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Dairy, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 11 articles

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Article
Organic Farm Bedded Pack System Microbiomes: A Case Study with Comparisons to Similar and Different Bedded Packs
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 587-607; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030042 (registering DOI) - 19 Aug 2022
Abstract
Animal housing and bedding materials influence cow and farm worker exposure to microbial pathogens, biocontrol agents, and/or allergens. This case study represents an effort to characterize the bacterial and fungal community of bedding systems using an amplicon sequencing approach supplemented with the ecological [...] Read more.
Animal housing and bedding materials influence cow and farm worker exposure to microbial pathogens, biocontrol agents, and/or allergens. This case study represents an effort to characterize the bacterial and fungal community of bedding systems using an amplicon sequencing approach supplemented with the ecological assessment of cultured Trichocomaceae isolates (focusing on Penicillium and Aspergillus species) and yeasts (Saccharomycetales). Bedding from five certified organic dairy farms in northern Vermont USA were sampled monthly between October 2015 and May 2016. Additional herd level samples from bulk tank milk and two bedding types were collected from two farms to collect fungal isolates for culturing and ecology. Most of the microorganisms in cattle bedding were microbial decomposers (saprophytes) or coprophiles, on account of the bedding being composed of dead plant matter, cattle feces, and urine. Composition of bacterial and fungal communities exhibited distinct patterns of ecological succession measured through time and by bedding depth. Community composition patterns were related to management practices and choice of bedding material. Aspergillus and Penicillium species exhibited niche differentiation expressed as differential substrate requirements; however, they generally exhibited traits of early colonizers of bedding substrates, typically rich in carbon and low in nitrogen. Pichia kudriavzevii was the most prevalent species cultured from milk and bedding. P. kudriavzevii produced protease and its abundance directly related to temperature. The choice of bedding and its management represent a potential opportunity to curate the microbial community of the housing environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Farm System and Management)
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Article
Incidence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Milk Products from Punjab, Pakistan, and Estimation of Dietary Intake
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 577-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030041 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
In the present study, 124 samples of milk and milk products were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which were purchased from the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography, which [...] Read more.
In the present study, 124 samples of milk and milk products were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which were purchased from the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography, which was equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results showed that 66 samples (53.8%) of raw milk and milk products were found to be contaminated with detectable levels of AFM1 above ≤50 ng/L, and 24.2% of the samples had levels of AFM1 higher than the permissible limit of the European Union (EU; 50 ng/kg). In total, 53.6% of the raw milk, 57.8% of the UHT (ultra-heat-temperature) milk, 45% of the powdered milk, 57.1% of the yogurt, 55.5% of the cheese, and 50% of the buttermilk samples had levels higher than the LOD, i.e., 4 ng/L. The highest mean of 82.4 ± 7.8 ng/kg of AFM1 was present in the positive samples of raw milk. The highest dietary intake of AFM1 was found in infants’ milk (5.35 ng/kg/day), UHT milk (1.80 ng/kg/day), powdered milk (5.25 ng/kg/day), and yogurt (1.11 ng/kg/day). However, no dietary intake was detected in the cheese and butter milk samples used for infants. The results from the undertaken work are beneficial for establishing rigorous limits for AFB1 in animal feed, especially considering the high prevalence rate of hepatitis cases in the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry)
Article
Effect of Storage of Skim Milk Powder, Nonfat Dry Milk and Milk Protein Concentrate on Functional Properties
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 565-576; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030040 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 246
Abstract
The physicochemical changes during the storage of high protein powders, such as skim milk powder (SMP), nonfat dry milk (NDM), and milk protein concentrates (MPC), can result in a variation in the functional properties of the powders. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
The physicochemical changes during the storage of high protein powders, such as skim milk powder (SMP), nonfat dry milk (NDM), and milk protein concentrates (MPC), can result in a variation in the functional properties of the powders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the storage of various milk powders (SMP, NDM, MPC40, and MPC70) on their functional properties. Three different lots of the powders were collected from US manufacturers and were analyzed for functional properties after 3, 9, and 15 months of storage at 25 °C. Additionally, this study also evaluated the effects of seasonal variation on the functionality of SMP and NDM. Functional properties, such as solubility, emulsification ability index (EAI), foaming, and surface hydrophobicity index (SHI), were evaluated at each storage time point. The solubility of MPC70 and the foam overrun of SMP, MPC40, and MPC70 decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with an increase in the storage time. The emulsification properties of MPC70 were significantly higher than other powders. Except for foam drainage, there was no effect of the season on the SMP and NDM functional properties. The storage of milk powders has an impact on some functional properties, and a proper selection of powders based on end-use is recommended. Full article
Review
Antibiotics in Dairy Production: Where Is the Problem?
