Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6040034

Authors: Colton Mikes David Huckleberry Gutman Victoria E. Howle

While the development of quantum computers promises a myriad of advantages over their classical counterparts, care must be taken when designing algorithms that substitute a classical technique with a potentially advantageous quantum method. The probabilistic nature of many quantum algorithms may result in new behavior that could negatively impact the performance of the larger algorithm. The purpose of this work is to preserve the advantages of applying quantum search methods for generalized pattern search algorithms (GPSs) without violating the convergence criteria. It is well known that quantum search methods are able to reduce the expected number of oracle calls needed for finding the solution to a search problem from O(N) to O(N) However, the number of oracle calls needed to determine that no solution exists with certainty is exceedingly high and potentially infinite. In the case of GPS, this is a significant problem since overlooking a solution during an iteration will violate a needed assumption for convergence. Here, we overcome this problem by introducing the quantum improved point search (QIPS), a classical&ndash;quantum hybrid variant of the quantum search algorithm QSearch. QIPS retains the O(N) oracle query complexity of QSearch when a solution exists. However, it is able to determine when no solution exists, with certainty, using only O(N) oracle calls.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030033

Authors: Andrei T. Patrascu

In this article, I start with a general presentation of the ideas behind sigma models and higher gauge theories and introduce the possibility of a higher entanglement structure. Using a higher categorial interpretation of entanglement involving gauge theories and &sigma;-models instead of qubits, one recovers T-duality as a form of ancilla aided entanglement generation. This opens the way towards new dualities in gauge theories and &sigma;-models produced by means of analogies with quantum circuits of various types.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030032

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

Recent developments in the quantization of general relativity theory provide a new perspective on matter and even the whole universe. Already, in 1922, Eddington suggested that a future quantum gravity theory had to be linked to Planck length. This is today the main view among many working with quantum gravity. Recently, it has been demonstrated how Planck length, the Planck time, can be extracted from gravity observations with no knowledge of G, &#8463;, or even c. Rooted in this, both general relativity theory and multiple other gravity theories can be quantized and linked to the Planck scale. A revelation from this is that matter seems to be ticking at the reduced Compton frequency, where each tick can be seen as one bit, and one bit corresponds to a Planck mass event. This new speculative way of looking at gravity can also potentially tell us considerably about what quantum gravity computers are and what they potentially can do. We will conjecture that that all quantum gravity and quantum gravity computers are directly linked to the Planck scale and the Compton frequency in matter, something we will discuss in this paper. Quantum gravity computers, we will see, in many ways, are nature&rsquo;s own designed computers with enormous capacity to 3D &ldquo;print&rdquo; real time. So, somewhat speculatively, we suggest we live inside a gigantic quantum gravity computer known as the Hubble sphere, and we even are quantum gravity computers. The observable universe is based on this model, basically a quantum gravity computer that calculates approximately 10104 bits per second (bps).

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030031

Authors: Dustin Lazarovici

This paper examines no-hidden-variables theorems in quantum mechanics from the point of view of statistical mechanics. It presents a general analysis of the measurement process in the Boltzmannian framework that leads to a characterization of (in)compatible measurements and reproduces several features of quantum probabilities often described as &ldquo;non-classical&rdquo;. The analysis is applied to versions of the Kochen&ndash;Specker and Bell theorems to shed more light on their implications. It is shown how, once the measurement device and the active role of the measurement process are taken into account, contextuality appears as a natural feature of random variables. This corroborates Bell&rsquo;s criticism that no-go results of the Kochen&ndash;Specker type are based on gratuitous assumptions. In contrast, Bell-type theorems are much more profound, but should be understood as nonlocality theorems rather than no-hidden-variables theorems. Finally, the paper addresses misunderstandings and misleading terminology that have confused the debate about hidden variables in quantum mechanics.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030030

Authors: Manpreet Singh Jattana

Quantum annealers conventionally use forward annealing to generate heuristic solutions. Reverse annealing can potentially generate better solutions but necessitates an appropriate initial state. Ways to find such states are generally unknown or highly problem dependent, offer limited success, and severely restrict the scope of reverse annealing. We use a general method that improves the overall solution quality and quantity by feeding reverse annealing with low-quality solutions obtained from forward annealing. An experimental demonstration of solving the graph coloring problem using the D-Wave quantum annealers shows that our method is able to convert invalid solutions obtained from forward annealing to at least one valid solution obtained after assisted reverse annealing for 57% of 459 random Erdos&ndash;R&eacute;nyi graphs. Our method significantly outperforms random initial states, obtains more unique solutions on average, and widens the applicability of reverse annealing. Although the average number of valid solutions obtained drops exponentially with the problem size, a scaling analysis for the graph coloring problem shows that our method effectively extends the computational reach of conventional forward annealing using reverse annealing.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030029

Authors: Ilya Gerasin Nikita Zhadnov Konstantin Kudeyarov Ksienia Khabarova Nikolay Kolachevsky Ilya Semerikov

Qubit systems based on trapped ultracold ions win one of the leading positions in the quantum computing field, demonstrating quantum algorithms with the highest complexity to date. Surface Paul traps for ion confinement open the opportunity to scale quantum processors to hundreds of qubits and enable high-connectivity manipulations on ions. To fabricate such a system with certain characteristics, the special design of a surface electrode structure is required. The depth of the trapping potential, the stability parameter, the secular frequency and the distance between an ion and the trap surface should be optimized for better performance. Here, we present the optimized design of a relatively simple surface trap that allows several important high-fidelity primitives: tight ion confinement, laser cooling, and wide optical access. The suggested trap design also allows us to perform an important basic operation, namely, splitting an ion chain into two parts.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030028

Authors: Bryan Sanctuary

Under the quaternion group, Q8, spin helicity emerges as a crucial element of the reality of spin and is complementary to its polarization. We show that the correlation in EPR coincidence experiments is conserved upon separation from a singlet state and distributed between its polarization and coherence. Including helicity accounts for the violation of Bell&rsquo;s Inequalities without non-locality, and disproves Bell&rsquo;s Theorem by a counterexample.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030027

Authors: Ints Meijers

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) offers a revolutionary approach to secure communication, leveraging the principles of quantum mechanics to generate and distribute cryptographic keys that are immune to eavesdropping. As QKD systems become more widely adopted, the need for robust monitoring and management solutions has become increasingly crucial. The Cerberis3 QKD system from ID Quantique addresses this challenge by providing a comprehensive monitoring and visualization platform. The system&rsquo;s advanced features, including central configuration, SNMP integration, and the graphical visualization of key performance metrics, enable network administrators to ensure their QKD infrastructure&rsquo;s reliable and secure operation. Monitoring critical parameters such as Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER), secret key rate, and link visibility is essential for maintaining the integrity of the quantum channel and optimizing the system&rsquo;s performance. The Cerberis3 system&rsquo;s ability to interface with encryption vendors and support complex network topologies further enhances its versatility and integration capabilities. By addressing the unique challenges of quantum monitoring, the Cerberis3 system empowers organizations to leverage the power of QKD technology, ensuring the security of their data in the face of emerging quantum computing threats. This article explores the Cerberus3 system&rsquo;s features and its role in overcoming the monitoring challenges inherent to QKD deployments.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030026

Authors: Bryan Sanctuary

We present a statistical simulation replicating the correlation observed in EPR coincidence experiments without needing non-local connectivity. We define spin coherence as a spin attribute that complements polarization by being anti-symmetric and generating helicity. Point particle spin becomes structured with two orthogonal magnetic moments, each with a spin of 12&mdash;these moments couple in free flight to create a spin-1 boson. Depending on its orientation in the field, when it encounters a filter, it either decouples into two independent fermion spins of 12, or it remains a boson and precedes without decoupling. The only variable in this study is the angle that orients a spin on the Bloch sphere, first identified in the 1920s. There are no hidden variables. The new features introduced in this work result from changing the spin symmetry from SU(2) to the quaternion group, Q8, which complexifies the Dirac field. The transition from a free-flight boson to a measured fermion causes the observed violation of Bell&rsquo;s Inequalities and resolves the EPR paradox.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030025

Authors: Rainer Dick

The measurement problem of quantum mechanics concerns the question as to under which circumstances coherent wave evolution becomes disrupted to produce eigenstates of observables, instead of evolving superpositions of eigenstates. The problem already needs to be addressed within wave mechanics, before second quantization, because low-energy interactions can be dominated by particle-preserving potential interactions. We discuss a scattering array of harmonic oscillators, which can detect particles penetrating the array through interaction with a short-range potential. Evolution of the wave function of scattered particles, combined with Heisenberg&rsquo;s assertion that quantum jumps persist in wave mechanics, indicates that the wave function will collapse around single oscillator sites if the scattering is inelastic, while it will not collapse around single sites for elastic scattering. The Born rule for position observation is then equivalent to the statement that the wave function for inelastic scattering amounts to an epistemic superposition of possible scattering states, in the sense that it describes a sum of probability amplitudes for inelastic scattering off different scattering centers, whereas, at most, one inelastic scattering event can happen at any moment in time. Within this epistemic interpretation of the wave function, the actual underlying inelastic scattering event corresponds to a quantum jump, whereas the continuously evolving wave function only describes the continuous evolution of probability amplitudes for scattering off different sites. Quantum jumps then yield definite position observations, as defined by the spatial resolution of the oscillator array.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030024

Authors: Thierry N. Kaldenbach Matthias Heller Gernot Alber Vladimir M. Stojanović

Motivated by the revitalized interest in the digital simulation of medium- and high-energy physics phenomena, we investigate the dynamics following a Yukawa interaction quench on IBM Q. Adopting the zero-dimensional version of the scalar Yukawa coupling model as our point of departure, we design low-depth quantum circuits, emulating its dynamics with up to three bosons. In the one-boson case, we demonstrate circuit compression, i.e., a constant-depth circuit containing only two controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the more complex three-boson case, we design a circuit in which one Trotter step entails eight CNOTs. Using an analogy with the traveling salesman problem, we also provide a CNOT cost estimate for higher boson number truncations. Based on these circuits, we quantify the system dynamics by evaluating the expected boson number at an arbitrary time after the quench and the survival probability of the initial vacuum state (the Loschmidt echo). We also utilize these circuits to drive adiabatic transitions and compute the energies of the ground- and first-excited states of the considered model. Finally, through error mitigation, i.e., zero-noise extrapolation, we demonstrate the good agreement of our results with a numerically exact classical benchmark.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030023

Authors: Andrei G. Lebed

Some time ago, Kobayashi et al. experimentally studied the so-called Lee&ndash;Naughton&ndash;Lebed&rsquo;s (LNL) angular effect in strong electric fields [Kobayashi, K.; Saito, M.; Omichi E.; Osada, T. Phys. Rev. Lett.&nbsp;2006, 96, 126601]. They found that strong electric fields split the LNL conductivity maxima in an &alpha;-(ET)2-based organic conductor and hypothetically introduced the corresponding equation for conductivity. In this paper, for the first time, we suggest the quantum mechanical theory of the LNL angular oscillations in moderately strong electric fields. In particular, we demonstrate that the approximate theoretical formula obtained by us well describes the above mentioned experiments.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030022

