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Reports, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 5 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Vitamin’s D active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, has multiple functions in bone health and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
New Development of Disaster-Related and Tropical Infectious Diseases Control
Reports 2020, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3010005 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 399
Abstract
As described in Japanese essay (Hojoki), written around 1200, various disasters such as big fires, earthquakes, and famines have occurred in Japan. Asian countries have been suffering from the disasters; furthermore, natural disasters are increasing due to global warming. Because tropical-infectious diseases are [...] Read more.
As described in Japanese essay (Hojoki), written around 1200, various disasters such as big fires, earthquakes, and famines have occurred in Japan. Asian countries have been suffering from the disasters; furthermore, natural disasters are increasing due to global warming. Because tropical-infectious diseases are often disaster-related infectious diseases (DRIDs), the strategies against the former kind of disease could be applicable to DRIDs. Meteorological analysis of the occurrence of DRIDs using a method of time series analysis is important. In situations of disasters, it is desirable if you can identify the pathogen and identify disease severity simultaneously. A dipstick DNA chromatography assay termed as Single-Tag Hybridization—Printed Array Strip (STH—PAS) system was developed based on the DNA sequences of various mosquito-borne diseases. The plasma levels of matricellular proteins including galectin-9 (Gal-9) and osteopontin (OPN) were found to reflect the disease severities in the dengue virus and other DIRDs. Because both proteins have been reported to be immune-check molecules, their inhibition might enhance the immune system against pathogens. We found that brefelamide derivatives could inhibit OPN and other inflammatory molecules synthesis. Very recently, different derivatives were found to inhibit PD-L1 transcription. Applications of these agents should be considered as multi-step strategies against DRIDs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Feasibility Study of a Fit Kit School-Based Intervention to Improve the Health of Students and Their Families
Reports 2020, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3010004 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Roberts Academy is an urban elementary school consisting of primarily Hispanic students from lower socioeconomic homes. We were unable to provide weight management and healthy lifestyle counseling for many of the families that were referred to our obesity program, and more broadly were [...] Read more.
Roberts Academy is an urban elementary school consisting of primarily Hispanic students from lower socioeconomic homes. We were unable to provide weight management and healthy lifestyle counseling for many of the families that were referred to our obesity program, and more broadly were missing the at-risk families. The purpose of the Fit Kit intervention was to improve the health behaviors of the entire family at home and to reduce barriers through this comprehensive treatment and prevention approach. A Fit Kit included a shelf-stable, low-cost, healthy meal for a family of four, a portioned plate, and a soccer beach ball. Families also received monthly educational materials, healthy meal recipes, information about community food and exercise resources, and were invited to attend a culturally adapted cooking experience. No significant differences were seen between pre- and post-intervention survey questions. Post-Fit-Kit surveys showed that the majority of families prepared and liked the meal, found the recipes helpful, and used the portioned plate supplied with the kit. Overall, we conclude this is a feasible method for distributing tangible educational tools to families, but need more information about how it impacts food selection and purchasing behaviors of those families. While the Fit Kit proved to be feasible and acceptable in this test of concept, future studies are needed to further evaluate its impact in a more rigorous scientific manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood Obesity: New Knowledge, Cases and Interventions)
Open AccessCase Report
Identification of the Profile of the Patients with Hemophilia B Eligible for Treatment with Nonacog Alfa Once-Weekly
Reports 2020, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3010003 - 27 Jan 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with hemophilia B eligible for once-weekly treatment with Nonacog alfa. Methods: A survey was conducted in 14 Hemophilia (HCs) of Italy. These centers were given a questionnaire consisting of ten closed multiple-choice questions. The [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with hemophilia B eligible for once-weekly treatment with Nonacog alfa. Methods: A survey was conducted in 14 Hemophilia (HCs) of Italy. These centers were given a questionnaire consisting of ten closed multiple-choice questions. The centers were asked: (a) the percentages of their hemophilia B (HB) patients undergoing replacement therapy, “On-demand”, or weekly prophylaxis, (b) the criteria guiding the monitoring of patients, the advantages according to the age of patients, and (c) the obstacles to prophylaxis. The percentage of patients receiving “On-demand” (OD) treatment or continuous prophylaxis (prophy) differed depending on patient age and the severity of the disease. Only 57% of HCs provided “On-demand” therapy to the mild HB patients, about 93% to moderate ones, of whom 43% on prophylaxis. About 78% of patients <6 years old, were on treatment in 9 out of 14 HCs, by prophylaxis 66.7% and 33.3% by On-demand. In the 6–18 age group, 90.1% of HCs treated HB patients with prophylaxis, 42.8% in the 18–30 age range. On-demand treatment was the therapy of choice in 61.5% of HCs for patients aged 30–65 years. In total, 64% of the HCs assigned the maximum score to bleeding frequency, especially in the <6 and 6–18 age groups. Bleeding severity was also taken into significant consideration, particularly in subjects up to 30 years old. The scores regarding venous access were distributed relatively evenly throughout all age groups. The majority of the centers attributed a medium-high score to treatment compliance, especially in the 6–65 age range. In actuality, 55% of HCs attributed pro-thrombotic comorbidity a low score in the 18–30 age group, whereas 81% gave pro-hemorrhagic comorbidity a high rating in patients aged >65 years old. Many centers assigned a medium-high score to the baseline concentration of FIX level at diagnosis in all age groups. Most HCs attributed a medium-high score to type of genetic mutation in the younger age groups. As for socio-cultural barriers and quality of life, the majority of respondents gave a medium-high score in all age groups. For periodic monitoring of patients receiving continuous prophylaxis, 59% of the centers reported using clinical assessment. With regard to prophylaxis administration method, the majority of hemophiliacs were given infusions twice weekly, while as regards to the dose of FIX concentrate delivered, 50% of the centers reported administering prophylaxis once-weekly at a dose ranging from 5–100 IU/kg in 10–50% of HB patients. Thus, 93% of the centers reported using a dose of 25–50 IU/kg for twice-weekly prophylaxis in 6–100% of the patients. The majority of centers (86%) believe that, in a program of early primary prevention, once-weekly treatment with nonacog alfa may represent an alternative strategy to dose escalation. The results show that patients with mild hemophilia, with functional musculoskeletal status and difficulties with venous access, are candidates for once-weekly prophylaxis with nonacog alfa. For such patients, this regimen can improve treatment compliance and quality of life. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Reports in 2019
Reports 2020, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3010002 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
The Vitamin D System in Humans and Mice: Similar but Not the Same
Reports 2020, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports3010001 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol subsequently to exposure to UVB radiation or is absorbed from the diet. Vitamin D undergoes enzymatic conversion to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), a ligand to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), which [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol subsequently to exposure to UVB radiation or is absorbed from the diet. Vitamin D undergoes enzymatic conversion to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), a ligand to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), which activates target gene expression. The best-known role of 1,25D is to maintain healthy bones by increasing the intestinal absorption and renal reuptake of calcium. Besides bone maintenance, 1,25D has many other functions, such as the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell differentiation, augmentation of innate immune functions, and reduction of inflammation. Significant amounts of data regarding the role of vitamin D, its metabolism and VDR have been provided by research performed using mice. Despite the fact that humans and mice share many similarities in their genomes, anatomy and physiology, there are also differences between these species. In particular, there are differences in composition and regulation of the VDR gene and its expression, which is discussed in this article. Full article
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