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Polysaccharides, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Al3+ and especially Pb2+ and Cd2+ are ecotoxic and highly toxic for humans, even in ppb concentrations. Therefore, removal from surface waters below a dangerous concentration level is demanding. Herein, the use of starches, originating from different plants, was investigated and compared as ecofriendly, cheap, and abundantly available adsorbent materials. Four different native starch samples (potato, corn, waxy corn, and wheat starch) and two oxidized starches (oxidized potato and corn starch) were comprehensively analyzed, and the adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Al3+ from respective sulfate salt solutions was studied. Oxidized starch and native potato starch were found to be excellent natural adsorber materials for these metal ions in the low concentration range. View this paper.
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16 pages, 4927 KiB  
Article
Rheological and Microstructural Features of Plant Culture Media Doped with Biopolymers: Influence on the Growth and Physiological Responses of In Vitro-Grown Shoots of Thymus lotocephalus
by Natacha Coelho, Alexandra Filipe, Bruno Medronho, Solange Magalhães, Carla Vitorino, Luís Alves, Sandra Gonçalves and Anabela Romano
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 538-553; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020032 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
In vitro culture is an important biotechnological tool in plant research and an appropriate culture media is a key for a successful plant development under in vitro conditions. The use of natural compounds to improve culture media has been growing and biopolymers are [...] Read more.
In vitro culture is an important biotechnological tool in plant research and an appropriate culture media is a key for a successful plant development under in vitro conditions. The use of natural compounds to improve culture media has been growing and biopolymers are interesting alternatives to synthetic compounds due to their low toxicity, biodegradability, renewability, and availability. In the present study, different culture media containing one biopolymer (chitosan, gum arabic) or a biopolymer derivative [hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)], at 100 or 1000 mg L−1, were tested regarding their influence on the growth and physiological responses of Thymus lotocephalus in vitro culture. Cellulose-based biopolymers (HEC and CMC) and gum arabic were used for the first time in plant culture media. The results showed that CMC at 100 mg L−1 significantly improved shoot elongation while chitosan, at the highest concentration, was detrimental to T. lotocephalus. Concerning only the evaluated physiological parameters, all tested biopolymers and biopolymer derivatives are safe to plants as there was no evidence of stress-induced changes on T. lotocephalus. The rheological and microstructural features of the culture media were assessed to understand how the biopolymers and biopolymer derivatives added to the culture medium could influence shoot growth. As expected, all media presented a gel-like behaviour with minor differences in the complex viscosity at the beginning of the culture period. Most media showed increased viscosity overtime. The surface area increased with the addition of biopolymers and biopolymer derivatives to the culture media and the average pore size was considerably lower for CMC at 100 mg L−1. The smaller pores of this medium might be related to a more efficient nutrients and water uptake by T. lotocephalus shoots, leading to a significant improvement in shoot elongation. In short, this study demonstrated that the different types of biopolymers and biopolymer derivatives added to culture medium can modify their microstructure and at the right concentrations, are harmless to T. lotocephalus shoots growing in vitro, and that CMC improves shoot length. Full article
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19 pages, 2784 KiB  
Review
Trends of Chitosan Based Delivery Systems in Neuroregeneration and Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injuries
by Mallesh Kurakula, Shashank Gorityala, Devang B. Patel, Pratap Basim, Bhaumik Patel and Saurabh Kumar Jha
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 519-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020031 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4009
Abstract
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most complicated nervous system injuries with challenging treatment and recovery. Regenerative biomaterials such as chitosan are being reported for their wide use in filling the cavities, deliver curative drugs, and also provide adsorption sites for [...] Read more.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most complicated nervous system injuries with challenging treatment and recovery. Regenerative biomaterials such as chitosan are being reported for their wide use in filling the cavities, deliver curative drugs, and also provide adsorption sites for transplanted stem cells. Biomaterial scaffolds utilizing chitosan have shown certain therapeutic effects on spinal cord injury repair with some limitations. Chitosan-based delivery in stem cell transplantation is another strategy that has shown decent success. Stem cells can be directed to differentiate into neurons or glia in vitro. Stem cell-based therapy, biopolymer chitosan delivery strategies, and scaffold-based therapeutic strategies have been advancing as a combinatorial approach for spinal cord injury repair. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the treatment strategies of SCI due to the use of bioactivity of chitosan-based drug delivery systems. An emphasis on the role of chitosan in neural regeneration has also been highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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22 pages, 4148 KiB  