Authors: Andrii Kashuba Ihor Semkiv Myron Rudysh Hryhorii Ilchuk Pavlo Shchepanskyi

We report the results of an ab initio study of the linear and ring structures of cadmium telluride clusters [CdTe]n (CdnTen) n &le; 10 within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and Purdue&ndash;Burke&ndash;Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterization with Hubbard corrections (GGA+U). We optimized the linear and ring isomers for each size to obtain the lowest-energy structures and to understand their growth behavior. The cases of n &lt; 8 for ring-type structures and n = 6 and 9 for linear-type structures were found to be the most favorable. All observed clusters with a linear structure were found to have a small highest-occupied&ndash;lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO&ndash;LUMO) gap. The CdTe clusters with ring structure showed larger values of the HOMO&ndash;LUMO gaps than the band gap value for the bulk crystal. Structural and electronic properties like bond length, the HOMO&ndash;LUMO gap, binding energy, and electronegativity were analyzed.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6030021

Authors: Sky Nelson-Isaacs

A strategy is developed for writing the time-dependent Schr&ouml;dinger Equation (TDSE), and more generally the Dyson Series, as a convolution equation using recursive Fourier transforms, thereby decoupling the second-order integral from the first without using the time ordering operator. The energy distribution is calculated for a number of standard perturbation theory examples at first- and second-order. Possible applications include characterization of photonic spectra for bosonic sampling and four-wave mixing in quantum computation and Bardeen tunneling amplitude in quantum mechanics.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020020

Authors: Piero Chiarelli Simone Chiarelli

The simulation analogy presented in this work enhances the accessibility of abstract quantum theories, specifically the stochastic hydrodynamic model (SQHM), by relating them to our daily experiences. The SQHM incorporates the influence of fluctuating gravitational background, a form of dark energy, into quantum equations. This model successfully addresses key aspects of objective-collapse theories, including resolving the &lsquo;tails&rsquo; problem through the definition of quantum potential length of interaction in addition to the De Broglie length, beyond which coherent Schr&ouml;dinger quantum behavior and wavefunction tails cannot be maintained. The SQHM emphasizes that an external environment is unnecessary, asserting that the quantum stochastic behavior leading to wavefunction collapse can be an inherent property of physics in a spacetime with fluctuating metrics. Embedded in relativistic quantum mechanics, the theory establishes a coherent link between the uncertainty principle and the constancy of light speed, aligning seamlessly with finite information transmission speed. Within quantum mechanics submitted to fluctuations, the SQHM derives the indeterminacy relation between energy and time, offering insights into measurement processes impossible within a finite time interval in a truly quantum global system. Experimental validation is found in confirming the Lindemann constant for solid lattice melting points and the 4He transition from fluid to superfluid states. The SQHM&rsquo;s self-consistency lies in its ability to describe the dynamics of wavefunction decay (collapse) and the measure process. Additionally, the theory resolves the pre-existing reality problem by showing that large-scale systems naturally decay into decoherent states stable in time. Continuing, the paper demonstrates that the physical dynamics of SQHM can be analogized to a computer simulation employing optimization procedures for realization. This perspective elucidates the concept of time in contemporary reality and enriches our comprehension of free will. The overall framework introduces an irreversible process impacting the manifestation of macroscopic reality at the present time, asserting that the multiverse exists solely in future states, with the past comprising the formed universe after the current moment. Locally uncorrelated projective decays of wavefunction, at the present time, function as a reduction of the multiverse to a single universe. Macroscopic reality, characterized by a foam-like consistency where microscopic domains with quantum properties coexist, offers insights into how our consciousness perceives dynamic reality. It also sheds light on the spontaneous emergence of gravity in discrete quantum spacetime evolution, and the achievement of the classical general relativity limit in quantum loop gravity and causal dynamical triangulation. The simulation analogy highlights a strategy focused on minimizing information processing, facilitating the universal simulation in solving its predetermined problem. From within, reality becomes the manifestation of specific physical laws emerging from the inherent structure of the simulation devised to address its particular issue. In this context, the reality simulation appears to employ an optimization strategy, minimizing information loss and data management in line with the simulation&rsquo;s intended purpose.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020019

Authors: Larisa Latypova Fadis Murzakhanov George Mamin Margarita Sadovnikova Hans Jurgen von Bardeleben Marat Gafurov

The distinct spin, optical, and coherence characteristics of solid-state spin defects in semiconductors have positioned them as potential qubits for quantum technologies. Both bulk and two-dimensional materials, with varying structural properties, can serve as crystalline hosts for color centers. In this study, we conduct a comparative analysis of the spin&ndash;optical, electron&ndash;nuclear, and relaxation properties of nitrogen-bound vacancy defects using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron&ndash;nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) techniques. We examine key parameters of the spin Hamiltonian for the nitrogen vacancy (NV&minus;) center in 4H-SiC: D = 1.3 GHz, Azz = 1.1 MHz, and CQ = 2.53 MHz, as well as for the boron vacancy (VB&minus;) in hBN: D = 3.6 GHz, Azz = 85 MHz, and CQ = 2.11 MHz, and their dependence on the material matrix. The spin&ndash;spin relaxation times T2 (NV&minus; center: 50 &micro;s and VB&minus;: 15 &micro;s) are influenced by the local nuclear environment and spin diffusion while Rabi oscillation damping times depend on crystal size and the spatial distribution of microwave excitation. The ENDOR absorption width varies significantly among color centers due to differences in crystal structures. These findings underscore the importance of selecting an appropriate material platform for developing quantum registers based on high-spin color centers in quantum information systems.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020018

Authors: Mirko Mattesi Luca Asproni Christian Mattia Simone Tufano Giacomo Ranieri Davide Caputo Davide Corbelletto

The optimization of investment portfolios represents a pivotal task within the field of financial economics. Its objective is to identify asset combinations that meet specified criteria for return and risk. Traditionally, the maximization of the Sharpe Ratio, often achieved through quadratic programming, has constituted a popular approach for this purpose. However, real-world scenarios frequently necessitate more complex considerations, particularly in relation to portfolio diversification with a view to mitigating sector-specific risks and enhancing stability. The incorporation of diversification alongside the Sharpe Ratio into the optimization model creates a joint optimization task, which can be formulated as Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) and addressed using quantum annealing or hybrid computing techniques. These techniques offer promising solutions. We present a novel QUBO formulation for this optimization, detailing its mathematical formulation and demonstrating its advantages over classical methods, particularly in handling diversification objectives. By leveraging available QUBO solvers and hybrid approaches, we explore the feasibility of handling large-scale problems while highlighting the importance of diversification in achieving robust portfolio performance. We finally elaborate on the results showing the trade-off between the observed values of the portfolio&rsquo;s Sharpe Ratio and diversification, as a natural consequence of solving a multi-objective optimization problem.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020017

Authors: Leonardo Chiatti

Two distinct measures of information, connected respectively to the amplitude and phase of the wave function of a particle, are proposed. There are relations between the time derivatives of these two measures and their gradients on the configuration space, which are equivalent to the wave equation. The information related to the amplitude measures the strength of the potential coupling of the particle (which is itself aspatial) with each volume of its configuration space, i.e., its tendency to participate in an interaction localized in a region of ordinary physical space corresponding to that volume. The information connected to the phase is that required to obtain the time evolution of the particle as a persistent entity starting from a random succession of bits. It can be considered as the information provided by conservation principles. The meaning of the so-called &ldquo;quantum potential&rdquo; in this context is briefly discussed.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020016

Authors: Federico Gerbino Pierre Le Doussal Guido Giachetti Andrea De Luca

We consider a toy model for the study of monitored dynamics in many-body quantum systems. We study the stochastic Schr&ouml;dinger equation resulting from continuous monitoring with a rate &Gamma; of a random Hermitian operator, drawn from the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) at every time t. Due to invariance by unitary transformations, the dynamics of the eigenvalues {&lambda;&alpha;}&alpha;=1n of the density matrix decouples from that of the eigenvectors, and is exactly described by stochastic equations that we derive. We consider two regimes: in the presence of an extra dephasing term, which can be generated by imperfect quantum measurements, the density matrix has a stationary distribution, and we show that in the limit of large size n&rarr;&infin; it matches with the inverse-Marchenko&ndash;Pastur distribution. In the case of perfect measurements, instead, purification eventually occurs and we focus on finite-time dynamics. In this case, remarkably, we find an exact solution for the joint probability distribution of &lambda;&rsquo;s at each time t and for each size n. Two relevant regimes emerge: at short times t&Gamma;=O(1), the spectrum is in a Coulomb gas regime, with a well-defined continuous spectral distribution in the n&rarr;&infin; limit. In that case, all moments of the density matrix become self-averaging and it is possible to exactly characterize the entanglement spectrum. In the limit of large times t&Gamma;=O(n), one enters instead a regime in which the eigenvalues are exponentially separated log(&lambda;&alpha;/&lambda;&beta;)=O(&Gamma;t/n), but fluctuations &sim;O(&Gamma;t/n) play an essential role. We are still able to characterize the asymptotic behaviors of the entanglement entropy in this regime.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020015

Authors: Clement Atachegbe Onate Ituen B. Okon Edwin Samson Eyube Ekwevugbe Omugbe Kizito O. Emeje Michael C. Onyeaju Olumide O. Ajani Jacob A. Akinpelu

The solutions to the radial Schr&ouml;dinger equation for a pseudoharmonic potential and Kratzer potential have been studied separately in the past. Despite different reports on the Kratzer potential, the fundamental theoretical quantities such as Fisher information have not been reported. In this study, we obtain the solution to the radial Schr&ouml;dinger equation for the combination of the pseudoharmonic and Kratzer potentials in the presence of a constant-dependent potential, utilizing the concepts and formalism of the supersymmetric and shape invariance approach. The position expectation value and momentum expectation value are calculated employing the Hellmann&ndash;Feynman Theory. These expectation values are then used to calculate the Fisher information for both position and momentum spaces in both the absence and presence of the constant-dependent potential. The results obtained revealed that the presence of the constant-dependent potential leads to an increase in the energy eigenvalue, as well as in the position and momentum expectation values. Additionally, the constant-dependent potential increases the Fisher information for both position and momentum spaces. Furthermore, the product of the position expectation value and the momentum expectation value, along with the product of the Fisher information, satisfies both Fisher&rsquo;s inequality and Cramer&ndash;Rao&rsquo;s inequality.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020014

