General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 9798

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Epizootiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: epidemiology; infectious disease; zoonosis; papillomaviruses; parvoviruses; coronaviruses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

You are invited to submit papers to the Special Issue "General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses". Viruses have accompanied humans and animals since the dawn of time and will likely continue to do so until the end of it. The recent COVID-19 pandemic showed once again that animal viruses are extremely dangerous to human populations, with widespread consequences. This Special Issue invites articles on the general epidemiology of different animal viruses, with topics of interest including: molecular epidemiology and evolution, including the development of novel bioinformatics tools or approaches to advance knowledge around virus ecology and diversity; virus structure and function; virus–host interaction; and the severe implications of viruses across the world.

I hope to assemble a series of research articles, reviews, perspectives and summary opinions that reflect the full diversity of the field, highlighting current and future trends in basic and applied research.

Dr. Anna Szczerba-Turek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • viruses
  • prevention
  • control
  • One Health
  • zoonoses
  • wildlife
  • reservoir
  • public health
  • vector
  • pets
  • aquatic animals
  • virus evolution
  • virus-host interactions
  • molecular epidemiology
  • natural selection
  • virus ecology
  • pandemic potential
  • cross-species transmission

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 9904 KiB  
Article
Stability and Detection Limit of Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease Virus, and African Horse Sickness Virus on Flinders Technology Associates Card by Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction
by Machimaporn Taesuji, Khate Rattanamas, Peter B. Yim and Sakchai Ruenphet
Animals 2024, 14(8), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14081242 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 101
Abstract
The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card, a cotton-based cellulose membrane impregnated with a chaotropic agent, effectively inactivates infectious microorganisms, lyses cellular material, and fixes nucleic acid. The aim of this study is to assess the stability and detection limit of various RNA viruses, [...] Read more.
The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card, a cotton-based cellulose membrane impregnated with a chaotropic agent, effectively inactivates infectious microorganisms, lyses cellular material, and fixes nucleic acid. The aim of this study is to assess the stability and detection limit of various RNA viruses, especially the avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and African horse sickness virus (AHSV), on the FTA card, which could significantly impact virus storage and transport practices. To achieve this, each virus dilution was inoculated onto an FTA card and stored at room temperature in plastic bags for durations ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Following storage, the target genome was detected using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The present study demonstrated that the detection limit of AIV ranged from 1.17 to 6.17 EID50 values over durations ranging from 1 week to 5 months, while for NDV, it ranged from 2.83 to 5.83 ELD50 over the same duration. Additionally, the detection limit of AHSV was determined as 4.01 PFU for both 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Based on the demonstrated effectiveness, stability, and safety implications observed in the study, FTA cards are recommended for virus storage and transport, thus facilitating the molecular detection and identification of RNA viral pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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15 pages, 6636 KiB  
Communication
Evolutionary Analysis of a Parrot Bornavirus 2 Detected in a Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) Suggests a South American Ancestor
by Ruy D. Chacón, Christian J. Sánchez-Llatas, Andrea J. Diaz Forero, Marta B. Guimarães, Sarah L. Pajuelo, Claudete S. Astolfi-Ferreira and Antonio J. Piantino Ferreira
Animals 2024, 14(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14010047 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Parrot bornavirus (PaBV) is an RNA virus that causes Proventricular Dilatation Disease (PDD), neurological disorders, and death in Psittaciformes. Its diversity in South America is poorly known. We examined a Cacatua galerita presenting neuropathies, PDD, and oculopathies as the main signs. We [...] Read more.