Article
Dietary Fiber-Tethered Gold Nanoparticles: An Innovative Analytical Tool for Probing Interactions
by Cristina Lupo, Samy Boulos, Chiara Delle Vedove, Fabian Gramm and Laura Nyström
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 497-518; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020030 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have recognized that daily consumption of dietary fiber-containing foods reduces the incidence of developing many chronic diseases, for example, by interacting with nutritionally relevant compounds. The low affinity nature that some of these interactions can have make the development of an [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have recognized that daily consumption of dietary fiber-containing foods reduces the incidence of developing many chronic diseases, for example, by interacting with nutritionally relevant compounds. The low affinity nature that some of these interactions can have make the development of an analytical detection system for their study particularly difficult. Therefore, the mechanism of action of binding compounds, by which a dietary fiber exerts its potential health benefits, remains largely unknown. Here, a novel method based on glyco-nanotechnology is proposed for studying the interaction between galactomannan and target molecules. Starting from a bottom-up approach, gold nanoparticles and thiolated galactomannans of two different sizes were synthesized separately, and then mixed for auto-assembly of the two glyconanoparticle materials. In addition, a preliminary interaction study between the prepared glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) from which it could be deduced that the molecular weight and ligand density on the gold core play an important role in the interaction. Therefore, dietary fiber-tethered gold nanoparticles are a valuable tool to elucidate key parameters underlying dietary fiber interactions. Full article
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20 pages, 2226 KiB  
Review
Oxi-HA/ADH Hydrogels: A Novel Approach in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
by Carla Giometti França, Denise Gradella Villalva and Maria Helena Andrade Santana
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 477-496; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020029 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4689
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polyelectrolyte abundant in mammalian connective tissues, such as cartilage and skin. Both endogenous and exogenous HA produced by fermentation have similar physicochemical, rheological, and biological properties, leading to medical and dermo-cosmetic products. Chemical modifications such as cross-linking [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polyelectrolyte abundant in mammalian connective tissues, such as cartilage and skin. Both endogenous and exogenous HA produced by fermentation have similar physicochemical, rheological, and biological properties, leading to medical and dermo-cosmetic products. Chemical modifications such as cross-linking or conjugation in target groups of the HA molecule improve its properties and in vivo stability, expanding its applications. Currently, HA-based scaffolds and matrices are of great interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the partial oxidation of the proximal hydroxyl groups in HA to electrophilic aldehydes mediated by periodate is still rarely investigated. The introduced aldehyde groups in the HA backbone allow spontaneous cross-linking with adipic dihydrazide (ADH), thermosensitivity, and noncytotoxicity to the hydrogels, which are advantageous for medical applications. This review provides an overview of the physicochemical properties of HA and its usual chemical modifications to better understand oxi-HA/ADH hydrogels, their functional properties modulated by the oxidation degree and ADH concentration, and the current clinical research. Finally, it discusses the development of biomaterials based on oxi-HA/ADH as a novel approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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23 pages, 2566 KiB  
Review
Encapsulation of Carotenoids as Food Colorants via Formation of Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes: A Review
by Carlos A. Fuenmayor, Omar G. Baron-Cangrejo and Paula A. Salgado-Rivera
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 454-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020028 - 5 Jun 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4488
Abstract
The use of natural carotenoids as food colorants is an important trend of innovation in the industry due to their low toxicity, their potential as bio-functional ingredients, and the increasing demand for natural and organic foods. Despite these benefits, their inclusion in food [...] Read more.
