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Article

Obesity-Induced Heart Rate Variability Impairment and Decreased Systolic Function in Obese Male Dogs

1
Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
2
Integrative Research Center for Veterinary Circulatory Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
3
Veterinary Cardiopulmonary Clinic, Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
4
Department of Food Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
5
Department of Companion Animal and Wildlife Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081383
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Problems of Obesity in Animals)
Obesity in dogs can induce many adverse health effects including musculoskeletal problems, respiratory distress, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. In humans with obesity, heart rate variability (HRV) is used to identify and predict the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, this predictive tool has never been used in veterinary medicine, and the relationship between obesity and HRV has rarely been investigated. In this study, we investigated HRV, plasma oxidative stress (MDA), and cardiac function in obese male dogs. We hypothesized that obese male dogs have decreased cardiac function and impaired HRV compared to non-obese dogs. Our study found that obese dogs have decreased cardiac systolic function and impaired HRV, as indicated by reduced percentages of cardiac contraction and impaired cardiac autonomic activity compared to non-obese dogs. We concluded that obesity can decrease systolic function and cause HRV impairment, which might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in dogs. In addition, HRV might be used as a predictive or prognostic tool in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in obese dogs.
Obesity can induce cardiovascular diseases in both humans and animals. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of sympathovagal balance and is used to identify cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, HRV and cardiac function have rarely been investigated in obese dogs. This study investigated the effect of obesity on oxidative stress, HRV, and cardiac function in obese and non-obese dogs. The nine-scale body condition score (BCS) system was used to determine obesity. Thirty small breed dogs were divided into a normal weight group (n = 15) and an obese group (n = 15). All dogs underwent physical examination, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) measurement, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and two hours of Holter monitoring. This study found that obese dogs had increased plasma MDA and sympathovagal imbalance, which was indicated by impaired time and frequency domains compared to normal weight dogs. Although cardiac function was within normal limits, the echocardiographic study found that the obese dogs had reduced cardiac wall thickness and lower systolic function, as indicated by a reduction in %ejection fraction, %fractional shortening, increased left ventricular (LV) internal diameter during systole, and LV end-systolic volume compared to normal weight dogs. This study concluded that obesity in dogs can induce increased plasma oxidative stress, impaired HRV, and reduced cardiac systolic function compared to non-obese dogs. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; oxidative stress; cardiac function; heart rate variability; dog obesity; oxidative stress; cardiac function; heart rate variability; dog
MDPI and ACS Style

Pongkan, W.; Jitnapakarn, W.; Phetnoi, W.; Punyapornwithaya, V.; Boonyapakorn, C. Obesity-Induced Heart Rate Variability Impairment and Decreased Systolic Function in Obese Male Dogs. Animals 2020, 10, 1383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081383

AMA Style

Pongkan W, Jitnapakarn W, Phetnoi W, Punyapornwithaya V, Boonyapakorn C. Obesity-Induced Heart Rate Variability Impairment and Decreased Systolic Function in Obese Male Dogs. Animals. 2020; 10(8):1383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081383

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pongkan, Wanpitak, Wannida Jitnapakarn, Warunee Phetnoi, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, and Chavalit Boonyapakorn. 2020. "Obesity-Induced Heart Rate Variability Impairment and Decreased Systolic Function in Obese Male Dogs" Animals 10, no. 8: 1383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081383

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