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Quantum Rep., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 9 articles

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Article
Casimir Effect between Superconducting Plates in the Mixed State
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 731-745; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040046 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 195
Abstract
The Casimir effect between type-II superconducting plates in the coexisting phase of a superconducting phase and a normal phase is investigated. The dependence of the optical conductivity of the superconducting plates on the external magnetic field is described in terms of the penetration [...] Read more.
The Casimir effect between type-II superconducting plates in the coexisting phase of a superconducting phase and a normal phase is investigated. The dependence of the optical conductivity of the superconducting plates on the external magnetic field is described in terms of the penetration depth of the incident electromagnetic field, and the permittivity along the imaginary axis is represented by a linear combination of the permittivities for the plasma model and Drude models. The characteristic frequency in each model is determined using the force parameters for the motion of the magnetic field vortices. The Casimir force between parallel YBCO plates in the mixed state is calculated, and the dependence on the applied magnetic field and temperature is considered. Full article
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Article
Microscopic Dynamic Mechanism of Irreversible Thermodynamic Equilibration of Crystals
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 724-730; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040045 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
The dynamics of free and forced vibrations of a chain of particles are investigated in a harmonic model taking into account the retardation of interactions between atoms. It is found that the retardation of interactions between particles leads to the non-existence of stationary [...] Read more.
The dynamics of free and forced vibrations of a chain of particles are investigated in a harmonic model taking into account the retardation of interactions between atoms. It is found that the retardation of interactions between particles leads to the non-existence of stationary free vibrations of the crystal lattice. It is shown that in the case of a stable lattice, forced vibrations, regardless of the initial conditions, pass into a stationary regime. A non-statistical dynamic mechanism of the irreversible thermodynamic equilibration is proposed. Full article
Article
Quantum Uncertainty and Energy Flux in Extended Electrodynamics
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 703-723; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040044 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
In quantum theory, for a system with macroscopic wavefunction, the charge density and current density are represented by non-commuting operators. It follows that the anomaly I=tρ+·j, being essentially a linear combination of these two [...] Read more.
In quantum theory, for a system with macroscopic wavefunction, the charge density and current density are represented by non-commuting operators. It follows that the anomaly I=tρ+·j, being essentially a linear combination of these two operators in the frequency-momentum domain, does not admit eigenstates and has a minimum uncertainty fixed by the Heisenberg relation ΔNΔϕ1, which involves the occupation number and the phase of the wavefunction. We give an estimate of the minimum uncertainty in the case of a tunnel Josephson junction made of Nb. Due to this violation of the local conservation of charge, for the evaluation of the e.m. field generated by the system it is necessary to use the extended Aharonov–Bohm electrodynamics. After recalling its field equations, we compute in general form the energy–momentum tensor and the radiation power flux generated by a localized oscillating source. The physical requirements that the total flux be positive, negative or zero yield some conditions on the dipole moment of the anomaly I. Full article
Article
Instability of Meissner Differential Equation and Its Relation with Photon Excitations and Entanglement in a System of Coupled Quantum Oscillators
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 684-702; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040043 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 680
Abstract
In this work, we investigate the Schrödinger dynamics of photon excitation numbers and entanglement in a system composed by two non-resonant time-dependent coupled oscillators. By considering π periodically pumped parameters (oscillator frequencies and coupling) and using suitable transformations, we show that the quantum [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate the Schrödinger dynamics of photon excitation numbers and entanglement in a system composed by two non-resonant time-dependent coupled oscillators. By considering π periodically pumped parameters (oscillator frequencies and coupling) and using suitable transformations, we show that the quantum dynamics can be determined by two classical Meissner oscillators. We then study analytically the stability of these differential equations and the dynamics of photon excitations and entanglement in the quantum system numerically. Our analysis shows two interesting results, which can be summarized as follows: (i) Classical instability of classical analog of quantum oscillators and photon excitation numbers (expectations Nj) are strongly correlated, and (ii) photon excitations and entanglement are connected to each other. These results can be used to shed light on the link between quantum systems and their classical counterparts and provide a nice complement to the existing works studying the dynamics of coupled quantum oscillators. Full article
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Article
From Geometry to Coherent Dissipative Dynamics in Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 664-683; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040042 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Starting from the geometric description of quantum systems, we propose a novel approach to time-independent dissipative quantum processes according to which energy is dissipated but the coherence of the states is preserved. Our proposal consists of extending the standard symplectic picture of quantum [...] Read more.