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 541-564; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030039 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Antibiotics have long been used for the prevention and treatment of common diseases and for prophylactic purposes in dairy animals. However, in recent decades it has become a matter of concern due to the widespread belief that there has been an abuse or [...] Read more.
Antibiotics have long been used for the prevention and treatment of common diseases and for prophylactic purposes in dairy animals. However, in recent decades it has become a matter of concern due to the widespread belief that there has been an abuse or misuse of these drugs in animals and that this misuse has led to the presence of residues in derived foods, such as milk and dairy products. Therefore, this review aims to compile the scientific literature published to date on the presence of antibiotic residues in these products worldwide. The focus is on the reasons that lead to their presence in food, on the potential problems caused by residues in the characteristics of dairy products and in their manufacturing process, on the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and on the effects that both residues and resistant bacteria can cause on human and environmental health. Full article
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Article
Seasonal Variations of Milk Composition of Sarda and Saanen Dairy Goats
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 528-540; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030038 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Traditionally, in Mediterranean areas the goat population was composed of autochthonous breeds with strong milk production seasonality. In the last decades, high productive alpine breeds were introduced together with more widespread out-of-season milk production practices. This study is a large-scale survey on the [...] Read more.
Traditionally, in Mediterranean areas the goat population was composed of autochthonous breeds with strong milk production seasonality. In the last decades, high productive alpine breeds were introduced together with more widespread out-of-season milk production practices. This study is a large-scale survey on the seasonal variations of the main compositional characteristics of goat milk obtained from Sarda and Saanen breeds reared on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (Italy). Analysis of data indicated that milk from the Sarda breed was significantly richer, at p < 0.001, in protein, fat, and lactose, and had a lower urea mean content than Saanen. Throughout the year, fluctuations of mean contents of the milk parameters were similar for the two groups of goats, indicating that, besides genetic intrinsic differences, climate and herbage growth influenced the Sarda as well as the Saanen goats. During the summer, milk from Saanen showed a marked drop in fat and protein contents, with 21% of samples showing a fat-to-protein ratio <1. No significant differences were found for the somatic cell count; however, the Sarda breed showed a higher bacterial count, suggesting improper milk handling and/or storage equipment more frequently encountered in extensive and semi-extensive farm systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Small Ruminants)
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Article
The Importance of Cow-Individual Effects and Diet, Ambient Temperature, and Horn Status on Delayed Luminescence of Milk from Brown Swiss Dairy Cows
by and
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 513-527; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030037 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 359
Abstract
To investigate the importance of cow-individual effects and the importance of horn status (horned vs. disbudded), of diet (hay with and without concentrates), and of ambient temperature (10 °C vs. 25 °C) on delayed luminescence (DL) parameters of milk samples, fluorescence excitation spectroscopic [...] Read more.
To investigate the importance of cow-individual effects and the importance of horn status (horned vs. disbudded), of diet (hay with and without concentrates), and of ambient temperature (10 °C vs. 25 °C) on delayed luminescence (DL) parameters of milk samples, fluorescence excitation spectroscopic (FES) measurements were performed on a total of n = 152 milk samples from 20 cows of a cross-over experiment. Cow-individual variation was investigated in relation to the horn status, diet effects were evaluated by cow in relation to sampling effects, and regression analysis was used to evaluate the importance of the experimental factors on the variation of emission parameters. Variation of short-term emission after yellow excitation (530 to 800 nm) was predominantly related to the individual cow (disbudded cows tended to higher values), and was partly affected by feeding, with higher emission for concentrate-added diets. Short-term emission after white excitation (260 to 850 nm) was most related to ambient temperature, with higher values at warm temperature. Higher emission was observed also in aged (stored) samples or after delayed cooling. The emission after yellow showed to be more robust to handling and ageing of the milk than the emission after white; possible relations to digestive processes of the cow (including the microbiome) are warranted. Full article
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Review
Thermal Denaturation of Milk Whey Proteins: A Comprehensive Review on Rapid Quantification Methods Being Studied, Developed and Implemented
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 500-512; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030036 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Heat treatment of milk signifies a certain degree of protein denaturation, which modifies the functional properties of dairy products. Traditional methods for detecting and quantifying the denaturation of whey proteins are slow, complex and require sample preparation and qualified staff. The world’s current [...] Read more.