The use of natural carotenoids as food colorants is an important trend of innovation in the industry due to their low toxicity, their potential as bio-functional ingredients, and the increasing demand for natural and organic foods. Despite these benefits, their inclusion in food matrices presents multiple challenges related to their low stability and low water solubility. The present review covers the main concepts and background of carotenoid inclusion complex formation in cyclodextrins as a strategy for their stabilization, and subsequent inclusion in food products as color additives. The review includes the key aspects of the molecular and physicochemical properties of cyclodextrins as complexing agents, and a detailed review of the published evidence on complex formation with natural carotenoids from different sources in cyclodextrins, comparing complex formation methodologies, recovery, inclusion efficiency, and instrumental characterization techniques. Moreover, process flow diagrams (PFD), based on the most promising carotenoid-cyclodextrin complex formation methodologies reported in literature, are proposed, and discussed as a potential tool for their future scale-up. This review shows that the inclusion of carotenoids in complexes with cyclodextrins constitutes a promising technology for the stabilization of these pigments, with possible advantages in terms of their stability in food matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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25 pages, 6567 KiB  
Article
Removal of Lead, Cadmium, and Aluminum Sulfate from Simulated and Real Water with Native and Oxidized Starches
by Konstantin B. L. Borchert, Rahma Boughanmi, Berthold Reis, Philipp Zimmermann, Christine Steinbach, Peter Graichen, Anastasiya Svirepa, Johannes Schwarz, Regine Boldt, Simona Schwarz, Michael Mertig and Dana Schwarz
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 429-453; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020027 - 4 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
The separation of toxic pollutants such as Pb2+, Cd2+, and Al3+ from water is a constant challenge as contamination of natural water bodies is increasing. Al3+ and especially Pb2+ and Cd2+ are ecotoxic and highly [...] Read more.
The separation of toxic pollutants such as Pb2+, Cd2+, and Al3+ from water is a constant challenge as contamination of natural water bodies is increasing. Al3+ and especially Pb2+ and Cd2+ are ecotoxic and highly toxic for humans, even in ppb concentrations, and therefore removal below a dangerous level is demanding. Herein, the potential adsorber material starch, being ecofriendly, cheap, and abundantly available, was investigated. Thus, four different native starch samples (potato, corn, waxy corn, and wheat starch) and two oxidized starches (oxidized potato and corn starch) were comprehensively analyzed with streaming potential and charge density measurements, SEM-EDX, ATR-FTIR, 1H-NMR, and TGA. Subsequently, the starch samples were tested for the adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Al3+ from the respective sulfate salt solution. The adsorption process was analyzed by ICP-OES and SEM-EDX, and the adsorption isotherms were fitted comparing Langmuir, Sips, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. Oxidized starch, for which chemical modification is one of the simplest, and also native potato starch were excellent natural adsorber materials for Al3+, Cd2+, and especially Pb2+ in the low concentration range, exhibiting maximum adsorption capacities of 84, 71, and 104 µmol/g for oxidized potato starch, respectively. Full article
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29 pages, 2990 KiB  
Review
Polysaccharide-Based Packaging Functionalized with Inorganic Nanoparticles for Food Preservation
by Luis Miguel Anaya-Esparza, Zuamí Villagrán-de la Mora, Noé Rodríguez-Barajas, José Martín Ruvalcaba-Gómez, Laura Elena Iñiguez-Muñoz, Claudia Ivette Maytorena-Verdugo, Efigenia Montalvo-González and Alejandro Pérez-Larios
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 400-428; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020026 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4209
Abstract
Functionalization of polysaccharide-based packaging incorporating inorganic nanoparticles for food preservation is an active research area. This review summarizes the use of polysaccharide-based materials functionalized with inorganic nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O [...] Read more.
