Peanut: A Promising Star to Feed the Future

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Innovative Cropping Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 10768

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Peanut, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, 217 Hoke Smith Building Athens, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Interests: molecular biology and genetics; QTL mapping; phenotyping; conventional and genomic-based breeding; crop management; post-harvest storage and processing
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E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, 101 Derieux Place, 4207 Williams Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Interests: peanut-based cropping systems; integrated pest management; cropping systems; crop management; cultivars; pesticides; entomology; plant pathology; nematology; weed science; agronomy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Peanut (groundnut) is an important legume grown widely around the world. It is a highly nutritious and healthy food that is consumed in a variety of forms. Being nitrogen-fixing, it requires minimal inputs and performs well under water-limited conditions. Diseases can be damaging, but peanut often produces a crop when many others fail. For these reasons, peanut is considered critical for local food security. Recent success in sequencing the genomes of the cultivated peanut and several diploid relatives opens opportunities for gene identification and genomic selection in breeding. The use of wild relatives to introduce new diversity is already showing results. Crop production practices tailored to the inputs available are critical for maximizing yields and quality.

In this Special Issue, we invite research and review articles (a limited number) focused on the following areas of study: (i) the application of genomics, high-throughput phenotyping and other -omic technologies for analyzing diversity, gene identification and breeding to develop improved varieties; (ii) understanding and improving nutrient use efficiency, including nitrogen fixation; (iii) developing effective weed, pest and disease management strategies; and (iv) improving and maintaining nutritional quality through varietal development and better storage and processing.

Dr. Dave Hoisington
Dr. David Jordan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • peanut
  • groundnut
  • genomic selection
  • marker-assisted breeding
  • genetic diversity
  • high-throughput phenotyping
  • nutrient use
  • nitrogen fixation
  • nutrition
  • weed management
  • arthropod management
  • disease management
  • nematode management
  • financial returns
  • cropping systems

