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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

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Open AccessReview Histopathology of Barrett’s Esophagus and Early-Stage Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: An Updated Review
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 147-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010011
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Esophageal adenocarcinoma carries a very poor prognosis. For this reason, it is critical to have cost-effective surveillance and prevention strategies and early and accurate diagnosis, as well as evidence-based treatment guidelines. Barrett’s esophagus is the most important precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma, which
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Esophageal adenocarcinoma carries a very poor prognosis. For this reason, it is critical to have cost-effective surveillance and prevention strategies and early and accurate diagnosis, as well as evidence-based treatment guidelines. Barrett’s esophagus is the most important precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma, which follows a defined metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. Accurate recognition of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus is crucial due to its pivotal prognostic value. For early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma, depth of submucosal invasion is a key prognostic factor. Our systematic review of all published data demonstrates a “rule of doubling” for the frequency of lymph node metastases: tumor invasion into each progressively deeper third of submucosal layer corresponds with a twofold increase in the risk of nodal metastases (9.9% in the superficial third of submucosa (sm1) group, 22.0% in the middle third of submucosa (sm2) group, and 40.7% in deep third of submucosa (sm3) group). Other important risk factors include lymphovascular invasion, tumor differentiation, and the recently reported tumor budding. In this review, we provide a concise update on the histopathological features, ancillary studies, molecular signatures, and surveillance/management guidelines along the natural history from Barrett’s esophagus to early stage invasive adenocarcinoma for practicing pathologists. Full article
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Open AccessReview Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Basic Science in the Light of Real-World Epidemiology
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 129-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010010
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Major advances in the last few decades have favored the view of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as a disease of hyper- or, more often, paradoxical hyporesponsiveness of the gut-associated immune system. The relevant pivot seems to be the loss of the balance between
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Major advances in the last few decades have favored the view of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as a disease of hyper- or, more often, paradoxical hyporesponsiveness of the gut-associated immune system. The relevant pivot seems to be the loss of the balance between gut-associated pro-inflammatory lymphocytes and the indwelling microbiome species, with inner regulatory circuits (regulatory T-lymphocytes, T-reg) and outer factors (such as drugs, tobacco, diet components) contributing to complicate the matter. Light might be shed by the observation of the real-world IBD epidemiology, which may help unveil the factors that tend to cluster IBD cases to certain geographical areas. A transitional mind frame between bench and real-world gastroenterology could hopefully contribute to restrain the mounting epidemic of IBD in the Western world and to halt the more recent increases seen in many Eastern countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Paradigm Shift of Healthcare Cost for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Claims Data-Based Analysis in Japan
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 120-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010009
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) agents are used for induction and maintenance of remission in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, biologic drugs present a large economic burden on health insurance systems. We aimed to estimate the mean annual health care cost per
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Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) agents are used for induction and maintenance of remission in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, biologic drugs present a large economic burden on health insurance systems. We aimed to estimate the mean annual health care cost per patient with IBD and cost contribution of anti-TNFα agents. We performed an analysis of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) based on a large-scale administrative claims database constructed by Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) Co. Ltd., comprising inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy claims data. We evaluated all claims from 1 April 2013 through 31 March 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to measure median health care costs paid per member per year (PMPY) and the relative cost contribution of anti-TNFα agents. A total 1405 patients with CD and 5771 with UC were included. Median costs PMPY were approximately six times higher for CD than UC (JPY 1,957,320 and JPY 278,760, respectively). Medication cost for anti-TNFα agents was the main cost driver, accounting for 59.9% and 17.8% of the total costs for CD and UC, respectively. In Japan, costs for anti-TNFα agents have resulted in drug costs exceeding inpatient costs for IBD. Optimized use of anti-TNFα agents and introduction of biosimilars for anti-TNFα agents can be expected to substantially reduce the health care costs of IBD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Individuals at High Risk for Pancreatic Cancer: A Descriptive Analysis from a Comprehensive Cancer Center
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 106-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010008
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Pancreatic cancer (PC), a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage. To improve survival, there is an unmet need to detect pre-malignant lesions and early invasive disease. Prime populations to study for early detection