Functionalization of polysaccharide-based packaging incorporating inorganic nanoparticles for food preservation is an active research area. This review summarizes the use of polysaccharide-based materials functionalized with inorganic nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Zr, MgO, halloysite, and montmorillonite) to develop hybrid packaging for fruit, vegetables, meat (lamb, minced, pork, and poultry), mushrooms, cheese, eggs, and Ginkgo biloba seeds preservation. Their effects on quality parameters and shelf life are also discussed. In general, treated fruit, vegetables, mushrooms, and G. biloba seeds markedly increased their shelf life without significant changes in their sensory attributes, associated with a slowdown effect in the ripening process (respiration rate) due to the excellent gas exchange and barrier properties that effectively prevented dehydration, weight loss, enzymatic browning, microbial infections by spoilage and foodborne pathogenic bacteria, and mildew apparition in comparison with uncoated or polysaccharide-coated samples. Similarly, hybrid packaging showed protective effects to preserve meat products, cheese, and eggs by preventing microbial infections and lipid peroxidation, extending the food product’s shelf life without changes in their sensory attributes. According to the evidence, polysaccharide-hybrid packaging can preserve the quality parameters of different food products. However, further studies are needed to guarantee the safe implementation of these organic–inorganic packaging materials in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides for Application in Packaging)
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13 pages, 3976 KiB  
Article
Control of Surface Properties of Hyaluronan/Chitosan Multilayered Coatings for Tumor Cell Capture
by Giulia G. Lima, João B. M. Rocha Neto, Hernandes Faustino de Carvalho and Marisa Masumi Beppu
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 387-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020025 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a slow-growing neoplasm that has, when diagnosed in its early stages, great chances of cure. During initial tumor development, current diagnostic methods fail to have the desired accuracy, thus, it is necessary to develop or improve current detection methods [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a slow-growing neoplasm that has, when diagnosed in its early stages, great chances of cure. During initial tumor development, current diagnostic methods fail to have the desired accuracy, thus, it is necessary to develop or improve current detection methods and prognostic markers for PCa. In this scenario, films composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan (CHI) have demonstrated significant capture potential of prostate tumor cells (PC3 line), exploring HA as a CD44 receptor ligand and direct mediator in cell-film adhesion. Here, we present a strategy to control structural and cell adhesion properties of HA/CHI films based on film assembly conditions. Films were built via Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition, where the pH conditions (3.0 and 5.0) and number of bilayers (3.5, 10.5, and 20.5) were controlled. The characterization of these films was carried out using profilometry, ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Multilayer HA/CHI films produced at pH 3.0 gave optimum surface wettability and availability of free carboxyl groups. In turn, at pH 5.0, the coverings were thinner and presented a smoother surface. Films prepared with 3.5 bilayers showed greater tumor cell capture regardless of the pH condition, while films containing 10.5 and 20.5 bilayers presented a significant swelling process, which compromised their cell adhesion potential. This study shows that surface chemistry and morphology are critical factors for the development of biomaterials designed for several cell adhesion applications, such as rapid diagnostic, cell signaling, and biosensing mechanisms. Full article
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14 pages, 1515 KiB  
Article
Edible Films and Coatings Formulated with Arrowroot Starch as a Non-Conventional Starch Source for Plums Packaging
by Gislaine Ferreira Nogueira, Bianca de Oliveira Leme, Gabriela Ragazzi Santana dos Santos, Juliana Viegas da Silva, Patrícia Barbosa Nascimento, Cyntia Trevisan Soares, Farayde Matta Fakhouri and Rafael Augustus de Oliveira
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 373-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020024 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4796
Abstract
Increasing environmental awareness has promoted an interest in alternative strategies to common plastics obtained from fossil sources, stimulating research on the use of biodegradable and edible films/coatings obtained from renewable sources such as arrowroot starch. This research work aimed to evaluate the use [...] Read more.
Increasing environmental awareness has promoted an interest in alternative strategies to common plastics obtained from fossil sources, stimulating research on the use of biodegradable and edible films/coatings obtained from renewable sources such as arrowroot starch. This research work aimed to evaluate the use of arrowroot starch on the formation of edible films and coatings. Increasing the concentration of arrowroot starch (from 1% to 5%, mass/mass) in the film produced by casting resulted in increased water vapor permeability (from 2.20 to 3.68 g mm/m2 day kPa), moisture content (3.22% to 7.95%), increased thickness (from 0.029 to 0.101 mm), and decreased solubility in water (from 22.45% to 13.89%). The films were homogeneous, transparent and manageable, with the exception of the film with 1% starch. Film-forming solutions at concentrations of 0%, 2%, and 4% (mass/mass) of arrowroot starch were prepared and applied to plums to evaluate post-harvest behavior when stored at 25 and 5 °C for 35 days. The 2% coating adhered well to the plums’ surfaces, was bright and was effective in reducing mass loss and respiratory rate, associated with storage temperature of 5 °C. The 4% coating presented an opaque and flocculated appearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides for Application in Packaging)
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19 pages, 3049 KiB  
Review
Trend of Modification by Autoclave at Low Pressure and by Natural Fermentation in Sweet Potato and Cassava Starches
by Giselle de Lima Paixão e Silva, Juliana Aparecida Correia Bento, Manoel Soares Soares Júnior and Márcio Caliari
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 354-372; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020023 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) are part of the largest food crops in many countries. They have good nutritional value because, in addition to containing vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and anthocyanins in varied contents, due to the [...] Read more.
Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) are part of the largest food crops in many countries. They have good nutritional value because, in addition to containing vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and anthocyanins in varied contents, due to the existence of various colors of their pulps, they have starch as their major constituent. As such, they are considered valuable raw materials for the food factory. The starch granules have distinct morphologies and properties, related to the type of cultivar, planting conditions, storage, and processing, which in turn can affect the quality of the final products to which they have been added. The use of native starches in the food industry has limitations, which can be improved by modifications. Physical methods, as they are associated with green technology, and do not pollute the environment, have demonstrated great potential for this purpose. Both modifications—by autoclave at low pressure and natural fermentation—have shown potential in modifying these starches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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15 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan from Two Commonly Reared Edible Cricket Species, and Its Application as a Hypolipidemic and Antimicrobial Agent
by Morgan Malm and Andrea M. Liceaga
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 339-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020022 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3347
Abstract
Insect-derived chitin and chitosan have gained interest as alternative sources to that derived from crustaceans; however, little information is available on chitin from the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) and tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), two cricket species commonly reared in [...] Read more.
Insect-derived chitin and chitosan have gained interest as alternative sources to that derived from crustaceans; however, little information is available on chitin from the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) and tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), two cricket species commonly reared in the United States for human consumption. In this study, chitin was successfully isolated and purified from these two cricket species; using FTIR, chitins were found to be in alpha-crystalline form. Cricket chitosan was produced from both species with varying degrees of deacetylation (DDA) by varying alkaline conversion duration. G. sigillatus chitosan was larger (524 kDa) than A. domesticus chitosan (344 kDa). Both cricket chitosans showed similar (p > 0.05) lipid-binding capacity to that of shrimp chitosan. Both chitosans were as effective at inhibiting microbial growth of surrogate foodborne pathogens as the commercial shrimp chitosan. At a concentration of 0.50 mg/mL cricket chitosan, approximately 100% of Listeria innocua growth was inhibited, due to a contribution of both chitosan and the solvent-acetic acid. At the same concentration, growth of Escherichia coli was inhibited 90% by both cricket chitosan samples with ~80% DDA, where a decrease in the DDA led to decreased antimicrobial activity. However, varying the DDA had no effect on chitosan’s lipid-binding capacity. As more edible insects become a normalized protein source in our diet, the use of by-products, such as chitin and chitosan, derived from insect protein processing, show promising applications for the pharmaceutical and food industries. Full article
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28 pages, 2113 KiB  
Review
From Exosome Glycobiology to Exosome Glycotechnology, the Role of Natural Occurring Polysaccharides
by Giulia Della Rosa, Clarissa Ruggeri and Alessandra Aloisi
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 311-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020021 - 7 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4123
Abstract
Exosomes (EXOs) are nano-sized informative shuttles acting as endogenous mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Their innate ability to target specific cells and deliver functional cargo is recently claimed as a promising theranostic strategy. The glycan profile, actively involved in the EXO biogenesis, release, sorting [...] Read more.
Exosomes (EXOs) are nano-sized informative shuttles acting as endogenous mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Their innate ability to target specific cells and deliver functional cargo is recently claimed as a promising theranostic strategy. The glycan profile, actively involved in the EXO biogenesis, release, sorting and function, is highly cell type-specific and frequently altered in pathological conditions. Therefore, the modulation of EXO glyco-composition has recently been considered an attractive tool in the design of novel therapeutics. In addition to the available approaches involving conventional glyco-engineering, soft technology is becoming more and more attractive for better exploiting EXO glycan tasks and optimizing EXO delivery platforms. This review, first, explores the main functions of EXO glycans and associates the potential implications of the reported new findings across the nanomedicine applications. The state-of-the-art of the last decade concerning the role of natural polysaccharides—as targeting molecules and in 3D soft structure manufacture matrices—is then analysed and highlighted, as an advancing EXO biofunction toolkit. The promising results, integrating the biopolymers area to the EXO-based bio-nanofabrication and bio-nanotechnology field, lay the foundation for further investigation and offer a new perspective in drug delivery and personalized medicine progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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24 pages, 2030 KiB  
Review
Strategies towards Reduction of Cellulases Consumption: Debottlenecking the Economics of Lignocellulosics Valorization Processes
by Daniel Gomes, Joana Cunha, Elisa Zanuso, José Teixeira and Lucília Domingues
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 287-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020020 - 2 May 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
Lignocellulosic residues have been receiving growing interest as a promising source of polysaccharides, which can be converted into a variety of compounds, ranging from biofuels to bioplastics. Most of these can replace equivalent products traditionally originated from petroleum, hence representing an important environmental [...] Read more.