Parrot bornavirus (PaBV) is an RNA virus that causes Proventricular Dilatation Disease (PDD), neurological disorders, and death in Psittaciformes. Its diversity in South America is poorly known. We examined a Cacatua galerita presenting neuropathies, PDD, and oculopathies as the main signs. We detected PaBV through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) and matrix (M) genes. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inferences classified it as PaBV-2. The nucleotide identity of the sequenced strain ranged from 88.3% to 90.3% against genotype PaBV-2 and from 80.2% to 84.4% against other genotypes. Selective pressure analysis detected signs of episodic diversifying selection in both the N and M genes. No recombination events were detected. Phylodynamic analysis estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) as the year 1758 for genotype PaBV-2 and the year 1049 for the Orthobornavirus alphapsittaciforme species. Substitution rates were estimated at 2.73 × 10−4 and 4.08 × 10−4 substitutions per year per site for N and M, respectively. The analysis of population dynamics showed a progressive decline in the effective population size during the last century. Timescale phylogeographic analysis revealed a potential South American ancestor as the origin of genotypes 1, 2, and 8. These results contribute to our knowledge of the evolutionary origin, diversity, and dynamics of PaBVs in South America and the world. Additionally, it highlights the importance of further studies in captive Psittaciformes and the potential impact on endangered wild birds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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12 pages, 2855 KiB  
Article
A Snapshot on the Genomic Epidemiology of Turkey Reovirus Infections, Hungary
by Bence Gál, Renáta Varga-Kugler, Katalin Ihász, Eszter Kaszab, Szilvia Farkas, Szilvia Marton, Vito Martella and Krisztián Bányai
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223504 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Reovirus infections in turkeys are associated with arthritis and lameness. Viral genome sequence data are scarce, which makes an accurate description of the viral evolution and epidemiology difficult. In this study, we isolated and characterized turkey reoviruses from Hungary. The isolates were identified [...] Read more.
Reovirus infections in turkeys are associated with arthritis and lameness. Viral genome sequence data are scarce, which makes an accurate description of the viral evolution and epidemiology difficult. In this study, we isolated and characterized turkey reoviruses from Hungary. The isolates were identified in 2016; these isolates were compared with earlier Hungarian turkey reovirus strains and turkey reoviruses isolated in the 2010s in the United States. Gene-wise sequence and phylogenetic analyses identified the cell-receptor binding protein and the main neutralization antigen, σC, to be the most conserved. The most genetically diverse gene was another surface antigen coding gene, μB. This gene was shown to undergo frequent reassortment among chicken and turkey origin reoviruses. Additional reassortment events were found primarily within members of the homologous turkey reovirus clade. Our data showed evidence for low variability among strains isolated from independent outbreaks, a finding that suggests a common source of turkey reoviruses in Hungarian turkey flocks. Given that commercial vaccines are not available, identification of the source of these founder virus strains would permit a more efficient prevention of disease outbreaks before young birds are settled to fattening facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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8 pages, 230 KiB  
Communication
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Post-Eradication Program in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Italy: A Retrospective Study on Potential Bovine Herpesvirus Type 2 Cross-Reactivity
by Astrid Bettini, Martina Stella, Francesca Precazzini, Marta Degasperi, Stefano Colorio and Alexander Tavella
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223502 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Bovine alphaherpesviruses, BoAHV, can cause respiratory, genital and neurological disorders. In particular, bovine alphaherpesvirus type 1 (BoAHV1) is one of the most significant ruminant pathogens worldwide and it can heavily damage the livestock industry. BoAHV1 can cause infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) along with [...] Read more.
Bovine alphaherpesviruses, BoAHV, can cause respiratory, genital and neurological disorders. In particular, bovine alphaherpesvirus type 1 (BoAHV1) is one of the most significant ruminant pathogens worldwide and it can heavily damage the livestock industry. BoAHV1 can cause infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) along with fertility disorders. Bovine alphaherpesvirus type 2 (BoAHV2) can cause two different conditions as well: pseudo-lumpy skin disease (PSLD) and bovine herpetic mammillitis (BHM). The autonomous province of Bolzano (Italy) has adopted several strategies to control and eradicate IBR, and it was declared in 2000 to be IBR-free by the European Commission. Since 2001, a post-eradication monitoring program has overseen the serological analysis of bulk milk and, in the presence of a positive result, a follow-up examination is performed on the individual blood serum of all bovines older than 24 months that belong to bulk milk-positive herds. Despite the detection of positives in both bulk milk and serum samples, South Tyrol has been declared IBR-free, as these positives have never been confirmed through seroneutralization. Between 2014 and 2022, approximately 41,000 bulk milk (averaging 4300 samples/year) and 3229 serum samples were tested for BoAHV1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-eradication program for IBR with a particular focus on the potential cross-reactivity with BoAHV2; for this reason, serum samples were also tested for BoAHV2 antibodies. This study could be of great importance for those countries that submit herds to an IBR monitoring and eradication program; performing further analyses to confirm and explain false positive outcomes would increase the reliability of the obtained results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
16 pages, 1093 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology and Control of Rabies in Cattle and Equines in Rondônia State, a Brazilian’s Legal Amazon Area
by Débora Naihane Alves Sodré, Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi, Luis Antonio Mathias and Marco Antonio de Andrade Belo
Animals 2023, 13(18), 2974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13182974 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Rabies is a fatal neglected tropical zoonosis, and its significance for domestic herbivores in the rural cycle is probably associated with rainforest deforestation, livestock, and agricultural expansion. This epidemiological survey aimed to study the occurrence of rabies in bovines and equines in the [...] Read more.
