Next Issue
Volume 4, September
Previous Issue
Volume 4, March

Plasma, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 13 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Formation of Kinetics Coherent Structures in Weakly Collisional Media
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 359-365; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020024 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 855
Abstract
The formation of nonlinear, nonstationary structures in weakly collisional media with collective interactions are investigated analytically within the framework of the kinetic description. This issue is considered in one-dimensional geometry using collision integral in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook form and some model forms of the [...] Read more.
The formation of nonlinear, nonstationary structures in weakly collisional media with collective interactions are investigated analytically within the framework of the kinetic description. This issue is considered in one-dimensional geometry using collision integral in the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook form and some model forms of the interparticle interaction potentials that ensure the finiteness of the energy and momentum of the systems under consideration. As such potentials, we select the Yukawa potential, the δ-potential, which describes coherent structures in a plasma. For such potentials we obtained a dispersion relation which makes it possible to estimate the size and type of the forming structures. Full article
Article
An Ion Source’s View of Its Plasma
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 345-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020023 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Modeling of ion beam extraction from an ECRIS requires special procedures in order to achieve results similar to what is found experimentally. The initial plasma conditions must be included for consistency between experiment and simulation. Space charge forces and their compensation of the [...] Read more.
Modeling of ion beam extraction from an ECRIS requires special procedures in order to achieve results similar to what is found experimentally. The initial plasma conditions must be included for consistency between experiment and simulation. Space charge forces and their compensation of the extracted ion beam become important with increasing beam intensity. Here we consider the various beam-plasma conditions that occur along any beam line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasmas for Ion Beam Generation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
RF and Microwave Ion Sources Study at Institute of Modern Physics
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 332-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020022 - 06 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Intense ion beam production is of high importance for various versatile applications from accelerator injectors to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). For these purposes, different types of ion beams are needed and, accordingly, the optimum plasma to produce the desired ion beams. RF-type [...] Read more.
Intense ion beam production is of high importance for various versatile applications from accelerator injectors to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). For these purposes, different types of ion beams are needed and, accordingly, the optimum plasma to produce the desired ion beams. RF-type plasma features a simple structure, high plasma density and low plasma temperature, which is essential for negative ion beam production. A very compact RF-type ion source using a planar coil antenna has been developed at IMP for negative molecular oxygen ion beam production. In terms of high-intensity positive ion beam production, 2.45 GHz microwave power-excited plasma has been widely used. At IMP, we developed a 2.45 GHz plasma source with both ridged waveguide and coaxial antenna coupling schemes, tested successfully with intense beam production. Thanks to the plasma built with an external planar coil antenna, high O2 production efficiency has been achieved, i.e., up to 43%. With 2.45 GHz microwave plasma, the ridged waveguide can support a higher power coupling of high efficiency that leads to the production of intense hydrogen beams up to 90 emA, whereas the coaxial antenna is less efficient in power coupling to plasma but can lead to attractive ion source compactness, with a reasonable beam extraction of several emA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasmas for Ion Beam Generation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Pulsed Discharge Plasma in High-Pressure Environment for Water Pollutant Degradation and Nanoparticle Synthesis
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 309-331; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020021 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The application of high-voltage discharge plasma for water pollutant decomposition and the synthesis of nanoparticles under a high-pressure argon gas environment (~4 MPa) was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in a batch-type system at room temperature with a pulsed DC power supply [...] Read more.
The application of high-voltage discharge plasma for water pollutant decomposition and the synthesis of nanoparticles under a high-pressure argon gas environment (~4 MPa) was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in a batch-type system at room temperature with a pulsed DC power supply (15.4 to 18.6 kV) as a discharge plasma source. The results showed that the electrode materials, the pulsed repetition rates, the applied number of pulses, and the applied voltages had a significant effect on the degradation reactions of organic compounds. Furthermore, carbon solid materials from glycine decomposition were generated during the high-voltage discharge plasma treatment under high-pressure conditions, while Raman spectra and the HRTEM images indicated that titanium dioxide with a brookite structure and titanium carbide nanoparticles were also formed under these conditions. It was concluded that this process is applicable in practice and may lead to advanced organic compound decomposition and metal-based nanoparticle synthesis technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Investigation into the Approximations Used in Wave Packet Molecular Dynamics for the Study of Warm Dense Matter
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 294-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020020 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) has recently received a lot of attention as a computationally fast tool with which to study dynamical processes in warm dense matter beyond the Born–Oppenheimer approximation. These techniques, typically, employ many approximations to achieve computational efficiency while implementing [...] Read more.
Wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) has recently received a lot of attention as a computationally fast tool with which to study dynamical processes in warm dense matter beyond the Born–Oppenheimer approximation. These techniques, typically, employ many approximations to achieve computational efficiency while implementing semi-empirical scaling parameters to retain accuracy. We investigated three of the main approximations ubiquitous to WPMD: a restricted basis set, approximations to exchange, and the lack of correlation. We examined each of these approximations in regard to atomic and molecular hydrogen in addition to a dense hydrogen plasma. We found that the biggest improvement to WPMD comes from combining a two-Gaussian basis with a semi-empirical correction based on the valence-bond wave function. A single parameter scales this correction to match experimental pressures of dense hydrogen. Ultimately, we found that semi-empirical scaling parameters are necessary to correct for the main approximations in WPMD. However, reducing the scaling parameters for more ab-initio terms gives more accurate results and displays the underlying physics more readily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser–Plasma Interactions and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multi-Device Piezoelectric Direct Discharge for Large Area Plasma Treatment
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 281-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020019 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
The piezoelectric cold plasma generators (PCPG) allow for production of the piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD), which is a kind of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (APP). The subjects of this study are different arrays of PCPGs for large-area treatment of planar substrates. Two limiting [...] Read more.
The piezoelectric cold plasma generators (PCPG) allow for production of the piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD), which is a kind of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (APP). The subjects of this study are different arrays of PCPGs for large-area treatment of planar substrates. Two limiting factors are crucial for design of such arrays: (i) the parasitic coupling between PCPGs resulting in minimum allowed distance between devices, and (ii) the homogeneity of large area treatment, requiring an overlap of the activation zones resulting from each PCPG. The first limitation is investigated by the use of electric measurements. The minimum distance for operation of 4 cm between two PCPGs is determined by measurement of the energy coupling from an active PCPG to a passive one. The capacitive probe is used to evaluate the interference between signals generated by two neighboring PCPGs. The second limitation is examined by activation image recording (AIR). Two application examples illustrate the compromising these two limiting factors: the treatment of large area planar substrates by PCPG array, and the pretreatment of silicon wafers with an array of PCPG driven dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Direct Discharge)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dependence of Optical Emission Spectra on Argon Gas Pressure during Modulated Pulsed Power Magnetron Sputtering (MPPMS)
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 269-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020018 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) of titanium was investigated as a function of argon gas pressure using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Delays in discharge and the formation of comb-like discharge current waveforms due to splitting and pulsing were observed with a decrease [...] Read more.
Modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) of titanium was investigated as a function of argon gas pressure using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Delays in discharge and the formation of comb-like discharge current waveforms due to splitting and pulsing were observed with a decrease in pressure. This observation corresponds to the evolution from MPPMS condition to deep-oscillation-magnetron-sputtering (DOMS)-like condition by changing discharge gas pressure. The optical emission intensities of the ionic species (Ar+ and Ti+) increased as the comb-like current waveforms were formed with decreasing Ar pressure. This behavior showed a marked contrast to that of the neutral species (Ar and Ti). The Ar pressure dependence of OES was revealed to be due to the plasma build-up stage, which is the initial generation process of plasma discharge in pulsed dc magnetron sputtering, from the temporal profile for the atomic-line intensities of the optically emitting species in MPPMS and DOMS-like plasmas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Beginnings of Developing Kinetic Scenarios of Plasma Evolution Due to Coulomb Collisions
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 252-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020017 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
A new logic of reducing the two-time formalism to a highly informative scenario of redistribution of plasma particles in momentum due to Coulomb collisions is reported. Based on objective plasma evolution equations following from a properly reduced full plasma description, it has a [...] Read more.
A new logic of reducing the two-time formalism to a highly informative scenario of redistribution of plasma particles in momentum due to Coulomb collisions is reported. Based on objective plasma evolution equations following from a properly reduced full plasma description, it has a more sound foundation than that presented in the previous report on increasing the informativeness of scenarios of the phenomenon. The possibilities of adapting the approach to the further development of more informative scenarios of plasma collisional relaxation and the modelling of transport phenomena are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
Article
Delayed Discharge Bridging Two Sputtering Modes from Modulated Pulsed Power Magnetron Sputtering (MPPMS) to Deep Oscillation Magnetron Sputtering (DOMS)
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 239-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020016 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Delayed discharges due to electrical breakdown are observed in modulated pulsed pow er magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) plasma of titanium. The delayed discharge, which is remarkable with decreasing argon gas pressure, transforms the discharge current waveform from a standard modulated pulsed discharge current waveform [...] Read more.
Delayed discharges due to electrical breakdown are observed in modulated pulsed pow er magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) plasma of titanium. The delayed discharge, which is remarkable with decreasing argon gas pressure, transforms the discharge current waveform from a standard modulated pulsed discharge current waveform to a comb-like discharge current waveform consisting of several pulses with high power. In addition, the delay times, consisting of statistical times and formative times in the delayed MPPMS discharges, are experimentally measured with the help of Laue plot analysis. The pressure dependence of delay times observed indicates that the delayed discharge behavior matches the breakdown characteristics well. In the present study, the delayed discharge dynamics of the comb-like discharge current waveform, which can be the origin of deep oscillation magnetron sputtering, are investigated based on measurement of the delay times and the characteristics of discharge current waveforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Electrostatic Dust-Acoustic Rogue Waves in an Electron Depleted Dusty Plasma
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 230-238; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020015 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
The formation of gigantic dust-acoustic (DA) rouge waves (DARWs) in an electron depleted unmagnetized opposite polarity dusty plasma system is theoretically predicted. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that the NLSE leads to [...] Read more.