Lignocellulosic residues have been receiving growing interest as a promising source of polysaccharides, which can be converted into a variety of compounds, ranging from biofuels to bioplastics. Most of these can replace equivalent products traditionally originated from petroleum, hence representing an important environmental advantage. Lignocellulosic materials are theoretically unlimited, cheaper and may not compete with food crops. However, the conversion of these materials to simpler sugars usually requires cellulolytic enzymes. Being still associated with a high cost of production, cellulases are commonly considered as one of the main obstacles in the economic valorization of lignocellulosics. This work provides a brief overview of some of the most studied strategies that can allow an important reduction of cellulases consumption, hence improving the economy of lignocellulosics conversion. Cellulases recycling is initially discussed regarding the main processes to recover active enzymes and the most important factors that may affect enzyme recyclability. Similarly, the potential of enzyme immobilization is analyzed with a special focus on the contributions that some elements of the process can offer for prolonged times of operation and improved enzyme stability and robustness. Finally, the emergent concept of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is also described in the particular context of a potential reduction of cellulases consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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16 pages, 5894 KiB  
Article
Conversion of Electrospun Chitosan into Chitin: A Robust Strategy to Tune the Properties of 2D Biomimetic Nanofiber Scaffolds
by Natalia Toncheva-Moncheva, Abdelhafid Aqil, Moreno Galleni and Christine Jérôme
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 271-286; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020019 - 2 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2564
Abstract
New biomimetic micro- and nano-CsU-based fibrous scaffolds electrospun from solution containing high purity-medical grade chitosan (CsU) of fungus origin (CsU1, Mv ~174,000 and CsU2, 205,000, degree of deacetylation (DDA) ~65%) and polyethylene oxide (PEO, Mv ~ 900,000), in the presence of given amounts [...] Read more.
New biomimetic micro- and nano-CsU-based fibrous scaffolds electrospun from solution containing high purity-medical grade chitosan (CsU) of fungus origin (CsU1, Mv ~174,000 and CsU2, 205,000, degree of deacetylation (DDA) ~65%) and polyethylene oxide (PEO, Mv ~ 900,000), in the presence of given amounts of Triton X-100 (from 0.01 to 0.5 wt%) as surfactant were fabricated. We demonstrate that by carefully selecting compositions and surfactant levels, porous mats with CsU content up to 90% (at this molecular weight and DDA) were achieved. Remarkable long-term stability in water or phosphate buffer solution storage were obtained by developing post-electrospinning treatment allowing the complete elimination of the PEO from the CsU-fibers as demonstrated by TGA, DSC and ESEM analysis. Subsequent reacetylation procedure was applied to convert 2D biomimetic chitosan mats to chitin (CsE)-based ones while preserving the nanofiber structure. This innovative procedure allows tuning and modifying the thermal, mechanical properties and more importantly the biodegradation abilities (fast enzymatic biodegradation in some cases and slower on the others) of the prepared nanofibrous mats. The established reproducible method offers the unique advantage to modulate the membrane properties leading to stable 2D biomimetic CsU and/or chitin (CsE) scaffolds tailor-made for specific purposes in the field of tissue engineering. Full article
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14 pages, 4447 KiB  
Review
A Review of Cellulose Coarse-Grained Models and Their Applications
by Aleksandar Y. Mehandzhiyski and Igor Zozoulenko
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 257-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020018 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3932
Abstract
Cellulose is the most common biopolymer and widely used in our daily life. Due to its unique properties and biodegradability, it has been attracting increased attention in the recent years and various new applications of cellulose and its derivatives are constantly being found. [...] Read more.