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Pancreatic cancer (PC), a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage. To improve survival, there is an unmet need to detect pre-malignant lesions and early invasive disease. Prime populations to study for early detection efforts include cohorts of high risk individuals (HRI): those with increased risk to develop pre-malignant pancreatic cysts and PC because of a familial or hereditary predisposition to the disease and those in the general population of sporadic cases who are incidentally found to harbor a pre-malignant pancreatic cyst. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of cohorts of HRI identified at Moffitt Cancer Center. We set out to determine the uptake of screening, the prevalence and characteristics of solid and cystic pancreatic lesions detected via screening or as incidental findings, and the age at which lesions were detected. Of a total of 329 HRI, roughly one-third were found to have pancreatic lesions, most of which constituted pre-malignant cysts known as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Individuals with the highest genetic risk for PC were found to have smaller cysts at a much earlier age than sporadic cases with incidental findings; however, many individuals at high genetic risk did not have abdominal imaging reports on file. We also identified a subset of HRI at moderate genetic risk for PC that were found to have cystic and solid pancreatic lesions as part of a diagnostic work-up rather than a screening protocol. These findings suggest the pancreatic research community should consider expanding criteria for who should be offered screening. We also emphasize the importance of continuity of care between cancer genetics and gastrointestinal oncology clinics so that HRI are made aware of the opportunities related to genetic counseling, genetic testing, and screening. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Multifactorial Etiopathogeneses Interplay of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 75-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010007
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The gastrointestinal system where inflammatory bowel disease occurs is central to the immune system where the innate and the adaptive/acquired immune systems are balanced in interactions with gut microbes under homeostasis conditions. This article overviews the high-throughput research screening on multifactorial interplay between
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The gastrointestinal system where inflammatory bowel disease occurs is central to the immune system where the innate and the adaptive/acquired immune systems are balanced in interactions with gut microbes under homeostasis conditions. This article overviews the high-throughput research screening on multifactorial interplay between genetic risk factors, the intestinal microbiota, urbanization, modernization, Westernization, the environmental influences and immune responses in the etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in humans. Inflammatory bowel disease is an expensive multifactorial debilitating disease that affects thousands new people annually worldwide with no known etiology or cure. The conservative therapeutics focus on the established pathology where the immune dysfunction and gut injury have already happened but do not preclude or delay the progression. Inflammatory bowel disease is evolving globally and has become a global emergence disease. It is largely known to be a disease in industrial-urbanized societies attributed to modernization and Westernized lifestyle associated with environmental factors to genetically susceptible individuals with determined failure to process certain commensal antigens. In the developing nations, increasing incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with rapid urbanization, modernization and Westernization of the population. In summary, there are identified multiple associations to host exposures potentiating the landscape risk hazards of inflammatory bowel disease trigger, that include: Western life-style and diet, host genetics, altered innate and/or acquired/adaptive host immune responses, early-life microbiota exposure, change in microbiome symbiotic relationship (dysbiosis/dysbacteriosis), pollution, changing hygiene status, socioeconomic status and several other environmental factors have long-standing effects/influence tolerance. The ongoing multipronged robotic studies on gut microbiota composition disparate patterns between the rural vs. urban locations may help elucidate and better understand the contribution of microbiome disciplines/ecology and evolutionary biology in potentially protecting against the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview CCR6–CCL20 Axis in IBD: What Have We Learnt in the Last 20 Years?
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 57-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010006
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and its specific partner CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) are known to play a pivotal role in intestinal inflammation. CCR6-associated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is already at the forefront of experimental inflammatory disease models, being the subject of
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CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and its specific partner CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) are known to play a pivotal role in intestinal inflammation. CCR6-associated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is already at the forefront of experimental inflammatory disease models, being the subject of numerous analytical studies. IBD is associated with two sub phenotypes, Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both these disease entities produce potent immune dysregulation followed by intense tissue damage within the gut mucosal system, initiating symptoms that are severely debilitating. Multiple causative factors are said to be responsible for IBD, but direct immune dysfunction is kindled by overplay of innate and adaptive immune responses produced against the luminal contents through the weakened or leaky gut epithelial barrier. Once immune homeostasis is not achieved by endogenous protective mechanisms, the self-assertive adaptive immunity mobilizes its various T and B cell cohorts, initializing their immune mechanisms by deploying the immune cells towards the site of infection. CCR6 and its unique solitary ligand CCL20 are small protein molecules that are abundantly expressed by T and B lymphocytes and act as chemotactic immune-modulatory envoys that help in the deployment of the effector lymphocyte arm of the immune system and produce two directly opposing outcomes in IBD. This dichotomous immunity consists of either immune tolerance or inflammation which then develops into a chronic state, remaining unresponsive to inherent immunity or targeted clinical therapy. In this review, we have identified large numbers of experimental studies that have employed both mouse models and clinical subjects spanning a period of nearly two decades and we have clustered these into 13 different groups. This review will provide greater understanding of the CCR6–CCL20 axis in IBD and identify gaps in the literature that can be filled in the future. Full article
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Open AccessReview Regulation of Antimicrobial Pathways by Endogenous Heat Shock Proteins in Gastrointestinal Disorders
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 39-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010005
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are essential mediators of cellular homeostasis by maintaining protein functionality and stability, and activating appropriate immune cells. HSP activity is influenced by a variety of factors including diet, microbial stimuli, environment and host immunity. The overexpression and down-regulation of