Heat treatment of milk signifies a certain degree of protein denaturation, which modifies the functional properties of dairy products. Traditional methods for detecting and quantifying the denaturation of whey proteins are slow, complex and require sample preparation and qualified staff. The world’s current trend is to develop rapid, real-time analytical methods that do not destroy the sample and can be applied on/in-line during processing. This review presents the rapid methods that are being studied, developed and/or applied to determine and quantify the thermal denaturation of whey proteins, including spectroscopic, electrochemical and miniaturized methods. The selected methods save a significant amount of time and money compared to the traditional ones. In addition, the review emphasizes the methods being applied directly to milk and/or that have potential for on/in/at-line application. There are interesting options to quantify thermal denaturation of whey proteins such as biosensors, nanosensors and microchips, which have fast responses and could be automated. In addition, electrochemical sensors are simple to use and portable, while spectroscopy alternatives are suitable for on/in/at-line process. Full article
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Review
Adverse Effects of Fusarium Toxins in Ruminants: A Review of In Vivo and In Vitro Studies
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 474-499; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030035 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
With an increased knowledge of the mechanism of action of Fusarium mycotoxins, the concept that these substances are deleterious only for monogastric species is obsolete. Indeed, most mycotoxins can be converted into less toxic compounds by the rumen microflora from healthy animals. However, [...] Read more.
With an increased knowledge of the mechanism of action of Fusarium mycotoxins, the concept that these substances are deleterious only for monogastric species is obsolete. Indeed, most mycotoxins can be converted into less toxic compounds by the rumen microflora from healthy animals. However, mycotoxin absorption and its conversion to more toxic metabolites, as well as their impact on the immune response and subsequently animal welfare, reproductive function, and milk quality during chronic exposure should not be neglected. Among the Fusarium mycotoxins, the most studied are deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisins from the B class (FBs). It is remarkable that there is a paucity of in vivo research, with a low number of studies on nutrient digestibility and rumen function. Most of the in vitro studies are related to the reproductive function or are restricted to rumen incubation. When evaluating the production performance, milk yield is used as an evaluated parameter, but its quality for cheese production is often overlooked. In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings regarding the adverse effects of these mycotoxins with special attention to dairy cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Mycotoxins on Dairy Production and Reproduction)
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Article
Performing Early Pregnancy Tests in Milk and Their Effect on Cow Welfare and Reproductive Performance Compared to Rectal Pregnancy Tests 40 to 45 Days Post Insemination
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 465-473; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030034 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The main pregnancy test method for dairy cows is rectal palpation performed around 40–45 days from last insemination. This is an invasive examination that disrupts the cow’s routine, potentially affecting its well-being. We examined the effectiveness of a commercial kit for performing pregnancy [...] Read more.