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1921 KiB  
Article
De novo QTL-seq Identifies Loci Linked to Blanchability in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and Refines Previously Identified QTL with Low Coverage Sequence
by Walid Korani, Dan O’Connor, Ye Chu, Carolina Chavarro, Carolina Ballen, Baozhu Guo, Peggy Ozias-Akins, Graeme Wright and Josh Clevenger
Agronomy 2021, 11(11), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112201 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2593
Abstract
Blanchability is an often overlooked, but important trait for peanut breeding. The process of blanching, removing the skin, is an important step in the processing of raw nuts for manufacturing. Under strong genetic control and requiring considerable effort to phenotype, blanchability is conducive [...] Read more.
Blanchability is an often overlooked, but important trait for peanut breeding. The process of blanching, removing the skin, is an important step in the processing of raw nuts for manufacturing. Under strong genetic control and requiring considerable effort to phenotype, blanchability is conducive for marker-assisted selection. We used QTL sequencing (QTL-seq) to identify two QTLs related to blanchability using previously phenotyped breeding populations. To validate the QTLs, we show that two markers can select for significantly increased blanchability in an independent recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Two wild introgressions from Arachis cardenasii conferring strong disease resistance were segregated in the population and were found to negatively impact blanchability. Finally, we show that by utilizing highly accurate sequence analysis pipelines, low coverage sequencing can be used to genotype whole populations with increased power and precision. This study highlights the potential to mine breeding data to identify and develop useful markers for genetic improvement programs, and provide powerful tools for breeding for processing and quality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peanut: A Promising Star to Feed the Future)
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13 pages, 5494 KiB  
Article
Sound Splits as Influenced by Seed Size for Runner and Virginia Market Type Peanut Shelled on a Reciprocating Sheller
by Daniel J. Anco, Maria Balota, Jeffrey C. Dunne and Nino Brown
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091869 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) kernel percent sound splits as a function of sound mature kernel seed size when shelled on a reciprocating sheller. Data were compiled from a total of 139 field experiments conducted [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) kernel percent sound splits as a function of sound mature kernel seed size when shelled on a reciprocating sheller. Data were compiled from a total of 139 field experiments conducted in the Virginia-Carolina region and Georgia from 2005 to 2020. Runner and Virginia peanut market types were graded according to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards using standard sheller screens with upper grid sizes corresponding to the red pan from the pre-sizer of 10.3 × 19.1 mm (26/64 × 3/4 ″) and 13.5 × 25.4 mm (34/64 × 1 ″) with minimum bar grid clearances of 8.7 (11/32 ″) and 12.7 mm (1/2 ″), respectively. A subset of runner market type samples was graded using the Virginia sheller screen. Grade data per market type and sheller screen was analyzed separately. Among runner market types shelled with the standard runner-type screen, percent sound splits increased linearly with increasing seed size at the logit rate of 1.16 per sound mature kernel g (p < 0.001). Sound splits for Virginia and runner market types shelled on the standard Virginia-type screen did not significantly vary by kernel size (p = 0.939 and 0.687, respectively). Extra-large kernels (proportion) for Virginia types linearly increased with seed size at 1.91 per sound mature kernel g (logit scale) (p < 0.001). Runner market types sized 75 to 91 g/100 sound mature kernels (605 to 500 seed/lb) were estimated to have a 50% probability of a 2.3 to 4.5% or greater increase in sound splits when shelled with the standard runner-type screen compared to runner-type seed sized 55 g/100 sound mature kernels (820 seed/lb), respectively, equivalent to a potential deduction increase of 1.8 to 4.4 USD /1000 kg. For both Virginia and runner market types, seed weight linearly increased with pod weight at 0.169 and 0.195 g/g (p < 0.001), respectively. Results from this study may be used as a reference to suggest runner-type seed sizes above which larger reciprocating sheller screen utilization in line with USDA grading practices is warranted to reduce mechanically induced sound splits during grading and subsequent economic deduction penalties for corresponding farmer stock peanut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peanut: A Promising Star to Feed the Future)
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16 pages, 2546 KiB  
Article
Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Growth and Seed Production When in Competition with Peanut and Other Crops in North Carolina
by Denis J. Mahoney, David L. Jordan, Andrew T. Hare, Ramon G. Leon, Nilda Roma-Burgos, Matthew C. Vann, Katherine M. Jennings, Wesley J. Everman and Charles W. Cahoon
Agronomy 2021, 11(9), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091734 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) is a highly competitive weed that can be difficult to manage in many cropping systems. Research to date has not quantified the growth and development of A. palmeri in a manner that allows direct comparisons across [...] Read more.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) is a highly competitive weed that can be difficult to manage in many cropping systems. Research to date has not quantified the growth and development of A. palmeri in a manner that allows direct comparisons across cropping systems. Research was conducted to compare the growth, development, and seed production of A. palmeri when competing with corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] when emerging with crops or emerging three weeks after crops emerge. Regardless of when A. palmeri emerged, seed production was greatest and similar in cotton and peanut and exceeded that of corn and soybean; seed production in soybean exceeded that of corn. However, seed production was approximately 10-fold greater when A. palmeri emerged with crops compared with emergence three weeks later. These results illustrate the importance of controlling weeds during the first three weeks of the season relative to contributions of A. palmeri to the weed seed bank and is the first report comparing seed production in presence of these crops in a manner allowing a statistical comparison of seed production and highlighting the importance of crop sequence for seed bank management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peanut: A Promising Star to Feed the Future)
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9 pages, 10688 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol Biosynthesis in Hairy Root Cultures of Tan and Purple Seed Coat Peanuts
by Ye-Eun Park, Chang-Ha Park, Hyeon-Ji Yeo, Yong-Suk Chung and Sang-Un Park
Agronomy 2021, 11(5), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050975 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2567
Abstract
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a crop that can produce resveratrol, a compound with various biological properties, such as those that exert antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, trans-resveratrol was detected in the roots, leaves, and stems of tan [...] Read more.
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a crop that can produce resveratrol, a compound with various biological properties, such as those that exert antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, trans-resveratrol was detected in the roots, leaves, and stems of tan and purple seed coat peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) cultivated in a growth chamber. Both cultivars showed higher levels of resveratrol in the roots than the other plant parts. Thus, both cultivars were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, in vitro, to promote hairy root development, thereby producing enhanced levels of t-resveratrol. After 1 month of culture, hairy roots from the two cultivars showed higher levels of fresh weight than those of seedling roots. Furthermore, both cultivars contained higher t-resveratrol levels than those of their seedling roots (6.88 ± 0.21 mg/g and 28.07 ± 0.46 mg/g, respectively); however, purple seed coat peanut hairy roots contained higher t-resveratrol levels than those of tan seed coat peanut hairy roots, ranging from 70.16 to 166.76 mg/g and from 46.61 to 54.31 mg/g, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that peanut hairy roots could be a good source for t-resveratrol production due to their rapid growth, high biomass, and substantial amount of resveratrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peanut: A Promising Star to Feed the Future)
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