Authors: Luca Gamberale Giovanni Modanese

The Schr&ouml;dinger equation and Bloch theorem are applied to examine a system of protons confined within a periodic potential, accounting for deviations from ideal harmonic behavior due to real-world conditions like truncated and non-quadratic potentials, in both one-dimensional and three-dimensional scenarios. Numerical computation of the energy spectrum of bound eigenfunctions in both cases reveals intriguing structures, including bound states with degeneracy matching the site number Nw, reminiscent of a finite harmonic oscillator spectrum. In contrast to electronic energy bands, the proton system displays a greater number of possible bound states due to the significant mass of protons. Extending previous research, this study rigorously determines the constraints on the energy gap and oscillation amplitude of the previously identified coherent states. The deviations in energy level spacing identified in the computed spectrum, leading to the minor splitting of electromagnetic modes, are analyzed and found not to hinder the onset of coherence. Finally, a more precise value of the energy gap is determined for the proton coherent states, ensuring their stability against thermal decoherence up to the melting temperature of the hosting metal.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020013

Authors: Wendy Xiomara Chavarría-Garza Osvaldo Aquines-Gutiérrez Ayax Santos-Guevara Humberto Martínez-Huerta Jose Ruben Morones-Ibarra Jonathan Rincon Saucedo

Inspired by the principles of quantum mechanics, we constructed a model of students&rsquo; misconceptions about heat and temperature, conceptualized as a quantum system represented by a density matrix. Within this framework, the presence or absence of misconceptions is delineated as pure states, while the probability of mixed states is also considered, providing valuable insights into students&rsquo; cognition based on the mental models they employ when holding misconceptions. Using the analysis model previously employed by Lei Bao and Edward Redish, we represented these results in a density matrix. In our research, we utilized the Zeo and Zadnik Thermal Concept Evaluation among 282 students from a private university in Northeast Mexico. Our objective was to extract information from the analysis of multiple-choice questions designed to explore preconceptions, offering valuable educational insights beyond the typical Correct&ndash;Incorrect binary analysis of classical systems. Our findings reveal a probability of 0.72 for the appearance of misconceptions, 0.28 for their absence, and 0.43 for mixed states, while no significant disparities were observed based on gender or scholarship status, a notable difference was observed among programs (p &lt; 0.05). These results are consistent with the previous literature, confirming a prevalence of misconceptions within the student population.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020012

Authors: Antonio Feoli Elmo Benedetto Antonella Lucia Iannella

Starting from the dynamics of a bouncing ball in classical and quantum regime, we have suggested in a previous paper to add an arbitrary function of time to the standard expression of the probability current in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we suggest a way to determine this function: imposing a suitable normalization condition. The application of our proposal to the case of the harmonic oscillator is discussed.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020011

Authors: Lev Vaidman

This is a preface to a Special Issue of Quantum Reports devoted to the results of the workshop &ldquo;The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Current Status and Relation to Other Interpretations&rdquo; [...]

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6020010

Authors: Riccardo Fantoni

Through path integral Monte Carlo computer experiments, we prove that the affine quantization of the &phi;44-scaled Euclidean covariant relativistic scalar field theory is a valid quantum field theory with a well-defined continuum limit of the one- and two-point functions. Affine quantization leads to a completely satisfactory quantization of field theories in situations involving scaled behavior, leading to an unexpected term, &#8463;2/&phi;2, which arises only in the quantum aspects.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010009

Authors: Ferenc Márkus Katalin Gambár

In information transfer, the dissipation of a signal is of crucial importance. The feasibility of reconstructing the distorted signal depends on the related permanent loss. Therefore, understanding the quantized dissipative transversal mechanical waves might result in deep insights. In particular, it may be valid on the nanoscale in the case of signal distortion, loss, or even restoration. Based on the description of the damped quantum oscillator, we generalize the canonical quantization procedure for the case of the transversal waves. Then, we deduce the related damped wave equation and the state function. We point out the two possible solutions of the propagating-damping wave equation. One involves the well-known Gaussian spreading solution superposed with the damping oscillation, in which the loss of information is complete. The other is the Airy function solution, which is non-spreading&ndash;propagating, so the information loss is only due to oscillation damping. However, the structure of the wave shape remains unchanged for the latter. Consequently, this fact may allow signal reconstruction, resulting in the capability of restoring the lost information.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010008

Authors: Alex Khaneles

Photons are considered to be elementary bosons in the Standard Model. The assumption that photons are not elementary particles is assessed from an outlook of computational statistical mechanics. A prediction of variations in the shape of the blackbody radiation spectrum with polarization is made. A better understanding of the origins of quantum statistics could be crucial for theories beyond the Standard Model.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010007

Authors: Paul M. Alsing Carlo Cafaro Domenico Felice Orlando Luongo

When studying the geometry of quantum states, it is acknowledged that mixed states can be distinguished by infinitely many metrics. Unfortunately, this freedom causes metric-dependent interpretations of physically significant geometric quantities such as the complexity and volume of quantum states. In this paper, we present an insightful discussion on the differences between the Bures and the Sj&ouml;qvist metrics inside a Bloch sphere. First, we begin with a formal comparative analysis between the two metrics by critically discussing three alternative interpretations for each metric. Second, we explicitly illustrate the distinct behaviors of the geodesic paths on each one of the two metric manifolds. Third, we compare the finite distances between an initial state and the final mixed state when calculated with the two metrics. Interestingly, in analogy with what happens when studying the topological aspects of real Euclidean spaces equipped with distinct metric functions (for instance, the usual Euclidean metric and the taxicab metric), we observe that the relative ranking based on the concept of a finite distance between mixed quantum states is not preserved when comparing distances determined with the Bures and the Sj&ouml;qvist metrics. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion on the consequences of this violation of a metric-based relative ranking on the concept of the complexity and volume of mixed quantum states.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010006

Authors: Ünsal Özdilek

Price, cost, and income (PCI) methods are traditionally used to approximate the value state of an economic commodity such as a property. Based on the estimates of these methods, we explore how quantum theory represents the fundamental process of value valuation in practice. We propose that the mathematical formalism of quantum theory is a promising view and measure of economic value. To ground our exploration, we first map traditional PCI estimates onto three-dimensional spherical coordinates, which were then transformed into two-dimensional quantum states using the Bloch sphere. This step enabled the computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian matrix, from which the value state measures were derived. The results exhibit practical applications as well as fundamental insights into potential connections between economic and quantum value states.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010005

Authors: Isabel Sainz Ernesto Camacho Andrés García Andrei B. Klimov

We observe that the discrete Wigner functions (DWFs) of n-partite systems with odd local dimensions are tomographically universal, as reflected in the delta function form of the DWF for any stabilizer. However, in the n-qubit case, this property does not hold due to the non-factorization of the mapping kernel, the explicit form of which depends on a particular partition of the discrete phase space. Nonetheless, it turns out that the DWF for some specific stabilizers, not included in the set used for the construction of the Wigner map, takes on the form of a delta function. This implies that the possibility of classical simulations of Pauli measurements in a given stabilizer state for qubit systems is closely tied to the experimental setup.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010004

Authors: Mohammed Alharbi Gerard Edwards Richard Stocker

Energy efficiency considerations in terms of reduced power dissipation are a significant issue in the design of digital circuits for very large-scale integration (VLSI) systems. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an emerging ultralow power dissipation approach, distinct from traditional, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, for building digital computing circuits. Developing fully reversible QCA circuits has the potential to significantly reduce energy dissipation. Multiplexers are fundamental elements in the construction of useful digital circuits. In this paper, a novel, multilayer, fully reversible QCA 8:1 multiplexer circuit with ultralow energy dissipation is introduced. The power dissipation of the proposed multiplexer is simulated using the QCADesigner-E version 2.2 tool, describing the microscopic physical mechanisms underlying the QCA operation. The results show that the proposed reversible QCA 8:1 multiplexer consumes 89% less energy than the most energy-efficient 8:1 multiplexer circuit previously presented in the literature.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010003

Authors: Antonio Manzalini Luigi Artusio

Today, we are already using several-component devices and systems based on the technologies developed during the first quantum revolution. Examples include microchips for servers, laptops and smartphones, medical imaging devices, LED, lasers, etc. Now, a second quantum revolution is progressing fast, exploiting technological advances for the ability to engineer and manipulate other quantum phenomena such as superposition, entanglement and measurement. As a matter of fact, there is an impressive increase in research and development activities, innovation, public and private investments in a new wave of quantum services and applications. In this scenario, quantum information and communication technologies (QICTs) can be defined as a set of technological components, devices, systems and methods for elaborating, storing and transmitting/sharing quantum information. This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities enabling the rise of QICTs. In order to provide a concrete example, the paper describes an overview of the European project EQUO (European Quantum ecOsystems) dealing with ongoing innovation activities in the QICT avenue; in fact, EQUO aims at developing and demonstrating the feasibility of QKD (quantum key distribution) networks and their related integration in current telecommunications infrastructures towards the quantum internet.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010002

Authors: Piero Chiarelli

In this work, the author employs the quantum hydrodynamic formalism to achieve the geometrization of spacetime for describing the gravitational interaction within the framework of quantum theory. This approach allows for the development of an equation of gravity that is mathematically connected to the fermion and boson fields. This achievement is accomplished by incorporating two fundamental principles: covariance of the quantum field equations and the principle of least action. By considering these principles, a theory is established that enables the calculation of gravitational corrections to quantum electrodynamics and, potentially, to the standard model of particle physics as well. The theory also provides an explanation for two phenomena: the existence of a cosmological pressure density similar to quintessence, which is compatible with the small value of the observed cosmological constant, and the breaking of matter&ndash;antimatter symmetry at high energies, offering insights into why there is an imbalance between the two in the early universe. In the cosmological modeling of the theory, there exists a proposal to account for the formation of supermassive black holes that are accompanied by their own surrounding galaxies, without relying on the process of mass accretion. The model, in accordance with recent observations conducted by the James Webb Space Telescope, supports the notion that galactic configurations were established relatively early in the history of the universe, shortly after the occurrence of the Big Bang.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum6010001

Authors: Marco Maronese Massimiliano Incudini Luca Asproni Enrico Prati

The Quantum Amplitude Estimation (QAE) algorithm is a major quantum algorithm designed to achieve a quadratic speed-up. Until fault-tolerant quantum computing is achieved, being competitive over classical Monte Carlo (MC) remains elusive. Alternative methods have been developed so as to require fewer resources while maintaining an advantageous theoretical scaling. We compared the standard QAE algorithm with two Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ)-friendly versions of QAE on a numerical integration task, with the Monte Carlo technique of Metropolis&ndash;Hastings as a classical benchmark. The algorithms were evaluated in terms of the estimation error as a function of the number of samples, computational time, and length of the quantum circuits required by the solutions, respectively. The effectiveness of the two QAE alternatives was tested on an 11-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer in order to verify which solution can first provide a speed-up in the integral estimation problems. We concluded that an alternative approach is preferable with respect to employing the phase estimation routine. Indeed, the Maximum Likelihood estimation guaranteed the best trade-off between the length of the quantum circuits and the precision in the integral estimation, as well as greater resistance to noise.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5040043