The main pregnancy test method for dairy cows is rectal palpation performed around 40–45 days from last insemination. This is an invasive examination that disrupts the cow’s routine, potentially affecting its well-being. We examined the effectiveness of a commercial kit for performing pregnancy tests on milk samples compared to rectal palpation at 28- and 42-days post insemination. Accordingly, the purpose of the current study was to check if performing early pregnancy test instead of rectal palpation would result in better welfare and improvement of the reproductive performance, at least in part, of the cows. At 28 days, we examined the effect of early pregnancy testing on reproductive performance, especially number of days open. At 42 days, we determined the pregnancy test methods’ effects on cow welfare measures and milk production. For the day 28 experiment, cows on one farm were divided into two groups: one milk-tested for pregnancy on 28 to 30 days after insemination, and the other tested by routine veterinary examination (42 to 45 days after insemination). The milk test resulted in a 16-day reduction in days open for cows identified as non-pregnant on day 28 compared to day 42 (rectal examination), potentially improving reproductive performance on the dairy farm. For the day 42 experiment, test effects on cow welfare as seen in pedometer data and milk production were examined on two large dairy farms. Test-day milk production did not differ significantly between milk-tested and rectally palpated groups, but well-being indices of milk-tested cows improved, especially in winter months. The reason for this can be because, in the summer, cows are interrupted due to colling activities. In addition to fewer days open and economic improvement, early milk tests for pregnancy can free up the practitioner for other tasks on the dairy farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproduction)
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Article
Estimation of Individual Glucose Reserves in High-Yielding Dairy Cows
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 438-464; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030033 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Glucose plays a central role in numerous physiological processes in dairy cows related to immune defence and milk production. A lack of glucose impairs both objectives, although to different degrees. A method for the estimation of glucose balance (GB) in dairy cows was [...] Read more.
Glucose plays a central role in numerous physiological processes in dairy cows related to immune defence and milk production. A lack of glucose impairs both objectives, although to different degrees. A method for the estimation of glucose balance (GB) in dairy cows was developed to assess glucose reserves in the intermediary metabolism. Digestive fluxes of glucogenic carbon were individually estimated via the Systool Web application based on data on body weight (BW), dry matter intake (DMI), and chemical analyses of feedstuffs. Fluxes of endogenous precursors glycerol, alanine and L-lactate and the glucose demand imposed by major glucose-consuming organs were deduced from BW, lactose yield and lactation stage. GB was calculated for 201 lactations (1 to 105 DIM) of 157 cows fed isoenergetic rations. Individual DMI, BW and milk yield were assessed on a daily basis. The results showed that the GB varied greatly between cows and lactation stages. In the first week of lactation, average daily GB reached levels close to zero (3.2 ± 13.5 mol C) and increased as lactation progressed. Most cows risk substantial shortages of glucose for maintenance during the first weeks of lactation. In face of the specific role of glucose for the functional capability of the immune function, the assessment of glucose reserves is a promising measure for the identification of cows at risk of impaired immunocompetence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Nutrition and Welfare)
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Article
Anticholinesterase Inhibition, Drug-Likeness Assessment, and Molecular Docking Evaluation of Milk Protein-Derived Opioid Peptides for the Control of Alzheimer’s Disease
Dairy 2022, 3(3), 422-437; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3030032 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic properties of 23 dairy-protein-derived opioid peptides were studied using SwissADME and ADMETlab in silico tools. All the opioid peptides had poor drug-like properties based on violations of Lipinski’s rule-of-five. Moreover, prediction of their pharmacokinetic properties showed that the peptides [...] Read more.
The drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic properties of 23 dairy-protein-derived opioid peptides were studied using SwissADME and ADMETlab in silico tools. All the opioid peptides had poor drug-like properties based on violations of Lipinski’s rule-of-five. Moreover, prediction of their pharmacokinetic properties showed that the peptides had poor intestinal absorption and bioavailability. Following this, two well-known opioid peptides (βb-casomorphin-5, βb-casomorphin-7) from A1 bovine milk and caffeine (positive control) were selected for in silico molecular docking and in vitro inhibition study with two cholinesterase enzyme receptors important for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Both peptides showed higher binding free energies and inhibitory activities to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) than caffeine, but in vitro binding energy values were lower than those from the docking model. Moreover, the two casomorphins had lower inhibitory properties against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) than caffeine, although the docking model predicted the opposite. At 1 mg/mL concentrations, βb-casomorphin-5 and βb-casomorphin-7 showed promising results in inhibiting both cholinesterases (i.e., respectively 34% and 43% inhibition of AChE, and 67% and 81% inhibition of BChE). These dairy-derived opioid peptides have the potential to treat Alzheimer’s disease via cholinesterase inhibition. However, appropriate derivatization may be required to improve their poor predicted intestinal absorption and bioavailability. Full article
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