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CivilEng, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 7 articles

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Article
Incident Analysis and Prediction of Safety Performance on Construction Sites
CivilEng 2022, 3(3), 669-686; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3030039 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The hazardous nature of the construction environment and current incident statistics indicate a pressing need for safety performance improvement. One potential approach is the strategic analysis of leading indicators for measuring safety performance as opposed to using only lagging indicators, which has protractedly [...] Read more.
The hazardous nature of the construction environment and current incident statistics indicate a pressing need for safety performance improvement. One potential approach is the strategic analysis of leading indicators for measuring safety performance as opposed to using only lagging indicators, which has protractedly been the norm. This study presents a systematic safety performance measurement framework and statistical modeling processes for analyzing safety incident data for accident prediction and prevention on construction sites. Using safety incident data obtained from a construction corporation that implements proactive safety management programs, statistical modeling processes are utilized to identify variables with high correlations of events and incidents that pose dangers to the safety and health of workers on construction sites. The findings of the study generated insights into the different types and impacts of incident causal factors and precursors on injuries and accidents on construction sites. One of the key contributions of this study is the promotion of proactive methods for improving safety performance on construction sites. The framework and statistical models developed in this study can be used to collect and analyze safety data to provide trends in safety performance, set improvement targets, and provide continuous feedback to enhance safety performance on construction sites. Full article
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Article
Assessment of an Axially Loaded Self-Sensing Concrete Element with Recycled Steel Residuals
CivilEng 2022, 3(3), 643-668; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3030038 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 275
Abstract
This paper describes the fundamental evaluation of a self-sensing concrete column using recycled steel residuals (RSR) as functional fill and the testing of the column under slow-rate cyclic loading. The RSR modified concrete has the advantage of sustainably using the otherwise waste material [...] Read more.
This paper describes the fundamental evaluation of a self-sensing concrete column using recycled steel residuals (RSR) as functional fill and the testing of the column under slow-rate cyclic loading. The RSR modified concrete has the advantage of sustainably using the otherwise waste material from steel fabrication process. Two columns (one without and one with 2% of RSR by volume) were fabricated in the lab and load-tested in cyclic axial compression. The columns are connected to an alternating current power source and have three electrode sets each for electric property measurements. The results indicate that the 2% specimen can accurately detect the loading and unloading processes using electric-based measurements to calculate resistivity. Based on the test results, empirical linear equations are derived to correlate the mechanical and electrical behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete in Structural Engineering for Sustainability)
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Article
The Effect of Stress Level on the Resilient Modulus of Non-Engineered Mudrock Backfill Materials
CivilEng 2022, 3(3), 630-642; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3030037 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
In the UK, High Speed Rail 2, (London to the ‘North’) is surrounded by a number of questions regarding construction technologies which can minimise the impact of the route. The rail industry in the UK has vast experience based with ballasted track, but [...] Read more.
In the UK, High Speed Rail 2, (London to the ‘North’) is surrounded by a number of questions regarding construction technologies which can minimise the impact of the route. The rail industry in the UK has vast experience based with ballasted track, but this is not necessarily the most appropriate choice for new high speed rail construction when crossing problematic soils. This paper aims to investigate the use of different track types (ballasted and ballastless) and the influence they will have on the underlying soil in areas predominated by non-engineered mudrock backfills, relics of the UK’s mining heritage. Mudrocks are a class of fine-grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Structural performance of the railway track strongly depends on the level of stress that is transmitted to the ground and this must be reduced to an acceptable level to minimise deterioration in the mudrock if they are to be utilised effectively. The main objective for this paper is to investigate the impact of the initial stress conditions and dynamic stress on the permanent deformation of mudrock under different physical conditions. Triaxial testing is used to estimate the stiffness characteristics of the mudrock. The results show that the resilient modulus increases with a decrease in the stress amplitude. In addition, ballasted track shows a higher suitability for use in design in terms of the stiffness generated within the mudrock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Cross-Laminated Timber: A Survey on Design Methods and Concepts in Practice
CivilEng 2022, 3(3), 610-629; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3030036 - 06 Jul 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular in timber construction due to its versatility. However, its structural anistropy requires the application of particular concepts and design methods. The article on hand presents the results of a worldwide survey conducted among engineers working [...] Read more.
