammary infections and subclinical mastitis. In total, 279 German Holstein Frisian heifers in three farms in Northern and Eastern Germany were included in this study. Quarter milk samples for cytomicrobiological examination were collected 3 ± 1 days after calving and 17 ± 3 days after calving, and risk factors at heifer and quarter level associated with intramammary infections and clinical mastitis were recorded during the trial period. Data were analyzed using logistic regression procedures and odds ratios were calculated. Calving at older ages increased the odds of intramammary infections with non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) and coryneforms 17 ± 3 days after calving compared to heifers calving at a younger age. Detaching of milking cups during milking is a risk factor for new infections between day 3 ± 1 and 17 ± 3 postpartum. The milk yield after calving is associated with a decrease in intramammary infections with environmental pathogens and clinical mastitis. A high milk yield assists the development of udder edema with an increased risk of intramammary infections with NAS and coryneforms. An increased somatic cell count (SCC) after calving increased the odds of intramammary infections with contagious pathogens 17 ± 3 days postpartum. The early lactation has an important influence on udder health and intramammary infections postpartum in dairy heifers. Udder quarters eliminated pathogens during early lactation by 6.9% for cases in this study. New infections manifest themselves up until 17 ± 3 days postpartum, especially with Corynebacterium spp. and NAS. In total, 82.9% of the infected quarters showed new infections with another pathogen species 17 ± 3 days postpartum than 3 ± 1 days postpartum. In conclusion, the early lactation has an important influence on udder health and intramammary infections postpartum in heifers with the possibility that udder quarters eliminate pathogens, but also the danger that new infections manifest themselves. Thus, the prevention of new infections by minimizing the associated risk factors is of great importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Microorganism in Bovine Mastitis)
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