Rabies is a fatal neglected tropical zoonosis, and its significance for domestic herbivores in the rural cycle is probably associated with rainforest deforestation, livestock, and agricultural expansion. This epidemiological survey aimed to study the occurrence of rabies in bovines and equines in the state of Rondônia, located in the Brazilian’s Legal Amazon, between the years 2002 and 2021, correlating these findings with the prophylactic strategies adopted by the local sanitary agency for rabies control. During this period, 201 cases were observed in bovines and 23 in equines. A downward trend in rabies incidence was observed for both domestic herbivores. Rabies did not show a higher occurrence in any specific time of the year, and epidemic periods varied during some years for bovines and equines. Using the Generalized estimating equations (GEE) method, a multiple model approach was obtained with the explanatory variables significantly associated with the decrease in rabies incidence in cattle and horses during the study period: the ratio of treated bats and ratio of vaccine doses sold. Furthermore, the ratio of printed educative material was positively associated with rabies incidence. Despite a decreasing trend in rabies occurrences in this Amazon rainforest area, likely due to the actions taken by the animal sanitary agency, rabies remains endemic and requires monitoring, as well as prophylactic strategies to control this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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15 pages, 7847 KiB  
Article
Phylogenetic Analysis and Codon Usage Bias Reveal the Base of Feline and Canine Chaphamaparvovirus for Cross-Species Transmission
by Xu Guo, Yingying Zhang, Yang Pan, Kankan Yang, Xinxin Tong and Yong Wang
Animals 2023, 13(16), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13162617 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Chaphamaparvoviruses (ChPVs) are ancient viruses that have been detected in a variety of hosts. In this study, through a phylogenetic analysis and the adaptability of ChPV to multiple hosts, we evaluated the basis for the ability of feline (FeChPV) and canine ChPV (CaChPV) [...] Read more.
Chaphamaparvoviruses (ChPVs) are ancient viruses that have been detected in a variety of hosts. In this study, through a phylogenetic analysis and the adaptability of ChPV to multiple hosts, we evaluated the basis for the ability of feline (FeChPV) and canine ChPV (CaChPV) for cross-species transmission. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FeChPV and CaChPV were closely related. Notably, two strains of ChPVs isolated from domestic cats and two from dogs clustered together with CaChPVs and FeChPVs, respectively, suggesting that the stringent boundaries between canine and feline ChPV may be broken. Further analysis revealed that CaChPV and FeChPV were more adapted to dogs than to cats. Mutation analysis identified several shared mutations in cross-species-transmissible strains. Furthermore, the VP structures of FeChPV and CaChPV exhibited a high degree of similarity across both cross-species-transmissible and non-cross-species-transmissible strains. However, it is crucial to note that these results are largely computational, and limitations exist in terms of the number and diversity of samples analyzed; the capacity for cross-species transmission should be approached with caution and elucidated in further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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12 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
The First Serological Detection and Risk Factors Analysis of Akabane Virus in Egyptian Cattle
by Samy Metwally, Nabil Bkear, Marwa Samir, Rania Hamada, Besheer Elshafey, Gaber Batiha, Taghreed N. Almanaa, Kamel Sobhy and Yassien Badr
Animals 2023, 13(11), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13111849 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Akabane virus (AKAV) is an insect-borne virus belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Peribunyaviridae. It is the etiologic agent of Akabane disease (AD), which emerged in Asia, Australia, and the Middle East causing severe economic losses among domestic and wild animals. [...] Read more.
