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BioChem, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 2 articles

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Review
Native Protein Template Assisted Synthesis of Non-Native Metal-Sulfur Clusters
BioChem 2022, 2(3), 182-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/biochem2030013 - 01 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Metalloenzymes are the most proficient nature catalysts that are responsible for diverse biochemical transformations introducing excellent selectivity and performing at high rates, using intricate mutual relationships between metal ions and proteins. Inspired by nature, chemists started using naturally occurring proteins as templates to [...] Read more.
Metalloenzymes are the most proficient nature catalysts that are responsible for diverse biochemical transformations introducing excellent selectivity and performing at high rates, using intricate mutual relationships between metal ions and proteins. Inspired by nature, chemists started using naturally occurring proteins as templates to harbor non-native metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of molecules for pharmaceutical, biotechnological and industrial purposes. Therefore, metalloenzymes are the relevant targets for the design of artificial biocatalysts. The search and development of new scaffolds capable of hosting metals with high levels of selectivity could significantly expand the scope of bio-catalysis. To meet this challenge, herein, three native scaffolds: [1Fe-4Cys] (rubredoxin), [3Fe-4S] (ferredoxin), and [S2MoS2CuS2MoS2]-ORP (orange protein) protein scaffolds are case studies describing templates for the synthesis of non-native monomeric to mixed metal–sulfur clusters, which mimic native Ni containing metalloenzymes including [Ni-Fe] Hydrogenase and [Ni-Fe] CO Dehydrogenase. The non-native metal-substituted metalloproteins are not only useful for catalysis but also as spectroscopic probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from XXI SPB National Congress of Biochemistry 2021)
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Review
Bifunctional Role of Fe(II)/2OG-Dependent TET Family 5-Methylcytosine Dioxygenases and ALKBH2,3 in Modified Cytosine Demethylation
BioChem 2022, 2(3), 171-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/biochem2030012 - 04 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Three forms of methylated cytosines are present in the eukaryotic genome: 3-methylcytosine, 4-methylcytosine and 5-methylcytosine. 3-methylcytosines create methyl lesions, which impair local DNA function and flexibility, resulting in replication and transcription error. On the other hand, 5-methylcytosine is usually present at the gene [...] Read more.
Three forms of methylated cytosines are present in the eukaryotic genome: 3-methylcytosine, 4-methylcytosine and 5-methylcytosine. 3-methylcytosines create methyl lesions, which impair local DNA function and flexibility, resulting in replication and transcription error. On the other hand, 5-methylcytosine is usually present at the gene promoter which blocks transcription and translation. Fe(II)/2OG-dependent nucleic acid-modifying enzymes are the class of enzymes responsible for the demethylation of these modified cytosines. ALKBH2 and 3 remove 3-methylcytosine via a one-step direct demethylation process. On the other hand, active demethylation of 5mC is initiated by Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET)-family dioxygenases. Via oxidative demethylation, TET1-3 converts 5mC into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine. Remarkably, recent findings demonstrate that ALKBH2,3 possess oxidative demethylation properties, along with direct demethylation. On the other hand, the TET family of enzymes possess direct demethylation properties along with oxidative demethylation. Here we review the importance of methylated cytosines in human DNA, their origin, function and removal. In addition, we discuss the recent findings of extraordinary flexibility of Fe(II)/2OG-dependent nucleic acid-modifying enzymes ALKBH2,3 and TET family of enzymes in cytosine demethylation, as well as their impact on epigenetics. Full article
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