Authors: Iryna Chernega Mariia Martsinkiv Taras Vasylyshyn Andriy Zagorodnyuk

We propose a correspondence between the partition functions of ideal gases consisting of both bosons and fermions and the algebraic bases of supersymmetric polynomials on the Banach space of absolutely summable two-sided sequences &#8467;1(Z0). Such an approach allows us to interpret some of the combinatorial identities for supersymmetric polynomials from a physical point of view. We consider a relation of equivalence for &#8467;1(Z0), induced by the supersymmetric polynomials, and the semi-ring algebraic structures on the quotient set with respect to this relation. The quotient set is a natural model for the set of energy levels of a quantum system. We introduce two different topological semi-ring structures into this set and discuss their possible physical interpretations.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5040042

Authors: Vi D. Ao Duy V. Tran Kien T. Pham Duc M. Nguyen Huy D. Tran Tuan K. Do Van H. Do Trung V. Phan

We establish an analogy between the Fokker&ndash;Planck equation describing evolutionary landscape dynamics and the Schr&ouml;dinger equation which characterizes quantum mechanical particles, showing that a population with multiple genetic traits evolves analogously to a wavefunction under a multi-dimensional energy potential in imaginary time. Furthermore, we discover within this analogy that the stationary population distribution on the landscape corresponds exactly to the ground-state wavefunction. This mathematical equivalence grants entry to a wide range of analytical tools developed by the quantum mechanics community, such as the Rayleigh&ndash;Ritz variational method and the Rayleigh&ndash;Schr&ouml;dinger perturbation theory, allowing us not only the conduct of reasonable quantitative assessments but also exploration of fundamental biological inquiries. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these tools by estimating the population success on landscapes where precise answers are elusive, and unveiling the ecological consequences of stress-induced mutagenesis&mdash;a prevalent evolutionary mechanism in pathogenic and neoplastic systems. We show that, even in an unchanging environment, a sharp mutational burst resulting from stress can always be advantageous, while a gradual increase only enhances population size when the number of relevant evolving traits is limited. Our interdisciplinary approach offers novel insights, opening up new avenues for deeper understanding and predictive capability regarding the complex dynamics of evolving populations.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5040041

Authors: Daniel Koch Massimiliano Cutugno Saahil Patel Laura Wessing Paul M. Alsing

We investigate the use of amplitude amplification on the gate-based model of quantum computing as a means for solving combinatorial optimization problems. This study focuses primarily on quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems, which are well-suited for qubit superposition states. Specifically, we demonstrate circuit designs which encode QUBOs as &lsquo;cost oracle&rsquo; operations UC, which distribute phases across the basis states proportional to a cost function. We then show that when UC is combined with the standard Grover diffusion operator Us, one can achieve high probabilities of measurement for states corresponding to optimal and near optimal solutions while still only requiring O(&pi;42N/M) iterations. In order to achieve these probabilities, a single scalar parameter ps is required, which we show can be found through a variational quantum&ndash;classical hybrid approach and can be used for heuristic solutions.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5040040

Authors: William Sulis

Arguments have been made that the violation of the CHSH and similar inequalities shows that reality at the quantum level must be non-local. The derivation of Bell inequality is re-examined, and it is shown that violations of these inequalities merely demonstrate the existence of contextuality&mdash;they say nothing about the causal influences underlying such contextuality. It is argued that contextual systems do not possess enduring (propositional) properties, merely contingent properties. An example of a classical situation is presented: a two-player co-operative game, the random variables of which are consistently connected in the sense of Dzhafarov, which is contextual, and violates the CHSH inequality. In fact, it also violates the Tsirel&rsquo;son bound. The key is that this system is generated, and its properties are disposed of, not determined.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5030039

Authors: Mohamad Taghi Dejpasand Morteza Sasani Ghamsari

Quantum computing is a rapidly developing field that has the potential to revolutionize the way we process data. In this article, we will introduce quantum computers, their hardware and the challenges associated with their development. One of the key concepts in quantum computing is the qubit, which is the basic unit of quantum information. We will discuss this concept in greater detail, exploring how qubits work and the unique properties that make them so powerful. There are currently three leading models of quantum computers: superconducting, ion trap, and neutral-atom qubits. We will compare these models, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations, and discuss the current state of research in each area. In addition to exploring the hardware of quantum computers, we will also introduce some of the innovative research projects related to qubits. Finally, we will examine the market around the quantum computing industry, outlining some of the fundamental challenges we may face.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5030038

Authors: Zhonghao Lu

The deterministic nature of EQM (the Everett Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics) seems to be inconsistent with the use of probability in EQM, giving rise to what is known as the &ldquo;incoherence problem&rdquo;. In this paper, I explore approaches to solve the incoherence problem of EQM via pre-measurement uncertainty. Previous discussions on the validity of pre-measurement uncertainty have leaned heavily on intricate aspects of the theory of semantics and reference, the embrace of either four-dimensionalism or three-dimensionalism of personhood, or the ontology of EQM. In this paper, I argue that, regardless of the adoption of three-dimensionalism or four-dimensionalism of personhood, the overlapping view or the divergence view of the ontology of EQM, the pre-measurement uncertainty approach to the incoherence problem of EQM can only achive success while contradicting fundamental principles of physicalism. I also use the divergence view of EQM as an example to illustrate my analyses.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5030037

Authors: Nianqin Zhang Yongjun Zhang

Mismatch repair is a critical step in DNA replication that occurs after base selection and proofreading, significantly increasing fidelity. However, the mechanism of mismatch recognition has not been established for any repair enzyme. Speculations in this area mainly focus on exploiting thermodynamic equilibrium and free energy. Nevertheless, non-equilibrium processes may play a more significant role in enhancing mismatch recognition accuracy by utilizing adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study aimed to investigate this possibility. Considering our limited knowledge of actual mismatch repair enzymes, we proposed a hypothetical enzyme that operates as a quantum system with three discrete energy levels. When the enzyme is raised to its highest energy level, a quantum transition occurs, leading to one of two low-energy levels representing potential recognition outcomes: a correct match or a mismatch. The probabilities of the two outcomes are exponentially different, determined by the energy gap between the two low energy levels. By flipping the energy gap, discrimination between mismatches and correct matches can be achieved. Within a framework that combines quantum mechanics with thermodynamics, we established a relationship between energy cost and the recognition error.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5030036

Authors: Ihsan A. Khoso Nek Muhammad Katbar Urooj Akram

In physics, mathematics, and other disciplines, new integrable equations have been found using the P-test. Novel insights and discoveries in several domains have resulted from this. Whether a solution is oscillatory, decaying, or expanding exponentially can be observed by using the AEM approach. In this work, we examined the integrability of the triple nonlinear fractional Schr&ouml;dinger equation (TNFSE) via the Painlev&eacute; test (P-test) and a number of optical solitary wave solutions such as bright dromions (solitons), hyperbolic, singular, periodic, domain wall, doubly periodic, trigonometric, dark singular, plane-wave solution, combined optical solitons, rational solutions, etc., via the auxiliary equation mapping (AEM) technique. In mathematical physics and in engineering sciences, this equation plays a very important role. Moreover, the graphical representation (3D, 2D, and contour) of the obtained optical solitary-wave solutions will facilitate the understanding of the physical phenomenon of this system. The computational work and conclusions indicate that the suggested approaches are efficient and productive.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5030035

Authors: Maria Elovenkova Alexander Pechen

Quantum systems with dynamical symmetries have conserved quantities that are preserved under coherent control. Therefore, such systems cannot be completely controlled by means of only coherent control. In particular, for such systems, the maximum transition probability between some pairs of states over all coherent controls can be less than one. However, incoherent control can break this dynamical symmetry and increase the maximum attainable transition probability. The simplest example of such a situation occurs in a three-level quantum system with dynamical symmetry, for which the maximum probability of transition between the ground and intermediate states using only coherent control is 1/2, whereas it is about 0.687 using coherent control assisted by incoherent control implemented through the non-selective measurement of the ground state, as was previously analytically computed. In this work, we study and completely characterize all critical points of the kinematic quantum control landscape for this measurement-assisted transition probability, which is considered as a function of the kinematic control parameters (Euler angles). The measurement-driven control used in this work is different from both quantum feedback and Zeno-type control. We show that all critical points are global maxima, global minima, saddle points or second-order traps. For comparison, we study the transition probability between the ground and highest excited states, as well as the case when both these transition probabilities are assisted by incoherent control implemented through the measurement of the intermediate state.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020034

Authors: Charles Bédard

Quantum teleportation is the name of a problem: How can the real-valued parameters encoding the state at Alice’s location make their way to Bob’s location via shared entanglement and only two bits of classical communication? Without an explanation, teleportation appears to be a conjuring trick. Investigating the phenomenon with Schrödinger states and reduced density matrices shall always leave loose ends because they are not local and complete descriptions of quantum systems. Upon demonstrating that the Heisenberg picture admits a local and complete description, Deutsch and Hayden rendered its explanatory power manifest by revealing the trick behind teleportation, namely, by providing an entirely local account. Their analysis is re-exposed and further developed.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020033

Authors: Michael Ridley

The Born probability measure describes the statistics of measurements in which observers self-locate themselves in some region of reality. In&nbsp;&psi;-ontic quantum theories, reality is directly represented by the wavefunction. We show that quantum probabilities may be identified using fractions of a universal multiple-time wavefunction containing both causal and retrocausal temporal parts. This wavefunction is defined in an appropriately generalized history space on the Keldysh time contour. Our deterministic formulation of quantum mechanics replaces the initial condition of standard Schr&ouml;dinger dynamics, with a network of &lsquo;fixed points&rsquo; defining quantum histories on the contour. The Born measure is derived by summing up the wavefunction along these histories. We then apply the same technique to the derivation of the statistics of measurements with pre- and postselection.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020032

Authors: Richard D. Gill Justo Pastor Lambare

In a sequence of papers, Marian Kupczynski has argued that Bell&rsquo;s theorem can be circumvented if one takes correct account of contextual setting-dependent parameters describing measuring instruments. We show that this is not true. Despite first appearances, Kupczynksi&rsquo;s concept of a contextual locally causal probabilistic model is mathematically a special case of a Bell local hidden variables model. Thus, even if one takes account of contextuality in the way he suggests, the Bell&ndash;CHSH inequality can still be derived. Violation thereof by quantum mechanics cannot be easily explained away: quantum mechanics and local realism (including Kupczynski&rsquo;s claimed enlargement of the concept) are not compatible with one another. Further inspection shows that Kupczynski is actually falling back on the detection loophole. Since 2015, numerous loophole-free experiments have been performed, in which the Bell&ndash;CHSH inequality is violated, so, despite any other possible imperfections of such experiments, Kupczynski&rsquo;s escape route for local realism is not available.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020031