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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are essential mediators of cellular homeostasis by maintaining protein functionality and stability, and activating appropriate immune cells. HSP activity is influenced by a variety of factors including diet, microbial stimuli, environment and host immunity. The overexpression and down-regulation of HSPs is associated with various disease phenotypes, including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease (CD). While the precise etiology of CD remains unclear, many of the putative triggers also influence HSP activity. The development of different CD phenotypes therefore may be a result of the disease-modifying behavior of the environmentally-regulated HSPs. Understanding the role of bacterial and endogenous HSPs in host homeostasis and disease will help elucidate the complex interplay of factors. Furthermore, discerning the function of HSPs in CD may lead to therapeutic developments that better reflect and respond to the gut environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Acute Effects of Carbonated Beverage Consumption on Symptoms and Objective Markers of Gastric Reflux
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 30-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010004
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that carbonated beverages may cause gastro-oesophageal reflux. Pepsin (the major enzyme secreted by the stomach) has been suggested to be an objective, acute marker of a reflux event. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether intake of carbonated beverages
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Previous studies have suggested that carbonated beverages may cause gastro-oesophageal reflux. Pepsin (the major enzyme secreted by the stomach) has been suggested to be an objective, acute marker of a reflux event. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether intake of carbonated beverages could affect pepsin concentration in saliva or reflux symptoms. This was assessed by a randomised, crossover trial where participants consumed 330 mL of beverage (carbonated cola, degassed cola or water) at separate visits. Saliva samples and symptom questionnaires were collected at baseline and over the 30 min postprandial period. Pepsin was detected in all saliva samples. No difference was found in the salivary pepsin concentrations between treatments at all time points. There were significantly higher scores (p > 0.05) for feelings of fullness, heartburn, urge to belch and frequency of belches after ingestion of carbonated cola than degassed cola and water. The ingestion of carbonated beverages did not appear to increase postprandial pepsin concentration in saliva compared to other beverages but did evoke higher levels of reflux-related symptoms such as fullness, heartburn and belching. This suggests carbonated beverages may cause symptoms associated with reflux but do not drive detectable levels of gastric juice to reach the oral cavity. Full article
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Open AccessReview CCR6–CCL20-Mediated Immunologic Pathways in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 15-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010003
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has evoked significant interest in human immunobiology given its tactical immune evasion methodologies resulting in acute immune destabilization. IBD comprising Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis manifests as chronic inflammation in the gut mucosa, leading to complexities involving immune dysregulation
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has evoked significant interest in human immunobiology given its tactical immune evasion methodologies resulting in acute immune destabilization. IBD comprising Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis manifests as chronic inflammation in the gut mucosa, leading to complexities involving immune dysregulation in the T helper lymphocyte arm, effecting disease pathogenicity. The mucosa of the alimentary canal is constantly exposed to a myriad of food antigens and luminal microorganisms for which a consistent host-protective mechanism is operative in healthy people. Lowered mucosal immune expression which allows penetration of the epithelial barrier by infective pathogenic microbes elicits both innate and adaptive immune responses in the gut, culminating in aberrant intestinal inflammation. Interestingly, the IBD leukocyte repertoire is significantly entwined with chemokine-assisted chemotactic navigation into the sites of inflammation, which is also thought to generate favorable immune-suppressive responses. The functions of the cognate chemokine receptor, CCR6, which binds with its unique ligand CCL20, are expected to tilt the balance between upregulation of homeostatic tolerance and inflammatory pathophysiology. This review aims to critically examine the CCR6-driven immune pathways: TH1/TH2, TH1/TH17, TH17/Treg, IL-23/IL-17, Akt/ERK-1/2, ILC3, and TH9/TH2 for systematic investigation of its underlying mechanisms in the future and to underpin its importance in resolving IBD pathology. Thus, CCR6 occupies an exclusive position in gut immunology which renders it an invaluable therapeutic tool for the production of novel medicaments to treat IBD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intrabolus Pressure Has Better Correlation Than Eosinophilia with Dysphagia Severity in Fibrostenotic Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Pilot Study
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 3-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010002
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by dysphagia with esophageal eosinophilia. We sought to determine if intrabolus pressure measurements on high-resolution manometry had any correlation with dysphagia improvement following standard therapy for patients with fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis. Consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled at our swallowing
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Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by dysphagia with esophageal eosinophilia. We sought to determine if intrabolus pressure measurements on high-resolution manometry had any correlation with dysphagia improvement following standard therapy for patients with fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis. Consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled at our swallowing center. Dysphagia scores, esophageal eosinophil counts, endoscopic reference scores, and intrabolus pressure measurements were compared at baseline and following therapy with 8 weeks of a proton-pump inhibitor and serial bougie dilation to a luminal diameter of 17 mm. Five patients were included in the study. The median age was 38 years. The average endoscopic reference score improved from 5.0 to 2.4 (p = 0.007). The mean esophageal diameter improved from 10.8 mm to 17.2 mm (p = 0.001). Dysphagia severity scores improved from a mean value of 34.2 to 10.8 (p = 0.004). Mucosal eosinophilia had no correlation with dysphagia severity. Mean intrabolus pressure improved from 21.8 mmHg to 11 mmHg (p = 0.001). There was strong correlation between a decrease in intrabolus pressure and improvement in dysphagia severity; however, this was not significant (p = 0.108). Intrabolus pressure has strong correlation with dysphagia severity following therapy for fibrostenotic eosinophilic esophagitis. Bougie dilation provides improvement in dysphagia despite persistent mucosal eosinophilia. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Gastrointestinal Disorders—An Open Access Journal on Gastroenterology
Gastrointest. Disord. 2018, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1010001
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
I am very excited about announcing the launch of a new Journal—Gastrointestinal Disorders.[...] Full article
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