In this paper, we present a review of the intra-aortic balloon pump, as well as the usage of it in the medical field today. An intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a biomedical device that can assist the heart during unstable angina or after a heart attack. This pump is typically used in patients who suffer from ischemia of the heart tissue, due to an unbalanced level of myocardial oxygen supply or demand. Through counterpulsation, which is a technique to synchronize the external pumping of blood with the heart’s cycle, the device can balance the supply and demand of blood that is necessary for the heart to pump properly. The IABP is comprised of the following four components: a polyurethane balloon, a polyethylene or fiber-optic catheter, a transducer, and the intra-aortic balloon pump console. In the past, researchers have used other materials that have low biocompatibility and can cause complications within the body. This analysis will explain the complications and state changes that occurred due to them. Limitations of past designs and advantages of current designs will be acknowledged, for they can be used by researchers to enhance designs for the future. Consequently, the analysis of this device may lead to improved designs and treatment in the future for patients with cardiac conditions.
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