Authors: Vlatko Vedral

In this paper, I would like to outline what I think is the most natural interpretation of quantum mechanics. By natural, I simply mean that it requires the least amount of excess baggage and that it is universal in the sense that it can be consistently applied to all the observed phenomena, including the universe as a whole. I call it the &ldquo;Everything is a Quantum Wave&rdquo; Interpretation (EQWI) because I think this is a more appropriate name than the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI). The paper explains why this is so.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020030

Authors: Saptarshi Chowdhury Neetik Mukherjee Amlan K. Roy

Over the past few decades, confined quantum systems have emerged to be a subject of considerable importance in physical, chemical and biological sciences. Under such stressed conditions, they display many fascinating and notable physical and chemical properties. Here we address this situation by using two plasma models, namely a weakly coupled plasma environment mimicked by a Debye-H&uuml;ckel potential (DHP) and an exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential (ECSCP). On the other hand, the endohedral confinement is achieved via a Woods-Saxon (WS) potential. The critical screening constant, dipole oscillator strength (OS) and polarizability are investigated for an arbitrary state. A Shannon entropy-based strategy has been invoked to study the phase transition here. An increase in Z leads to larger critical screening. Moreover, a detailed investigation reveals that there exists at least one bound state in such plasmas. Pilot calculations are conducted for some low-lying states (&#8467;=1&minus;5) using a generalized pseudo spectral scheme, providing optimal, non-uniform radial discretization.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020029

Authors: Ervin K. Lenzi Enrique C. Gabrick Elaheh Sayari Antonio S. M. de Castro José Trobia Antonio M. Batista

We investigate a three-level system in the context of the fractional Schr&ouml;dinger equation by considering fractional differential operators in time and space, which promote anomalous relaxations and spreading of the wave packet. We first consider the three-level system omitting the kinetic term, i.e., taking into account only the transition among the levels, to analyze the effect of the fractional time derivative. Afterward, we incorporate a kinetic term and the fractional derivative in space to analyze simultaneous wave packet transition and spreading among the levels. For these cases, we obtain analytical and numerical solutions. Our results show a wide variety of behaviors connected to the fractional operators, such as the non-conservation of probability and the anomalous spread of the wave packet.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020028

Authors: Alessandro Pesci

In a known gedanken experiment, a delocalized mass is recombined while the gravitational field sourced by it is probed by another (distant) particle; in it, this is used to explore a possible tension between complementarity and causality in case the gravitational field entangles with the superposed locations, a proposed resolution being graviton emission from quadrupole moments. Here, we focus on the delocalized particle (forgetting about the probe and the gedanken experiment) and explore the conditions (in terms of mass, separation, and recombination time) for graviton emission. Through this, we find that the variations of quadrupole moments in the recombination are generically greatly enhanced if the field is entangled compared to if it is sourced instead by the energy momentum expectation value on the delocalized state (moment variation &sim;md2 in the latter case, with m mass, d separation). In addition, we obtain the (upper) limit recombination time for graviton emission growing as m in place of the naive expectation m. In this, the Planck mass acts as threshold mass (huge, for delocalized objects): no graviton emission is possible below it, however fast the recombination occurs. If this is compared with the decay times foreseen in the collapse models of Di&oacute;si and Penrose (in their basic form), one finds that no (quadrupole) graviton emission from recombination is possible in them. Indeed, right when m becomes large enough to allow for emission, it also becomes too large for the superposition to survive collapse long enough to recombine.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020027

Authors: Michael E. Cuffaro Stephan Hartmann

It is argued that those who defend the Everett, or &lsquo;many-worlds&rsquo;, interpretation of quantum mechanics should embrace what we call the general quantum theory of open systems (GT) as the proper framework in which to conduct foundational and philosophical investigations in quantum physics. GT is a wider dynamical framework than its alternative, standard quantum theory (ST). This is true even though GT makes no modifications to the quantum formalism. GT rather takes a different view, what we call the open systems view, of the formalism; i.e., in GT, the dynamics of systems whose physical states are fundamentally represented by density operators are represented as fundamentally open as specified by an in general non-unitary dynamical map. This includes, in principle, the dynamics of the universe as a whole. We argue that the more general dynamics describable in GT can be physically motivated, that there is as much prima facie empirical support for GT as there is for ST, and that GT could be fully in the spirit of the Everett interpretation&mdash;that there might, in short, be little reason for an Everettian not to embrace the more general theoretical landscape that GT allows one to explore.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020026

Authors: Dustin Lazarovici

A longstanding issue in the Everettian (Many-Worlds) interpretation is to justify and make sense of the Born rule that underlies the statistical predictions of standard quantum mechanics. The paper offers a reappraisal of Everett&rsquo;s original account in light of the recent literature on the concept of typicality. It argues that Everett&rsquo;s derivation of the Born rule is sound and, in a certain sense, even an optimal result, and defends it against the charge of circularity. The conclusion is that Everett&rsquo;s typicality argument can successfully ground post-factum explanations of Born statistics, while questions remain about the predictive power of the Many-Worlds interpretation.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020025

Authors: Dana Ben Porath Eliahu Cohen

The Leggett&ndash;Garg Inequality (LGI) constrains, under certain fundamental assumptions, the correlations between measurements of a quantity Q at different times. Here, we analyze the LGI and propose similar but somewhat more elaborate inequalities, employing a technique that utilizes the mathematical properties of correlation matrices, which was recently proposed in the context of nonlocal correlations. We also find that this technique can be applied to inequalities that combine correlations between different times (as in LGI) and correlations between different locations (as in Bell inequalities). All the proposed bounds include additional correlations compared to the original ones and also lead to a particular form of complementarity. A possible experimental realization and some applications are briefly discussed.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020024

Authors: Jeremy Canfield Anna Galler James K. Freericks

Quantum mechanics has about a dozen exactly solvable potentials. Normally, the time-independent Schr&ouml;dinger equation for them is solved by using a generalized series solution for the bound states (using the Fr&ouml;benius method) and then an analytic continuation for the continuum states (if present). In this work, we present an alternative way to solve these problems, based on the Laplace method. This technique uses a similar procedure for the bound states and for the continuum states. It was originally used by Schr&ouml;dinger when he solved the wave functions of hydrogen. Dirac advocated using this method too. We discuss why it is a powerful approach to solve all problems whose wave functions are represented in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions, especially for the continuum solutions, which can be determined by an easy-to-program contour integral.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020023

Authors: Michael Huber

In this work, an alternative attempt to motivate the Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI) is undertaken. The usual way of arguing for MWI mostly revolves around how it might solve the measurement problem in a more straightforward and concise manner than rival interpretations. However, here an effort is made to defend MWI in an indirect manner, namely via repeated case discrimination and a process of &lsquo;conceptual elimination&rsquo;. That is, it will be argued that its major rivals, with QBism and Relational Quantum-Mechanics being among the most noteworthy ones, either face conceptual incoherence or conceptually collapse into a variant of MWI. Finally, it is argued that hidden-variable theories face severe challenges when being applied to Quantum Field Theory such that appropriate modifications may lead back to MWI, thereby purportedly leaving MWI as the only viable option.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5020022

Authors: Pierre A. Deymier Keith Runge M. Arif Hasan Trevor D. Lata Josh A. Levine

We experimentally navigate the Hilbert space of two logical phi-bits supported by an externally driven nonlinear array of coupled acoustic waveguides by parametrically changing the relative phase of the drivers. We observe sharp phase jumps of approximately 180&deg; in the individual phi-bit states as a result of the phase tuning of the drivers. The occurrence of these sharp phase jumps varies from phi-bit to phi-bit. All phi-bit phases also possess a common background dependency on the drivers&rsquo; phase. Within the context of multiple time scale perturbation theory, we develop a simple model of the nonlinear array of externally driven coupled acoustic waveguides to shed light on the possible mechanisms for the experimentally observed behavior of the logical phi-bit phase. Finally, we illustrate the ability to experimentally initialize the state of single- and multiple- phi-bit systems by exploiting the drivers&rsquo; phase as a tuning parameter. We also show that the nonlinear correlation between phi-bits enables parallelism in the manipulation of two- and multi-phi-bit superpositions of states.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010021

Authors: Isaac Wilhelm

The centered Everett interpretation solves a problem that various approaches to quantum theory face. In this paper, I continue developing the theory underlying that solution. In particular, I defend the centered Everett interpretation against a few objections, and I provide additional motivation for some of its key features.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010020

Authors: José L. Romero Andrei B. Klimov

Quantum systems whose states are tightly distributed among several invariant subspaces (variable spin systems) can be described in terms of distributions in a four-dimensional phase-space T&lowast;S2 in the limit of large average angular momentum. The cotangent bundle T&lowast;S2 is also the classical manifold for systems with E(3) symmetry group with appropriately fixed Casimir operators. This allows us to employ the asymptotic form of the star-product proper for variable (integer) spin systems to develop a deformation quantization scheme for a particle moving on the two-dimensional sphere, whose observables are elements of e(3) algebra and the corresponding phase-space is T&lowast;S2. We show that the standard commutation relations of the e(3) algebra are recovered from the corresponding classical Poisson brackets and the explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of some quantized classical observables (such as the angular momentum operators and their squares) are obtained.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010019

Authors: Oleg V. Mikhailov Denis V. Chachkov

Based on the results of a quantum chemical calculation using the DFT method in the B3PW91/TZVP, OPBE/TZVP, M06/TZVP, and M062/Def2TZVP levels, the possibility of the existence of M(N13) chemical compounds (M = Mn, Fe) that are unknown for these elements has been predicted. Data on the structural parameters, the multiplicity of the ground state, APT and NBO analysis, and standard thermodynamic parameters of formation (standard enthalpy &Delta;fH0, entropy S0, and Gibbs&rsquo;s energy &Delta;fG0) for these compounds are presented.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010018

Authors: Hervé Zwirn

I show how the quantum paradoxes occurring when we adopt a standard realist framework (or a framework in which the collapse implies a physical change of the state of the system) vanish if we abandon the idea that a measurement is related (directly or indirectly) to a physical change of state. In Convivial Solipsism, similarly to Everett&rsquo;s interpretation, there is no collapse of the wave function. However, contrary to Everett&rsquo;s interpretation, there is only one world. This also allows us to get rid of any non-locality and to provide a solution to the Wigner&rsquo;s friend problem and its more recent versions.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010017