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular in timber construction due to its versatility. However, its structural anistropy requires the application of particular concepts and design methods. The article on hand presents the results of a worldwide survey conducted among engineers working with this product. Thus, it presents the current state of knowledge and practice on CLT construction: an overview of the experience of engineers working with CLT design, the commonly used verification methods, and the implementation of the material properties and different required assumptions in the software. An outlook to design problems in complex design situations relevant for multi-storey buildings and potential research fields is indicated additionally. The general picture is quite heterogeneous, with little consensus on the assumptions, design methods or applied tools. A wide repertoire of different approaches based on a large range of literature is found in practice. This is in part the result of the current lack of standardisation and currently incomplete regulations. Future efforts should focus on these two aspects to increase the applicability of CLT globally and strengthen its competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
WMA Overlay Optimization Based on the LTPP Database: Using the RSM Method
CivilEng 2022, 3(3), 594-609; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3030035 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
This study investigates the field performance of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) road overlays containing various amounts of RAP and binder. Rutting, the International Roughness Index (IRI), and transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking are the key parameters considered here. Our research is based on [...] Read more.
This study investigates the field performance of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) road overlays containing various amounts of RAP and binder. Rutting, the International Roughness Index (IRI), and transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking are the key parameters considered here. Our research is based on a Specific Pavement Study-10 experiment (SPS-10) conducted in nine states of North America (eight in the USA and one in Canada) that included 31 road sections in dry and wet regions. Road overlays were evaluated 1 and 4 years after their placement in terms of anti-cracking behavior and were compared with the pre-treatment status of the road. The best rutting resistance occurred at 15% and 12% RAP in dry and wet regions, respectively. For IRI, 30% and 0.0% RAP were the best for dry and wet regions as well. The maximum longitudinal crack recovery rates were found at site 3 (BA01, Arizona; dry region) and site 26 (AA65, Missouri; wet region), with RAP contents of 20% and 36%, respectively. In addition, alligator cracking did not occur post-overlay, so optimal RAP and binder contents cannot be suggested. The greatest improvements were found at site 15 (AA01, Washington state; dry) and site 30 (AA63, Oklahoma; wet). The response surface method (RSM) was also developed to explore the optimal models for RAP and selection of binder contents to minimize the rutting, IRI, and transverse and longitudinal crack lengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Dynamic Soil–Structure Interaction Effects in Buildings Founded on Vertical Reinforcement Elements
CivilEng 2022, 3(3), 573-593; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3030034 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Pile foundation is an effective technique to support buildings in the presence of soft soil and seismic areas. More recently, the rigid inclusions system has also been utilized for founding buildings. Both systems increase the bearing capacity of the soil and allow reducing [...] Read more.
Pile foundation is an effective technique to support buildings in the presence of soft soil and seismic areas. More recently, the rigid inclusions system has also been utilized for founding buildings. Both systems increase the bearing capacity of the soil and allow reducing the total and differential settlements in the structure. However, the study of these systems in a complete and accurate way implies the consideration of the soil–structure interaction (SSI). In order to investigate the impact of different pile toe conditions (including the placement on hard soil, an anchorage and floating piles) in the response of mid-rise buildings, numerical models with a 5-storey frame building founded on the inclusions system (soil–inclusion–platform–structure) are analyzed and compared with the pile system (soil–pile–structure). Fully coupled finite difference numerical models were developed using Flac 3D. The influence of the dynamic characteristics of the structure was considered analyzing buildings with different heights (3 storeys to 7 storeys). The linear elastic perfectly plastic model with a Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is used to represent the behavior of the soil. Values of the maximum lateral displacements, of the inter-storey drifts and of the shear forces distribution in the buildings, as well as the rocking of the foundation, are presented. Concerning the foundations, efforts and displacements are compared for the different systems. The results show that the type of support condition influences the seismic response of the building and the efforts and displacements in the rigid elements, depending on the foundation system. The efforts at the toe level in the rigid elements are highly influenced by the support conditions, but there is only a slight influence from the head connection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geotechnical, Geological and Environmental Engineering)
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Article
Utilizing Polypropylene Fiber in Sustainable Structural Concrete Mixtures
CivilEng 2022, 3(3), 562-572; https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3030033 - 25 Jun 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC) is becoming more popular for structural purposes due to its durability, electrical resistivity, and mechanical properties. In this study, the influence of polypropylene fiber on the mechanical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) [...] Read more.
Polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC) is becoming more popular for structural purposes due to its durability, electrical resistivity, and mechanical properties. In this study, the influence of polypropylene fiber on the mechanical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) were determined. Six different fiber volume fractions of polypropylene were considered in the experimental investigation with varying water–cement ratios and curing conditions. Non-destructive testing methods were utilized to determine the UPV of the PFRC. Available equations in literature for predicting the RFC’s compressive strength based on UPV values were selected. However, the computed values did not show good agreement with the compressive strengths obtained from the compression testing machine. It was confirmed that polypropylene fibers alter the propagation of UPV, and as a result, the existing equations do not accurately predict the compressive strength for PFRC. Therefore, a practical equation is proposed to accurately evaluate the compressive strength of PFRC with regard to UPV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connections in Concrete Volume 2)
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