Cellulose is the most common biopolymer and widely used in our daily life. Due to its unique properties and biodegradability, it has been attracting increased attention in the recent years and various new applications of cellulose and its derivatives are constantly being found. The development of new materials with improved properties, however, is not always an easy task, and theoretical models and computer simulations can often help in this process. In this review, we give an overview of different coarse-grained models of cellulose and their applications to various systems. Various coarse-grained models with different mapping schemes are presented, which can efficiently simulate systems from the single cellulose fibril/crystal to the assembly of many fibrils/crystals. We also discuss relevant applications of these models with a focus on the mechanical properties, self-assembly, chiral nematic phases, conversion between cellulose allomorphs, composite materials and interactions with other molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Current Opinion in Polysaccharides)
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12 pages, 19990 KiB  
Article
Sequential Oxidation on Wood and Its Application in Pb2+ Removal from Contaminated Water
by Priyanka R. Sharma, Sunil K. Sharma, Marc Nolan, Wenqi Li, Lakshta Kundal and Benjamin S. Hsiao
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 245-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020017 - 7 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3156
Abstract
Raw wood was subjected to sequential oxidation to produce 2,3,6-tricarboxycellulose (TCC) nanofibers with a high surficial charge of 1.14 mmol/g in the form of carboxylate groups. Three oxidation steps, including nitro-oxidation, periodate, and sodium chlorite oxidation, were successfully applied to generate TCC nanofibers [...] Read more.
Raw wood was subjected to sequential oxidation to produce 2,3,6-tricarboxycellulose (TCC) nanofibers with a high surficial charge of 1.14 mmol/g in the form of carboxylate groups. Three oxidation steps, including nitro-oxidation, periodate, and sodium chlorite oxidation, were successfully applied to generate TCC nanofibers from raw wood. The morphology of extracted TCC nanofibers measured using TEM and AFM indicated the average length, width, and thickness were in the range of 750 ± 110, 4.5 ± 1.8, and 1.23 nm, respectively. Due to high negative surficial charges on TCC, it was studied for its absorption capabilities against Pb2+ ions. The remediation results indicated that a low concentration of TCC nanofibers (0.02 wt%) was able to remove a wide range of Pb2+ ion impurities from 5–250 ppm with an efficiency between 709–99%, whereby the maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) was 1569 mg/g with R2 0.69531 calculated from Langmuir fitting. It was observed that the high adsorption capacity of TCC nanofibers was due to the collective effect of adsorption and precipitation confirmed by the FTIR and SEM/EDS analysis. The high carboxylate content and fiber morphology of TCC has enabled it as an excellent substrate to remove Pb2+ ions impurities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Nano)cellulose: Extraction, Characterizations, Application)
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11 pages, 680 KiB  
Review
Synthesis of the Microbial Polysaccharide Gellan from Dairy and Plant-Based Processing Coproducts
by Thomas P. West
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 234-244; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020016 - 6 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3149
Abstract
This review examines the production of the microbial polysaccharide gellan, synthesized by Sphingomonas elodea, on dairy and plant-based processing coproducts. Gellan is a water-soluble gum that structurally exists as a tetrasaccharide comprised of 20% glucuronic acid, 60% glucose and 20% rhamnose, for [...] Read more.
This review examines the production of the microbial polysaccharide gellan, synthesized by Sphingomonas elodea, on dairy and plant-based processing coproducts. Gellan is a water-soluble gum that structurally exists as a tetrasaccharide comprised of 20% glucuronic acid, 60% glucose and 20% rhamnose, for which various food, non-food and biomedical applications have been reported. A number of carbon and nitrogen sources have been tested to determine whether they can support bacterial gellan production, with several studies attempting to optimize gellan production by varying the culture conditions. The genetics of the biosynthesis of gellan has been explored in a number of investigations and specific genes have been identified that encode the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of this polysaccharide. Genetic mutants exhibiting overproduction of gellan have also been identified and characterized. Several dairy and plant-based processing coproducts have been screened to learn whether they can support the production of gellan in an attempt to lower the cost of synthesizing the microbial polysaccharide. Of the processing coproducts explored, soluble starch as a carbon source supported the highest gellan production by S. elodea grown at 30 °C. The corn processing coproducts corn steep liquor or condensed distillers solubles appear to be effective nitrogen sources for gellan production. It was concluded that further research on producing gellan using a combination of processing coproducts could be an effective solution in lowering its overall production costs. Full article
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16 pages, 3607 KiB  
Article
Surface Modification of Cellulose from Oat Hull with Citric Acid Using Ultrasonication and Reactive Extrusion Assisted Processes
by Gina Alejandra Gil Giraldo, Janaina Mantovan, Beatriz M. Marim, João Otávio F. Kishima and Suzana Mali
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 218-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020015 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
This study aimed to produce modified cellulose extracted from oat hulls by an esterification reaction with citric acid (CA) employing ultrasonication and reactive extrusion assisted processes. Modified samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (DRX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), [...] Read more.