Authors: Michael M. Slepchenkov Pavel V. Barkov Olga E. Glukhova

In this article, quantum methods are used to study the optical properties of composite films formed by AB-stacked bilayer graphene and chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) (12, 6) with a diameter of 1.2 nm. The analysis of optical properties is carried out on the basis of the results of calculating the diagonal elements of complex optical conductivity tensor in the wavelength range of 0.2&ndash;2 &mu;m. Two cases of electromagnetic radiation polarization are considered: along the X axis (along the graphene bilayer) and along the Y axis (along the nanotube axis). The calculations are performed for three topological models (V1, V2, V3) of composite films, which differ in the width of the graphene bilayer and in the value of the shift between graphene layers. It is found that in the case of polarization along the X axis, the profile of the real part of optical conductivity in the region of extremal and middle UV radiation is determined by SWCNT (12, 6), and in the region of near UV and visible radiations, it is determined by bilayer graphene. In the case of polarization along the Y axis, the profile of the real part of optical conductivity in the region of extremal, near UV, and visible radiation is determined by SWCNT (12, 6), and in the region of the mid-UV range, it is determined by bilayer graphene. Regularities in the change in the profile of the surface optical conductivity of bilayer graphene-SWCNT (12,6) composite films under the action of stretching deformation along the Y axis are revealed. For models V1 (width of the graphene nanoribbon is 0.5 nm, the shift between layers is 0.48 nm) and V2 (width of the graphene nanoribbon is 0.71 nm, the shift between layers is 0.27 nm), the shift of the conductivity peaks in the region of extreme UV radiation along the wavelength to the right is shown. For the model V3 (width of the graphene nanoribbon is 0.92 nm, the shift between layers is 0.06 nm), the shift of the conductivity peaks to the right along the wavelength is observed not only in the region of extreme UV radiation, but also in the region of visible radiation. It is assumed that graphene-SWCNT (12,6) composite films with island topology are promising materials for photodetectors in the UV-visible and near-IR ranges.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010016

Authors: Paul Tappenden

The 2022 Tel Aviv conference on the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics highlighted many differences between theorists. A very significant dichotomy is between Everettian fission (splitting) and Saunders–Wallace–Wilson divergence. For fission, an observer may have multiple futures, whereas for divergence they always have a single future. Divergence was explicitly introduced to resolve the problem of pre-measurement uncertainty for Everettian theory, which is universally believed to be absent for fission. Here I maintain that there is indeed pre-measurement uncertainty prior to fission, so long as objective probability is a property of Everettian branches. This is made possible if the universe is a set and branches are subsets with a probability measure. A universe that is a set of universes that are macroscopically isomorphic and span all possible configurations of local beäbles fulfills that role. If objective probability is a property of branches, then a successful Deutsch–Wallace decision-theoretic argument would justify the Principal Principle and be part of probability theory rather than specific to many-worlds theory. Any macroscopic object in our environment becomes a set of isomorphs with different microscopic configurations, each in an elemental universe (elemental in the set-theoretic sense). This is similar to the many-interacting-worlds theory, but the observer inhabits the set of worlds, not an individual world. An observer has many elemental bodies.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010015

Authors: Per Arve

It is shown that the wavefunction describes our observations using the postulate that relates position to the distribution |Ψ|2. This finding implies that a primary ontology is unnecessary. However, what is real is not directly represented by the wavefunction but by the gauge invariants. In light of the presented ontology, Spacetime State Realism becomes not a fundamental ontology but derived.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010014

Authors: David Papineau Thomas Rowe

Everettians generally argue that their view recommends just the same rational choices as orthodoxy. In this note, however, we will show that Everettians should advocate non-standard choices in one specific kind of situation, namely situations where different people have unequal claims to an indivisible good.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010013

Authors: Gustavo Álvarez Gorazd Cvetič Bernd A. Kniehl Igor Kondrashuk Ivan Parra-Ferrada

We consider a simple model for QCD dynamics in which DGLAP integro-differential equation may be solved analytically. This is a gauge model which possesses dominant evolution of gauge boson (gluon) distribution and in which the gauge coupling does not run. This may be N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory with softly broken supersymmetry, other finite supersymmetric gauge theory with a lower level of supersymmetry, or topological Chern&ndash;Simons field theories. We maintain only one term in the splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution and solve DGLAP analytically for this simplified splitting function. The solution is found using the Cauchy integral formula. The solution restricts the form of the unintegrated gluon distribution as a function of momentum transfer and of Bjorken x. Then, we consider an almost realistic splitting function of unintegrated gluon distribution as an input to DGLAP equation and solve it by the same method which we have developed to solve DGLAP equation for the toy-model. We study a result obtained for the realistic gluon distribution and find a singular Bessel-like behavior in the vicinity of the point x=0 and a smooth behavior in the vicinity of the point x=1.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010012

Authors: Tomasz Bigaj

This paper discusses the fundamental assumptions and background of the consistent histories (CH) approach to quantum mechanics. The focus of the paper is on the concept of frameworks. It is proposed that frameworks should be interpreted objectively as observer-independent realities. Two further options are considered: a hidden-variables variant of the CH approach, and a many-worlds version, which considers each individual history belonging to a given family as describing a separate world. The latter interpretation is subsequently compared and contrasted with the standard many-worlds interpretation. Finally, the solution to the measurement problem offered by the many-worlds variant of CH is analyzed and amended.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010011

Authors: Mordecai Waegell

In 1948, Schwinger developed a local Lorentz-covariant formulation of relativistic quantum electrodynamics in space-time which is fundamentally inconsistent with any delocalized interpretation of quantum mechanics. An interpretation compatible with Schwinger&rsquo;s theory is presented, which reproduces all of the standard empirical predictions of conventional delocalized quantum theory in configuration space. This is an explicit, unambiguous, and Lorentz-covariant &ldquo;local hidden variable theory&rdquo; in space-time, whose existence proves definitively that such theories are possible. This does not conflict with Bell&rsquo;s theorem because it is a local many-worlds theory. Each physical system is characterized by a wave-field, which is a set of indexed piece-wise single-particle wavefunctions in space-time, each with its own coefficient, along with a memory which contains the separate local Hilbert-space quantum state at each event in space-time. Each single-particle wavefunction of a fundamental system describes the motion of a portion of a conserved fluid in space-time, with the fluid decomposing into many classical point particles, each following a world-line and recording a local memory. Local interactions between two systems take the form of local boundary conditions between the differently indexed pieces of those systems&rsquo; wave-fields, with new indexes encoding each orthogonal outcome of the interaction. The general machinery is introduced, including the local mechanisms for entanglement and interference. The experience of collapse, Born rule probability, and environmental decoherence are discussed, and a number of illustrative examples are given.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010010

Authors: Shradha Deshmukh Bikash K. Behera Preeti Mulay

Quantum computing is one of the most promising solutions for solving optimization problems in the healthcare world. Quantum computing development aims to light up the execution of a vast and complex set of algorithmic instructions. For its implementation, the machine learning models are continuously evolving. Hence, the new challenge is to improve the existing complex and critical machine learning training models. Therefore, the healthcare sector is shifting from a classical to a quantum domain to sustain patient-oriented attention to healthcare patrons. This paper presents a hybrid classical-quantum approach for training the unsupervised data models. In order to achieve good performance and optimization of the machine learning algorithms, a quantum k-means (QK-means) clustering problem was deployed on the IBM quantum simulators, i.e.,the IBM QASM simulator. In the first place, the approach was theoretically studied and then implemented to analyze the experimental results. The approach was further tested using small synthetics and cardiovascular datasets on a qsam simulator to obtain the clustering solution. The future direction connecting the dots is the incremental k-means algorithm with the quantum platform, which would open hitherto unimaginable technological doors.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010009

Authors: Jesús S. Dehesa

Statistical measures of complexity hold significant potential for applications in D-dimensional finite fermion systems, spanning from the quantification of the internal disorder of atoms and molecules to the information&ndash;theoretical analysis of chemical reactions. This potential will be shown in hydrogenic systems by means of the monotone complexity measures of Cram&eacute;r&ndash;Rao, Fisher&ndash;Shannon and LMC(Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini, Calbet)&ndash;R&eacute;nyi types. These quantities are shown to be analytically determined from first principles, i.e., explicitly in terms of the space dimensionality D, the nuclear charge and the hyperquantum numbers, which characterize the system&rsquo; states. Then, they are applied to several relevant classes of particular states with emphasis on the quasi-spherical and the highly excited Rydberg states, obtaining compact and physically transparent expressions. This is possible because of the use of powerful techniques of approximation theory and orthogonal polynomials, asymptotics and generalized hypergeometric functions.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010008

Authors: Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

We show that the quantum wavefunctional can be seen as a set of classical fields on the 3D space aggregated by a measure. We obtain a complete description of the wavefunctional in terms of classical local beables. With this correspondence, classical explanations of the macro level and of probabilities transfer almost directly to the quantum. A key difference is that, in quantum theory, the classical states coexist in parallel, so the probabilities come from self-location uncertainty. We show that these states are distributed according to the Born rule. The coexistence of classical states implies that there are many worlds, even if we assume the collapse postulate. This leads automatically to a new version of the many-worlds interpretation in which the major objections are addressed naturally. We show that background-free quantum gravity provides additional support for this proposal and suggests why branching happens toward the future.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010007

Authors: Valia Allori

In this paper, I argue that the many-worlds theory, even if it is arguably the mathematically most straightforward realist reading of quantum formalism, even if it is arguably local and deterministic, is not universally regarded as the best realist quantum theory because it provides a type of explanation that is not universally accepted. Since people disagree about what desiderata a satisfactory physical theory should possess, they also disagree about which explanatory schema one should look for in a theory, and this leads different people to different options.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010006

Authors: Quantum Reports Editorial Office Quantum Reports Editorial Office

High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010005

Authors: Michel Boyer Gilles Brassard Nicolas Godbout Rotem Liss Stéphane Virally

Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols aim at allowing two parties to generate a secret shared key. While many QKD protocols have been proven unconditionally secure in theory, practical security analyses of experimental QKD implementations typically do not take into account all possible loopholes, and practical devices are still not fully characterized for obtaining tight and realistic key rates. We present a simple method of computing secure key rates for any practical implementation of discrete-variable QKD (which can also apply to measurement-device-independent QKD), initially in the single-qubit lossless regime, and we rigorously prove its unconditional security against any possible attack. We hope our method becomes one of the standard tools used for analysing, benchmarking, and standardizing all practical realizations of QKD.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010004

Authors: Clement A. Onate Ituen B. Okon Gian. O. Jude Michael C. Onyeaju Akaninyene. D. Antia

The solutions for a combination of the isotropic harmonic oscillator plus the inversely quadratic potentials and a combination of the pseudo-harmonic with inversely quadratic potentials has not been reported, though the individual potentials have been given attention. This study focuses on the solutions of the combination of the potentials, as stated above using the parametric Nikiforov&ndash;Uvarov (PNV) as the traditional technique to obtain the energy equations and their corresponding unnormalized radial wave functions. To deduce the application of these potentials, the expectation values, the uncertainty in the position and momentum, and the thermodynamic properties, such as the mean energy, entropy, heat capacity, and the free mean energy, are also calculated via the partition function. The result shows that the spectra for the PHIQ are higher than the spectra for the IHOIQ. It is also shown that the product of the uncertainties obeyed the Heisenberg uncertainty relation/principle. Finally, the thermal properties of the two potentials exhibit similar behaviours.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010003

