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Open AccessReview

CCR6–CCL20-Mediated Immunologic Pathways in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS 7250, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Gastrointest. Disord. 2019, 1(1), 15-29;
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 19 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has evoked significant interest in human immunobiology given its tactical immune evasion methodologies resulting in acute immune destabilization. IBD comprising Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis manifests as chronic inflammation in the gut mucosa, leading to complexities involving immune dysregulation in the T helper lymphocyte arm, effecting disease pathogenicity. The mucosa of the alimentary canal is constantly exposed to a myriad of food antigens and luminal microorganisms for which a consistent host-protective mechanism is operative in healthy people. Lowered mucosal immune expression which allows penetration of the epithelial barrier by infective pathogenic microbes elicits both innate and adaptive immune responses in the gut, culminating in aberrant intestinal inflammation. Interestingly, the IBD leukocyte repertoire is significantly entwined with chemokine-assisted chemotactic navigation into the sites of inflammation, which is also thought to generate favorable immune-suppressive responses. The functions of the cognate chemokine receptor, CCR6, which binds with its unique ligand CCL20, are expected to tilt the balance between upregulation of homeostatic tolerance and inflammatory pathophysiology. This review aims to critically examine the CCR6-driven immune pathways: TH1/TH2, TH1/TH17, TH17/Treg, IL-23/IL-17, Akt/ERK-1/2, ILC3, and TH9/TH2 for systematic investigation of its underlying mechanisms in the future and to underpin its importance in resolving IBD pathology. Thus, CCR6 occupies an exclusive position in gut immunology which renders it an invaluable therapeutic tool for the production of novel medicaments to treat IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: CCR6; CCL20; TH17 cells; regulatory Treg cells; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; immunologic pathways CCR6; CCL20; TH17 cells; regulatory Treg cells; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; immunologic pathways
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Ranasinghe, R.; Eri, R. CCR6–CCL20-Mediated Immunologic Pathways in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastrointest. Disord. 2019, 1, 15-29.

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