Akabane virus (AKAV) is an insect-borne virus belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Peribunyaviridae. It is the etiologic agent of Akabane disease (AD), which emerged in Asia, Australia, and the Middle East causing severe economic losses among domestic and wild animals. AKAV has not received enough attention in Egypt, and its evidence among Egyptian animals has never been reported. Therefore, this study used ELISA assay to investigate the seroprevalence of AKAV among Egyptian dairy and beef cattle in eight localities of Beheira province, north Egypt. Out of 368 investigated plasma samples, the overall AKAV seroprevalence was 54.3% (95% CI: 50.8–61.4). AKAV antibodies were detected in all examined cattle farms (7/7) and the majority of abattoirs (8/9). Age, sex, breed, and location of the tested cattle were analyzed as risk factors for AKAV infection. A higher significant increase in seropositivity was obtained in cattle who were aged >5 years (p < 0.0001; OR = 9.4), females (p < 0.0001, OR = 8.3), or Holstein breed (p < 0.0001, OR = 22.6) than in younger ages, males, and Mixed and Colombian zebu breeds, respectively. Moreover, a significant variation in AKAV seroprevalence between the tested locations was noticed. Ultimately, a multivariable analysis concluded that age (p = 0.002, OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.57–7.04) and breed (p = 0.03, OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.05–2.72) were significant risks for AKAV infection. In conclusion, this study is the first to detect AKAV infection in Egyptian animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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6 pages, 400 KiB  
Communication
Is Penguin Circovirus Circulating Only in the Antarctic Circle? Lack of Viral Detection in Namibia
by Laura C. Roberts, Umberto Molini, Lauren M. Coetzee, Siegfried Khaiseb, Jean-Paul Roux, Jessica Kemper, David G. Roberts, Katrin Ludynia, Marcus Doherr, Darrell Abernethy and Giovanni Franzo
Animals 2023, 13(9), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13091449 - 24 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
The known host range of circoviruses is continuously expanding because of more intensive diagnostic activities and advanced sequencing tools. Recently, a new circovirus (penguin circovirus (PenCV)) was identified in the guano and cloacal samples collected from Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and [...] Read more.
The known host range of circoviruses is continuously expanding because of more intensive diagnostic activities and advanced sequencing tools. Recently, a new circovirus (penguin circovirus (PenCV)) was identified in the guano and cloacal samples collected from Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus) in Antarctica. Although the virus was detected in several asymptomatic subjects, a potential association with feather disease was speculated. To investigate the occurrence and implications of PenCV in other penguin species located outside of Antarctica, a broad survey was undertaken in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) on two islands off the southern Namibian coast. For this purpose, specific molecular biology assays were developed and validated. None of the 151 blood samples tested positive for PenCV. Several reasons could explain the lack of PenCV positive samples. African penguins and Pygoscelis species are separated by approximately 6000 km, so there is almost no opportunity for transmission. Similarly, host susceptibility to PenCV might be penguin genus-specific. Overall, the present study found no evidence of PenCV in African penguin colonies in Namibia. Further dedicated studies are required to assess the relevance of PenCV among different penguin species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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11 pages, 2042 KiB  
Brief Report
Phylogenetic Analysis of G and P Genotypes of Bovine Group A Rotavirus Strains Isolated from Diarrheic Vietnam Cows in 2017 and 2018
by Jihye Shin, Gyu-Nam Park, SeEun Choe, Ra Mi Cha, Ki-Sun Kim, Byung-Hyun An, Song Yi Kim, Soo Hyun Moon, Bang-Hun Hyun and Dong-Jun An
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142314 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 959
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of G- and P-type bovine RVAs (BoRVAs) prevalent in Vietnam. Between 2017 and 2018, the prevalence of BoRVAs detected in diarrhea samples from 8 regions was as low as 1.9% (11/582). The prevalence of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of G- and P-type bovine RVAs (BoRVAs) prevalent in Vietnam. Between 2017 and 2018, the prevalence of BoRVAs detected in diarrhea samples from 8 regions was as low as 1.9% (11/582). The prevalence of the G-type was 45.5% for G6 and 18.2% for G10; however, 36.3% remain unidentified. Interestingly, all BoRVAs were investigated as P[11], and there was no diversity within this P-type. Geographically, the G6 and G10 types were not identified in any specific area; rather, they occurred in both Northern and Southern Vietnam. G6P[11] and G10P[11], which are combined G- and P-types, were identified in 71.4% and 28.6% of BoRVA-positive samples, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the G6-type detected in Vietnamese cows is similar to strains derived from China, Japan, and Korea, whereas the G10 type is closely related to the Chinese strain. In addition, the P11 strain detected in Vietnamese cows is similar to the Spanish and Chinese strains. The BoRVA-positive rate was higher in cows aged less than 2 months (3.2%, 3/94) than in those aged 2 months or more (1.6%, 8/488). In summary, we detected the presence of G6P11 and G10P11 BoVRAs on Vietnamese cow farms, and found that they were more predominant in young calves than in older cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Epidemiology of Animal Viruses)
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