Authors: Martin Bojowald Artur Tsobanjan

Quantum reference frames are expected to differ from classical reference frames because they have to implement typical quantum features such as fluctuations and correlations. Here, we show that fluctuations and correlations of reference variables, in particular of time, are restricted by their very nature of being used for reference. Mathematically, this property is implemented by imposing constraints on the system to make sure that reference variables are not physical degrees of freedom. These constraints not only relate physical degrees of freedom to reference variables in order to describe their behavior, they also restrict quantum fluctuations of reference variables and their correlations with system degrees of freedom. We introduce the notion of &ldquo;almost-positive&rdquo; states as a suitable mathematical method. An explicit application of their properties to examples of recent interest in quantum reference frames reveals previously unrecognized restrictions on possible frame&ndash;system interactions. While currently discussed clock models rely on assumptions that, as shown here, make them consistent as quantum reference frames, relaxing these assumptions will expose the models to new restrictions that appear to be rather strong. Almost-positive states also shed some light on a recent debate about the consistency of relational quantum mechanics.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010002

Authors: Felipe Castañeda-Ramírez Moisés Martínez-Mares

Scattering matrices that can be diagonalized by a rotation through an angle &theta; in 2&times;2 blocks of independent scattering matrices of rank N, are considered. Assuming that the independent scattering matrices are chosen from one of the circular ensembles, or from the Poisson kernel, the 2N&times;2N scattering matrix may describe the scattering through chaotic cavities with reduced symmetry in the absence, or presence, of direct processes, respectively. To illustrate the effect of such symmetry, the statistical distribution of the dimensionless conductance through a ballistic chaotic cavity in the presence of direct processes is analyzed for N=1 using analytical calculations. We make a conjecture for N=2 in the absence of direct processes, which is verified by numerical random-matrix theory simulations, and the first two moments are calculated analytically for arbitrary N.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum5010001

Authors: Jawad Allam Alex Matzkin

We investigate the effect of time-dependent boundary conditions on the dynamics of a quantum bouncer&mdash;a particle falling in a homogeneous gravitational field on a moving mirror. We examine more particularly the way a moving mirror modifies the properties of the entire wavefunction of a falling particle. We find that some effects, such as the fact that a quantum particle hitting a moving mirror may bounce significantly higher than when the mirror is fixed, are in line with classical intuition. Other effects, such as the change in relative phases or in the current density in spatial regions arbitrarily far from the mirror are specifically quantum. We further discuss how the effects produced by a moving mirror could be observed in link with current experiments, in particular with cold neutrons.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040044

Authors: Del Rajan

Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks are a significant issue in classical networks. These attacks have been shown to impact the critical infrastructure of a nation, such as its major financial institutions. The possibility of DDoS attacks has also been identified for quantum networks. In this theoretical work, we introduce a quantum analogue of classical entropic DDoS detection systems and apply it in the context of detecting an attack on a quantum network. In particular, we examine DDoS attacks on a quantum repeater and harness the associated entanglement entropy for the detection system. Our results extend the applicability of quantum information from the domain of data security to the area of network security.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040043

Authors: Marta Reboiro Diego Tielas

In this work, we study the thermodynamics of a hybrid system based on the Da Providencia&ndash;Sch&uuml;tte Hamiltonian. The model consists of bosons, i.e., photons in a cavity, interacting with an ensemble of spins through a pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We compute the exact partition function of the system, and from it, we derive the statistical properties of the system. Finally, we evaluate the work that can be extracted from the system by performing an Otto cycle and discuss the advantages of the proposed pseudo-Hermitian interaction.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040042

Authors: Nathaniel Wrobel Anshumitra Baul Ka-Ming Tam Juana Moreno

Machine learning has been applied to a wide variety of models, from classical statistical mechanics to quantum strongly correlated systems, for classifying phase transitions. The recently proposed quantum convolutional neural network (QCNN) provides a new framework for using quantum circuits instead of classical neural networks as the backbone of classification methods. We present the results from training the QCNN by the wavefunctions of the variational quantum eigensolver for the one-dimensional transverse field Ising model (TFIM). We demonstrate that the QCNN identifies wavefunctions corresponding to the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of the TFIM with reasonable accuracy. The QCNN can be trained to predict the corresponding &lsquo;phase&rsquo; of wavefunctions around the putative quantum critical point even though it is trained by wavefunctions far away. The paper provides a basis for exploiting the QCNN to identify the quantum critical point.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040041

Authors: Lajos Diósi

Based on the assumption that the standard Schr&ouml;dinger equation becomes gravitationally modified for massive macroscopic objects, two independent proposals have survived from the 1980s. The Schr&ouml;dinger&ndash;Newton equation (1984) provides well-localized solitons for free macro-objects but lacks the mechanism of how extended wave functions collapse on solitons. The gravity-related stochastic Schr&ouml;dinger equation (1989) provides the spontaneous collapse, but the resulting solitons undergo a tiny diffusion, leading to an inconvenient steady increase in the kinetic energy. We propose the stochastic Schr&ouml;dinger&ndash;Newton equation, which contains the above two gravity-related modifications together. Then, the wave functions of free macroscopic bodies will gradually and stochastically collapse to solitons, which perform inertial motion without momentum diffusion: conservation of momentum and energy is restored.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040040

Authors: Alfredo M. Ozorio de Almeida

Oscillations in the probability density of quantum transitions of the eigenstates of a chaotic Hamiltonian within classically narrow energy ranges have been shown to depend on closed compound orbits. These are formed by a pair of orbit segments, one in the energy shell of the original Hamiltonian and the other in the energy shell of the driven Hamiltonian, with endpoints that coincide. Viewed in the time domain, the same pair of trajectory segments arises in the semiclassical evaluation of the trace of a compound propagator: the product of the complex exponentials of the original Hamiltonian and of its driven image. It is shown here that the probability density is the double Fourier transform of this trace, and that the closed compound orbits emulate the role played by the periodic orbits in Gutzwiller&rsquo;s trace formula in its semiclassical evaluation. The phase of the oscillations with the energies or the evolution parameters agree with those previously obtained, whereas the amplitude of the contribution of each closed compound orbit is more compact and independent of any feature of the Weyl&ndash;Wigner representation in which the calculation was carried out.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040039

Authors: Ademir de J. Santos Frederico V. Prudente Marcilio N. Guimarães Wallas S. Nascimento

We present an informational study of a spherically confined hydrogen atom, a hydrogenic ion confined in a strongly coupled plasma, a spherically confined harmonic oscillator, and a particle confined in a cage. For this, we have implemented a numerical procedure to obtain information entropies of these confined quantum systems. The procedure is based on the variational formalism that uses the finite element method (FEM) for the expansion of the wavefunction in terms of local base functions. Such a study is carried out in order to analyze what happens in the rigorous confinement regime. In particular, we have shown that the effects of the interaction potential is no longer important for rigorous confinements and the studied systems start to behave just like an electron confined by a impenetrable spherical cage. When possible, we compared our results with those published in the literature.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040038

Authors: Anatoly Yu. Zakharov

A method is proposed for describing the dynamics of systems of interacting particles in terms of an auxiliary field, which in the static mode is equivalent to given interatomic potentials, and in the dynamic mode is a classical relativistic composite field. It is established that for interatomic potentials, the Fourier transform of which is a rational algebraic function of the wave vector, the auxiliary field is a composition of elementary fields that satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation with complex masses. The interaction between particles carried by the auxiliary field is nonlocal both in space variables and in time. The temporal non-locality is due to the dynamic nature of the auxiliary field and can be described in terms of functional-differential equations of retarded type. Due to the finiteness mass of the auxiliary field, the delay in interactions between particles can be arbitrarily large. A qualitative analysis of the dynamics of few-body and many-body systems with retarded interactions has been carried out, and a non-statistical mechanisms for both the thermodynamic behavior of systems and synergistic effects has been established.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040037

Authors: Michel Planat David Chester Marcelo M. Amaral Klee Irwin

We recently proposed that topological quantum computing might be based on SL(2,C) representations of the fundamental group &pi;1(S3\K) for the complement of a link K in the three-sphere. The restriction to links whose associated SL(2,C) character variety V contains a Fricke surface &kappa;d=xyz&minus;x2&minus;y2&minus;z2+d is desirable due to the connection of Fricke spaces to elementary topology. Taking K as the Hopf link L2a1, one of the three arithmetic two-bridge links (the Whitehead link 512, the Berge link 622 or the double-eight link 632) or the link 732, the V for those links contains the reducible component &kappa;4, the so-called Cayley cubic. In addition, the V for the latter two links contains the irreducible component &kappa;3, or &kappa;2, respectively. Taking &rho; to be a representation with character &kappa;d (d&lt;4), with |x|,|y|,|z|&le;2, then &rho;(&pi;1) fixes a unique point in the hyperbolic space H3 and is a conjugate to a SU(2) representation (a qubit). Even though details on the physical implementation remain open, more generally, we show that topological quantum computing may be developed from the point of view of three-bridge links, the topology of the four-punctured sphere and Painlev&eacute; VI equation. The 0-surgery on the three circles of the Borromean rings L6a4 is taken as an example.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040036

Authors: Miguel Citeli de Freitas Viktor V. Dodonov

In this paper, we numerically study the coordinate wave functions and the Wigner functions of the coherent phase states (CPS), paying particular attention to their differences from the standard (Klauder&ndash;Glauber&ndash;Sudarshan) coherent states, especially in the case of the high mean values of the number operator. In this case, the CPS can possess a strong coordinate (or momentum) squeezing, which is roughly twice weaker than for the vacuum squeezed states. The Robertson&ndash;Schr&ouml;dinger invariant uncertainty product in the CPS logarithmically increases with the mean value of the number operator (whereas it is constant for the standard coherent states). Some measures of the (non)Gaussianity of CPS are considered.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040035

Authors: Andrey Akhmeteli

The article contains a review and new results of some mathematical models relevant to the interpretation of quantum mechanics and emulating well-known quantum gauge theories, such as scalar electrodynamics (Klein&ndash;Gordon&ndash;Maxwell electrodynamics), spinor electrodynamics (Dirac&ndash;Maxwell electrodynamics), etc. In these models, evolution is typically described by modified Maxwell equations. In the case of scalar electrodynamics, the scalar complex wave function can be made real by a gauge transformation, the wave function can be algebraically eliminated from the equations of scalar electrodynamics, and the resulting modified Maxwell equations describe the independent evolution of the electromagnetic field. Similar results were obtained for spinor electrodynamics. Three out of four components of the Dirac spinor can be algebraically eliminated from the Dirac equation, and the remaining component can be made real by a gauge transformation. A similar result was obtained for the Dirac equation in the Yang&ndash;Mills field. As quantum gauge theories play a central role in modern physics, the approach of this article may be sufficiently general. One-particle wave functions can be modeled as plasma-like collections of a large number of particles and antiparticles. This seems to enable the simulation of quantum phase-space distribution functions, such as the Wigner distribution function, which are not necessarily non-negative.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040034