This study aimed to produce modified cellulose extracted from oat hulls by an esterification reaction with citric acid (CA) employing ultrasonication and reactive extrusion assisted processes. Modified samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (DRX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wettability, oil and water absorption capacities, water adsorption capacity, and thermal stability. From FTIR results it can be observed a new band for all modified samples at 1735 cm−1, confirming the esterification. The morphology and crystallinity pattern of fibers were not affected by esterification, and crystallinity indexes ranged from 43% (unmodified cellulose) to 44–49% in modified samples. Both groups of samples, obtained by ultrasonication and reactive extrusion, showed decreases in water absorption capacities (1.63–1.71 g/g) compared to unmodified cellulose (9.38 g/g). It was observed an increase in oil retention capacity from 1.80 g/g (unmodified cellulose) to 4.57–7.31 g/g after esterification, and also the modified samples presented higher affinity by a non-polar solvent in the wettability test. The new properties of modified cellulose expand its use in the industry and prove that ultrasonication and reactive extrusion can be used to obtain esterified cellulose, being eco-friendly, simple, and convenient processes with short reaction times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Nano)cellulose: Extraction, Characterizations, Application)
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16 pages, 4128 KiB  
Article
Immunomodulatory and Antiviral Effects of Macroalgae Sulphated Polysaccharides: Case Studies Extend Knowledge on Their Importance in Enhancing Shellfish Health, and the Control of a Global Viral Pathogen Ostreid Herpesvirus-1 microVar
by Sharon A. Lynch, Rachel Breslin, Babette Bookelaar, Tawut Rudtanatip, Kanokpan Wongprasert and Sarah C. Culloty
Polysaccharides 2021, 2(2), 202-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides2020014 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
Macroalgae are the primary source of non-animal sulphated polysaccharides (SPs) in the marine environment with fucoidans derived from brown algae (Phaeophyta) and carrageenans from red algae (Rhodophyta). Much research has been carried out on SP effects on Asian shrimp species (genera Penaeus and [...] Read more.
Macroalgae are the primary source of non-animal sulphated polysaccharides (SPs) in the marine environment with fucoidans derived from brown algae (Phaeophyta) and carrageenans from red algae (Rhodophyta). Much research has been carried out on SP effects on Asian shrimp species (genera Penaeus and Metapenaeus) but their effect on commercially important bivalve mollusc species is limited and in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is unknown. Knowledge of their impact on bivalve pathogens and Palaemon shrimp is unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyta), Mastocarpus stellatus (Rhodophyta) and algal derivatives (fucoidan and κ-carrageenan) on C. gigas performance, and on ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvar (OsHV-1 μVar) and bacteria Vibrio spp. development. Both pathogens have been associated with significant oyster mortalities and economic losses globally. The effects of sulphated galactan from Gracilaria fisheri (Rhodophyta) on European common prawn Palaemon serratus, an important fishery species, was also assessed. Findings indicate a rapid and prolonged increase in total blood cell count, lysozyme (enzyme that destroys pathogens), and a difference in the ratio of blood cell types in treated individuals compared to their control counterparts. A significantly lower OsHV-1 μVar prevalence was observed in treated oysters and κ-carrageenan was found to suppress viral replication (loads), while OsHV-1 μVar was not detected in the fucoidan treated oysters from Day 8 of the 26-day trial. No antibacterial effect was observed however, the oysters did not succumb to vibriosis. These findings contribute further knowledge to macroalgae sulphated polysaccharide biotherapeutic properties, their twofold effect on animal health and viral suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Polysaccharides)
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