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Forensic Sci., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 6 articles

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14 pages, 2824 KiB  
Systematic Review
Postmortem Gone Astray—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Ivan Šoša and Manuela Perković
Forensic Sci. 2024, 4(2), 243-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci4020017 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Premortem clinical diagnoses and postmortem autopsy findings do not match historically. These clinicopathological discrepancies are expected to be higher during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to increased pressure on healthcare. At the same time, autopsies and clinicopathological discrepancies accurately display the [...] Read more.
Premortem clinical diagnoses and postmortem autopsy findings do not match historically. These clinicopathological discrepancies are expected to be higher during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to increased pressure on healthcare. At the same time, autopsies and clinicopathological discrepancies accurately display the quality of the healthcare system. To assess that, we examined the relevant works of literature according to the PRISMA-based protocol. As a discrepancy rate change-related antemortem scrutiny of medical care in the hospital, we also checked whether studies with patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) differed in discrepancies significantly. We found similar overall risk differences in “pre-COVID” and “during the pandemic” groups of studies. Based on this, we concluded that healthcare quality did not drop significantly during the pandemic. Be that as it may, the pandemic exposed some shortcomings in mortem healthcare regarding consensus to the autopsy, organ retention, burial, and the postponed burial or the digitalization of postmortem healthcare. All of these issues should be addressed in the future. Full article
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9 pages, 3491 KiB  
Case Report
Fat Embolism Syndrome in a Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report
by Marcello Benevento, Francesco Carravetta, Cristina Caterino, Simona Nicolì, Laura Ambrosi, Davide Ferorelli and Biagio Solarino
Forensic Sci. 2024, 4(2), 234-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci4020016 - 18 May 2024
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Abstract
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) can be challenging to diagnose by forensic pathologists. For the diagnosis of FES, there is no benchmark test. Postmortem diagnosis requires a full autopsy and specific ancillary examination. However, the high variability in the clinical presentation of FES represents [...] Read more.
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) can be challenging to diagnose by forensic pathologists. For the diagnosis of FES, there is no benchmark test. Postmortem diagnosis requires a full autopsy and specific ancillary examination. However, the high variability in the clinical presentation of FES represents a relevant issue, and there is no consensus on the postmortem assessment. This is the case of a 33-year-old man who died of FES one week after a car accident. He suffered multiple fractures, but was hemodynamically stable and showed no neurological changes. The patient died a few days after hospital discharge. Additionally, he had osteogenesis imperfecta type III, a genetic disorder associated with bone fragility. To the best of our knowledge, no study has assessed whether and how osteogenesis imperfecta contributes to the onset of FES. Despite the heterogeneous manifestations of FES, the present case met many of the proposed clinical and histological diagnostic criteria. Therefore, we briefly review FES diagnostic criteria, show the postmortem diagnostic workup, and discuss the hypothetical link between osteogenesis imperfecta and FES. Full article
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13 pages, 419 KiB  
Article
The Role of Coping Strategies in Children’s Repeated Suggestive Interviews
by Monia Vagni and Valeria Giostra
Forensic Sci. 2024, 4(2), 221-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci4020015 - 7 May 2024
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Abstract
Often in the forensic context, child victims and witnesses are interviewed several times, exposing them to suggestive questions and social pressures. The present study had the main purpose of verifying the effect of coping strategies on the levels of immediate suggestibility and on [...] Read more.
Often in the forensic context, child victims and witnesses are interviewed several times, exposing them to suggestive questions and social pressures. The present study had the main purpose of verifying the effect of coping strategies on the levels of immediate suggestibility and on the Resistant Behavioral Responses (RBRs) of children subjected to repeated suggestive interviews. A sample of 90 children, aged between 11 and 14, were administered the two parallel Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS2 and GSS1) a few months apart and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) to detect their coping strategies. The results showed that the avoidance coping increased suggestive vulnerability and reduced resistant responses. Task-oriented coping favored responses with greater source monitoring, which allow for the rejection of misleading information. Coping strategies did not show direct effects on the management of the socioemotional aspects involved in the suggestive interaction. After the negative feedback that invites children to be more accurate, a smaller effect of the avoidance strategy was recorded, indicating how actively requesting greater source monitoring can lead children to better recognize misleading information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abuse and Violence in Families)
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10 pages, 1643 KiB  
Article
Ovarian Weight and Uterine Volume Index Are Useful for Age Estimation in Adult Women
by Takato Murai, Takahiro Tomioka, Marin Takaso, Arisa Takeda, Mami Nakamura, Shinya Koshinuma, Yumiko Tateoka and Masahito Hitosugi
Forensic Sci. 2024, 4(2), 211-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci4020014 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Practically, when only parts of an unidentified human body are found, age estimation with limited materials is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate methods for estimating age using the uterus and ovaries. Among forensic autopsies performed between January 2011 and [...] Read more.
Practically, when only parts of an unidentified human body are found, age estimation with limited materials is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate methods for estimating age using the uterus and ovaries. Among forensic autopsies performed between January 2011 and March 2022, 211 uteruses and 521 ovaries of 322 women were used for this study. Measured values for ovarian weight and uterine volume index were corrected by body surface area to consider the effect of body size. The corrected uterine volume index increased in teenage years and achieved its maximum in the 40–49 group, then gradually decreased with increasing age. The corrected ovarian weight increased until the twenties, after which it decreased with age. For women aged 20 years or more, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis suggested that a uterine volume index of 41.2 cm3/m2 was the cutoff value for classifying the age as ≥60 years or <60 years, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.751. Ovarian weights of 2.27 g/m2 and 1.92 g/m2 were the cutoff values for classifying the age as ≥40 years or <40 years, or ≥50 years or <50 years, with AUC values of 0.935 and 0.930, respectively. These methods can help determine an unknown individual’s age group simply and quickly, even for incomplete cadavers. Full article
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9 pages, 4721 KiB  
Case Report
Application of X-STRs for Forensic Identification in Mixed DNA Profile: A Case Report
by Nunzia Ilaria Vacca, Giacoma Mongelli, Stefania Ceccardi, Elisabetta Moroni and Vincenzo Agostini
Forensic Sci. 2024, 4(2), 202-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci4020013 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Autosomal polymorphisms (STRs) or Y-Chromosome polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are usually used for the study and deconvolution of mixed DNA profiles in forensic genetics, accompanying data interpretation with biostatistical evaluations (e.g., RMP, RMNE, LR). Sometimes, however, some mixed DNA profiles are so complex that autosomal [...] Read more.
Autosomal polymorphisms (STRs) or Y-Chromosome polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are usually used for the study and deconvolution of mixed DNA profiles in forensic genetics, accompanying data interpretation with biostatistical evaluations (e.g., RMP, RMNE, LR). Sometimes, however, some mixed DNA profiles are so complex that autosomal and Y markers are not sufficient for correct discrimination and identification. In this work is reported a robbery case in which the analysis of the polymorphic markers of the X Chromosome (X-STRs) was applied to the mixed profiles obtained from the traces. This falls outside the classic use of the X-STRs. Indeed, the aim of the authors is to encourage the usage of X-STRs not only in parental relationships, but also in pure forensic cases for interpreting complex mixed DNA profiles, since their application in case resolution could be more decisive than autosomal STRs and Y-STRs. Full article
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1 pages, 139 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Chovalopoulou et al. Skeletal Sex Estimation Methods Based on the Athens Collection. Forensic Sci. 2022, 2, 715–724
by Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou, Efstratios Valakos and Efthymia Nikita
Forensic Sci. 2024, 4(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci4020012 - 26 Mar 2024
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
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