Authors: Zoran Rukelj Danko Radić

We report the topological properties, in terms of the Berry phase, of the 2D noninteracting system with electron&ndash;hole band inversion, described by the two-band generalized analogue of the low-energy Bernevig&ndash;Hughes&ndash;Zhang Hamiltonian, yielding the W-shaped energy bands in the form of two intersecting cones with the gap along the closed continuous loop. We identify the range of parameters where the Berry phase attains qualitatively different values: (a) the integer multiplier of 2&pi;, (b) the integer multiplier of &pi;, and (c) the nontrivial value between the latter two, which depends on the system parameters. The system thus exhibits the anomalous quantum Hall effect associated with the nontrivial geometric phase, which is presumably tunable through the choice of parameters at hand.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040033

Authors: Agustin Silva Omar Gustavo Zabaleta Constancio Miguel Arizmendi

The quantization of games expand the players strategy space, allowing the emergence of more equilibriums. However, finding these equilibriums is difficult, especially if players are allowed to use mixed strategies. The size of the exploration space expands so much for quantum games that makes far harder to find the player&rsquo;s best strategy. In this work, we propose a method to learn and visualize mixed quantum strategies and compare them with their classical counterpart. In our model, players do not know in advance which game they are playing (pay-off matrix) neither the action selected nor the reward obtained by their competitors at each step, they only learn from an individual feedback reward signal. In addition, we study both the influence of entanglement and noise on the performance of various quantum games.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040032

Authors: Pedro Schlottmann

The T=0 excitation spectra of the antiferromagnetic (J&gt;0) anisotropic Heisenberg chain of spins 1/2 are studied using the Bethe Ansatz equations for &Delta;=cos(&pi;/n), n=3,4 and 5. The number of unknown functions is n&minus;1 for &Delta;=cos(&pi;/n) and can be solved numerically for a finite external field. The low-energy excitations form a Luttinger liquid parametrized by a conformal field theory with conformal charge of c=1. For higher energy excitations, the spectral functions display deviations from the Luttinger behavior arising from the curvature in the dispersion. Adding a corrective term of the form of a mobile impurity coupled to the Luttinger liquid modes corrects this difference. The &ldquo;impurity&rdquo; is an irrelevant operator, which if treated non-perturbatively, yields the threshold singularities in the one-spinwave particle and hole Green&rsquo;s function correctly.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040031

Authors: Roberto Leporini Davide Pastorello

In quantum machine learning, feature vectors are encoded into quantum states. Measurements for the discrimination of states are useful tools for classification problems. Classification algorithms inspired by quantum state discrimination have recently been implemented on classical computers. We present a local approach combining Vonoroi-type tessellation of a training set with pretty-good measurements for quantum state discrimination.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040030

Authors: Edward Rietman Leslie Schuum Ayush Salik Manor Askenazi Hava Siegelmann

Stephen Wolfram (2002) proposed the concept of computational equivalence, which implies that almost any dynamical system can be considered as a computation, including programmable matter and nonlinear materials such as, so called, quantum matter. Memristors are often used in building and evaluating hardware neural networks. Ukil (2011) demonstrated a theoretical relationship between piezoelectrical materials and memristors. We review that work as a necessary background prior to our work on exploring a piezoelectric material for neural network computation. Our method consisted of using a cubic block of unpoled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic, to which we have attached wires for programming the PZT as a programmable substrate. We then, by means of pulse trains, constructed on-the-fly internal patterns of regions of aligned polarization and unaligned, or disordered regions. These dynamic patterns come about through constructive and destructive interference and may be exploited as a type of reservoir network. Using MNIST data we demonstrate a learning machine.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040029

Authors: Stan Gudder

We first define the coarse-graining of probability measures in terms of stochastic kernels. We define when a probability measure is part of another probability measure and say that two probability measures coexist if they are both parts of a single probability measure. We then show that any two probability measures coexist. We extend these concepts to observables and instruments and mention that two observables need not coexist. We define the discretization of an observable as a special case of coarse-graining and show that these have 0&ndash;1 stochastic kernels. We next consider finite observables and instruments and show that in these cases, stochastic kernels are replaced by stochastic matrices. We also show that coarse-graining is the same as post-processing in this finite case. We then consider sequential products of observables and discuss the sequential product of a post-processed observable with another observable. We briefly discuss SIC observables and the example of qubit observables.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040028

Authors: Ferenc Márkus Katalin Gambár

Today, two of the most prosperous fields of physics are quantum computing and spintronics. In both, the loss of information and dissipation play a crucial role. In the present work, we formulate the quantization of the dissipative oscillator, which aids the understanding of the abovementioned issues, and creates a theoretical frame to overcome these issues in the future. Based on the Lagrangian framework of the damped spring system, the canonically conjugated pairs and the Hamiltonian of the system are obtained; then, the quantization procedure can be started and consistently applied. As a result, the damping quantum wave equation of the dissipative oscillator is deduced, and an exact damping wave solution of this equation is obtained. Consequently, we arrive at an irreversible quantum theory by which the quantum losses can be described.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040027

Authors: Tomah Sogabe Tomoaki Kimura Chih-Chieh Chen Kodai Shiba Nobuhiro Kasahara Masaru Sogabe Katsuyoshi Sakamoto

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology leads to new insights into the manipulation of quantum systems in the Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) era. Classical agent-based artificial intelligence algorithms provide a framework for the design or control of quantum systems. Traditional reinforcement learning methods are designed for the Markov Decision Process (MDP) and, hence, have difficulty in dealing with partially observable or quantum observable decision processes. Due to the difficulty of building or inferring a model of a specified quantum system, a model-free-based control approach is more practical and feasible than its counterpart of a model-based approach. In this work, we apply a model-free deep recurrent Q-network (DRQN) reinforcement learning method for qubit-based quantum circuit architecture design problems. This paper is the first attempt to solve the quantum circuit design problem from the recurrent reinforcement learning algorithm, while using discrete policy. Simulation results suggest that our long short-term memory (LSTM)-based DRQN method is able to learn quantum circuits for entangled Bell&ndash;Greenberger&ndash;Horne&ndash;Zeilinger (Bell&ndash;GHZ) states. However, since we also observe unstable learning curves in experiments, suggesting that the DRQN could be a promising method for AI-based quantum circuit design application, more investigation on the stability issue would be required.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4040026

Authors: Jean-Pierre Gazeau Romain Murenzi

Covariant integral quantizations are based on the resolution of the identity by continuous or discrete families of normalized positive operator valued measures (POVM), which have appealing probabilistic content and which transform in a covariant way. One of their advantages is their ability to circumvent problems due to the presence of singularities in the classical models. In this paper, we implement covariant integral quantizations for systems whose phase space is Z&times;S1, i.e., for systems moving on the circle. The symmetry group of this phase space is the discrete &amp; compact version of the Weyl&ndash;Heisenberg group, namely the central extension of the abelian group Z&times;SO(2). In this regard, the phase space is viewed as the right coset of the group with its center. The non-trivial unitary irreducible representation of this group, as acting on L2(S1), is square integrable on the phase space. We show how to derive corresponding covariant integral quantizations from (weight) functions on the phase space and resulting resolution of the identity. As particular cases of the latter we recover quantizations with de Bi&egrave;vre-del Olmo&ndash;Gonzales and Kowalski&ndash;Rembielevski&ndash;Papaloucas coherent states on the circle. Another straightforward outcome of our approach is the Mukunda Wigner transform. We also look at the specific cases of coherent states built from shifted gaussians, Von Mises, Poisson, and Fej&eacute;r kernels. Applications to stellar representations are in progress.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4030025

Authors: Denis V. Chachkov Oleg V. Mikhailov

By means of the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(df,p) and G4 quantum-chemical calculation methods, the calculation of the molecular and electronic structures of boron&ndash;nitrogen compounds having the B3N3 composition was carried out and its results were discussed. It was noted that seven isomeric forms with different space structures can exist; wherein, the most stable form is a distorted flat hexagon with alternating B and N atoms, with both B and N atoms forming regular triangles, but with different side lengths. The values of geometric parameters of molecular structures in each of these compounds are presented. Also, the key thermodynamic parameters of formation (enthalpy &Delta;fH0, entropy S0, Gibbs&rsquo; energy &Delta;fG0) and relative total energies of these compounds are calculated.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4030024

Authors: Majid Monajjemi Fatemeh Mollaamin Neda Samiei Soofi

The symmetry breaking (SB) of B2 not only exhibits an energy barrier for ionic or neutral forms dependent on various basis sets but it also exhibits a few SBs due to the asymmetry stretching and bending mode interactions. SB obeys the mechanical quantum theorem among discrete symmetries and their connection to the spin statistics in physical sciences. In this investigation, the unusual amount of energy barrier of SBs appeared upon the orbit&ndash;orbit coupling of BNB (both radical and ions) between transition states and the ground state. Our goal in this study is to understand the difference among the electromagnetic structures of the (B2N(&#8723;,0)) variants due to effects of various basis sets and methods and also the quantum symmetry breaking phenomenon. In the D&infin;h point group of (B2N(&#8723;,0)) variants, the unpaired electron is delocalized, while in the asymmetric C&infin;v point group, it is localized on either one of the B atoms. Structures with broken symmetry, C&infin;v, can be stable by interacting with the D&infin;h point group. In viewpoints of quantum chemistry, the second-order Jahn&ndash;Teller effect permits the unpaired electron to localize on boron atom, rather than being delocalized. In this study, we observed that the energy barrier of SB for BNB increases by post HF methods.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4030023

Authors: Salim Yasmineh

In Newtonian physics, the equation of motion is invariant when the direction of time (t&rarr;&minus;t) is flipped. However, in quantum physics, flipping the direction of time changes the sign of the Schr&ouml;dinger equation. An anti-unitary operator is needed to restore time reversal in quantum physics, but this is at the cost of not having a consistent definition of time reversal applicable to all fundamental theories. On the other hand, a quantum system&nbsp;composed of a pair of entangled particles behaves in such a manner that when the state of one particle is measured, the second particle &lsquo;simultaneously&rsquo; acquires a determinate state. A notion of absolute simultaneity seems to be inferred by quantum mechanics, even though it is forbidden by the postulates of relativity. We aim to point out that the above two problems can be overcome if the wavefunction is defined with respect to proper time, which in fact is the real physical time instead of ordinary time.

]]>Quantum Reports doi: 10.3390/quantum4030022

Authors: Miloslav Znojil

For the displaced harmonic double-well oscillator, the existence of exact polynomial bound states at certain displacements d is revealed. The N-plets of these quasi-exactly solvable (QES) states are constructed in closed form. For non-QES states, the Schr&ouml;dinger equation can still be considered &ldquo;non-polynomially exactly solvable&rdquo; (NES) because the exact left and right parts of the wave function (proportional to confluent hypergeometric function) just have to be matched in the origin.

]]>