Starting from the geometric description of quantum systems, we propose a novel approach to time-independent dissipative quantum processes according to which energy is dissipated but the coherence of the states is preserved. Our proposal consists of extending the standard symplectic picture of quantum mechanics to a contact manifold and then obtaining dissipation by using appropriate contact Hamiltonian dynamics. We work out the case of finite-level systems for which it is shown, by means of the corresponding contact master equation, that the resulting dynamics constitute a viable alternative candidate for the description of this subclass of dissipative quantum systems. As a concrete application, motivated by recent experimental observations, we describe quantum decays in a 2-level system as coherent and continuous processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relevance of Information Geometry in Quantum Information Science)
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Article
Socio-Economic Sciences: Beyond Quantum Math-like Formalisms
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 656-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040041 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Since the beginning of the 21st century, a new interdisciplinary research movement has started, which aims at developing quantum math-like (or simply quantum-like) models to provide an explanation for a variety of socio-economic processes and human behaviour. By making use of [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, a new interdisciplinary research movement has started, which aims at developing quantum math-like (or simply quantum-like) models to provide an explanation for a variety of socio-economic processes and human behaviour. By making use of mainly the probabilistic aspects of quantum theory, this research movement has led to many important results in the areas of decision-making and finance. In this article, we introduce a novel and more exhaustive approach, to analyze the socio-economic processes and activities, than the pure quantum math-like modelling approach, by taking into account the physical foundations of quantum theory. We also provide a plausibility argument for its exhaustiveness in terms of what we can expect from such an approach, when it is applied to, for example, a generic socio-economic decision process. Full article
Article
An Application of Quantum Logic to Experimental Behavioral Science
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 643-655; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040040 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 314
Abstract
In 1933, Kolmogorov synthesized the basic concepts of probability that were in general use at the time into concepts and deductions from a simple set of axioms that said probability was a σ-additive function from a boolean algebra of events into [0, [...] Read more.
In 1933, Kolmogorov synthesized the basic concepts of probability that were in general use at the time into concepts and deductions from a simple set of axioms that said probability was a σ-additive function from a boolean algebra of events into [0, 1]. In 1932, von Neumann realized that the use of probability in quantum mechanics required a different concept that he formulated as a σ-additive function from the closed subspaces of a Hilbert space onto [0,1]. In 1935, Birkhoff & von Neumann replaced Hilbert space with an algebraic generalization. Today, a slight modification of the Birkhoff-von Neumann generalization is called “quantum logic”. A central problem in the philosophy of probability is the justification of the definition of probability used in a given application. This is usually done by arguing for the rationality of that approach to the situation under consideration. A version of the Dutch book argument given by de Finetti in 1972 is often used to justify the Kolmogorov theory, especially in scientific applications. As von Neumann in 1955 noted, and his criticisms still hold, there is no acceptable foundation for quantum logic. While it is not argued here that a rational approach has been carried out for quantum physics, it is argued that (1) for many important situations found in behavioral science that quantum probability theory is a reasonable choice, and (2) that it has an arguably rational foundation to certain areas of behavioral science, for example, the behavioral paradigm of Between Subjects experiments. Full article
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Review
Chip-Scale Quantum Emitters
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 615-642; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040039 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Integration of chip-scale quantum technology was the main aim of this study. First, the recent progress on silicon-based photonic integrated circuits is surveyed, and then it is shown that silicon integrated quantum photonics can be considered a compelling platform for the future of [...] Read more.
Integration of chip-scale quantum technology was the main aim of this study. First, the recent progress on silicon-based photonic integrated circuits is surveyed, and then it is shown that silicon integrated quantum photonics can be considered a compelling platform for the future of quantum technologies. Among subsections of quantum technology, quantum emitters were selected as the object, and different quantum emitters such as quantum dots, 2D materials, and carbon nanotubes are introduced. Later on, the most recent progress is highlighted to provide an extensive overview of the development of chip-scale quantum emitters. It seems that the next step towards the practical application of quantum emitters is to generate position-controlled quantum light sources. Among developed processes, it can be recognized that droplet–epitaxial QD growth has a promising future for the preparation of chip-scale quantum emitters. Full article
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Article
Contextuality in Neurobehavioural and Collective Intelligence Systems
Quantum Rep. 2021, 3(4), 592-614; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum3040038 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Contextuality is often described as a unique feature of the quantum realm, which distinguishes it fundamentally from the classical realm. This is not strictly true, and stems from decades of the misapplication of Kolmogorov probability. Contextuality appears in Kolmogorov theory (observed in the [...] Read more.
Contextuality is often described as a unique feature of the quantum realm, which distinguishes it fundamentally from the classical realm. This is not strictly true, and stems from decades of the misapplication of Kolmogorov probability. Contextuality appears in Kolmogorov theory (observed in the inability to form joint distributions) and in non-Kolmogorov theory (observed in the violation of inequalities of correlations). Both forms of contextuality have been observed in psychological experiments, although the first form has been known for decades but mostly ignored. The complex dynamics of neural systems (neurobehavioural regulatory systems) and of collective intelligence systems (social insect colonies) are described. These systems are contextual in the first sense and possibly in the second as well. Process algebra, based on the Process Theory of Whitehead, describes systems that are generated, transient, open, interactive, and primarily information-driven, and seems ideally suited to modeling these systems. It is argued that these dynamical characteristics give rise to contextuality and non-Kolmogorov probability in spite of these being entirely classical systems. Full article
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