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J. Nanotheranostics, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 2 articles

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Review
Prospects of Extracellular Vesicles in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
J. Nanotheranostics 2021, 2(4), 208-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt2040013 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2021
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Abstract
The diagnostic and therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been recognised in many fields of medicine for several years. More recently, it has become a topic of increasing interest in otorhinolaryngology, head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS). With this narrative review, we have [...] Read more.
The diagnostic and therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been recognised in many fields of medicine for several years. More recently, it has become a topic of increasing interest in otorhinolaryngology, head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS). With this narrative review, we have aspired to determine different aspects of those nanometrically sized theranostic particles, which seem to have promising potential as biomarkers in some of the most common diseases of the ORL-HNS by being available via less invasive diagnostic methods. At the same time, a better understanding of their activity provides us with new possibilities for developing specific target treatments. So far, most research has been oriented towards the role of EVs in the progression of head and neck cancer, notably head and neck squamous cell cancer. Nonetheless, some of this research has focused on chronic diseases of the ears, nose and paranasal sinuses. However, most research is still in the preclinical or experimental phase. It therefore requires a further and more profound understanding of EV content and behaviour to utilise their nanotheranostic capacities to their fullest potential. Full article
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Surface Adsorption of the Alpha-Emitter Astatine-211 to Gold Nanoparticles Is Stable In Vivo and Potentially Useful in Radionuclide Therapy
J. Nanotheranostics 2021, 2(4), 196-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt2040012 - 01 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Targeted α-therapy (TAT) can eradicate tumor metastases while limiting overall toxicity. One of the most promising α-particle emitters is astatine-211 (211At). However, 211At-carbon bonds are notoriously unstable in vivo and no chelators are available. This hampers its adoption in TAT. [...] Read more.
Targeted α-therapy (TAT) can eradicate tumor metastases while limiting overall toxicity. One of the most promising α-particle emitters is astatine-211 (211At). However, 211At-carbon bonds are notoriously unstable in vivo and no chelators are available. This hampers its adoption in TAT. In this study, the stability of 211At on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated. The employed AuNPs had sizes in the 25–50 nm range. Radiolabeling by non-specific surface-adsorption in >99% radiochemical yield was achieved by mixing 211At and AuNPs both before and after polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating. The resulting 211At-AuNPs were first challenged by harsh oxidation with sodium hypochlorite, removing roughly 50% of the attached 211At. Second, incubation in mouse serum followed by a customized stability test, showed a stability of >95% after 4 h in serum. This high stability was further confirmed in an in vivo study, with comparison to a control group of free 211At. The AuNP-associated 211At showed low uptake in stomach and thyroid, which are hallmark organs of uptake of free 211At, combined with long circulation and high liver and spleen uptake, consistent with nanoparticle biodistribution. These results support that gold surface-adsorbed 211At has high biological stability and is a potentially useful delivery system in TAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Nanoparticle Based Imaging and Therapy)
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