The formation of gigantic dust-acoustic (DA) rouge waves (DARWs) in an electron depleted unmagnetized opposite polarity dusty plasma system is theoretically predicted. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that the NLSE leads to the modulational instability (MI) of DA waves (DAWs), and to the formation of DARWs, which are caused by to the effects of nonlinearity and dispersion in the propagation of DAWs. The conditions for the MI of DAWs and the basic properties of the generated DARWs are numerically identified. It is also seen that the striking features (viz., instability criteria, amplitude and width of DARWs, etc.) of the DAWs are significantly modified by the effects of super-thermality of ions, number density, mass and charge state of the plasma species, etc. The results obtained from the present investigation will be useful in understanding the MI criteria of DAWs and associated DARWs in electron depleted unmagnetized opposite polarity dusty plasma systems like Earth’s mesosphere (where the D-region plasma could suffer from electron density depletion), cometary tails, Jupiter’s magnetosphere, and F-ring of Saturn, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Generation of a Metal Ion Beam Using a Vacuum Magnetron Discharge
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 222-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020014 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
We have designed, fabricated and characterized an ion source based on a vacuum magnetron discharge. The magnetron discharge is initiated by a vacuum arc discharge, the plasma of which flows onto the magnetron sputtering target working surface. The vacuum arc material is usually [...] Read more.
We have designed, fabricated and characterized an ion source based on a vacuum magnetron discharge. The magnetron discharge is initiated by a vacuum arc discharge, the plasma of which flows onto the magnetron sputtering target working surface. The vacuum arc material is usually the same as that of the magnetron target. The discharges operate at a residual pressure of 3 × 10−6 Torr without working gas feed. Pulses of vacuum arc (30 μs) and magnetron discharge (up to 300 μs) are applied simultaneously. After ignition by the vacuum arc, the magnetron discharge runs in a self-sustained mode. Cu–Cu, Ag–Ag, Zn–Zn, and Pb–Pb pairs of magnetron target material and vacuum arc cathode material were tested, as well as mixed pairs; for example, Cu vacuum arc cathode and Pb magnetron target. An ion beam was extracted from the discharge plasma by applying an accelerating voltage of up to 20 kV between the plasma expander and grounded electrodes. The ion beam collector current reached 80 mA. The ion beam composition, analyzed by a time-of-flight spectrometer, shows that the beam consists mainly of singly-charged (about 90%) and doubly-charged (about 10% current fraction) magnetron target material ions. The ion beam radial current density non-uniformity was as low as ±5% over a diameter of 6.6 cm, which is the diameter of the source output aperture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasmas for Ion Beam Generation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Highly Efficient Small Anode Ion Source
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 214-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020013 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 729
Abstract
We describe some modifications to a Bernas-type ion source that improve the ion beam production efficiency and source operating lifetime. The ionization efficiency of a Bernas type ion source has been improved by using a small anode that is a thin rod, oriented [...] Read more.
We describe some modifications to a Bernas-type ion source that improve the ion beam production efficiency and source operating lifetime. The ionization efficiency of a Bernas type ion source has been improved by using a small anode that is a thin rod, oriented along the magnetic field. The transverse electric field of the small anode causes the plasma to drift in the crossed ExB field to the emission slit. The cathode material recycling was optimized to increase the operating lifetime, and the wall potential optimized to suppress deposition of material and subsequent flake formation. A three-electrode extraction system was optimized for low energy ion beam production and efficient space charge neutralization. An ion beam with emission current density up to 60 mA/cm2 has been extracted from the modified source running on BF3 gas. Space charge neutralization of positive ion beams was improved by injecting electronegative gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasmas for Ion Beam Generation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Charge Density Fluctuations on a Dielectric Surface Exposed to Plasma or UV Radiation
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 201-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020012 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Dust particles on a nonconductive surface are known to acquire electric charge and detach from the surface under plasma conditions and/or when affected by ultraviolet radiation. Similar phenomena occur as a result of electrostatic surface cleaning (shedding) as well as in nature, e.g., [...] Read more.
Dust particles on a nonconductive surface are known to acquire electric charge and detach from the surface under plasma conditions and/or when affected by ultraviolet radiation. Similar phenomena occur as a result of electrostatic surface cleaning (shedding) as well as in nature, e.g., when observing levitation of dust particles above the lunar surface. A detachment of dust particles from the surface should occur when the electrostatic forces of their repulsion Fc exceed the sum of the gravitation Fg forces and the adhesive van der Waals FvdW forces acting on the particle on a nonconducting surface. However, a paradoxical situation usually arises: the three primary forces of different nature Fc, Fg, and FvdW, acting on a speck of dust with a characteristic size of the order of hundreds or thousands of nanometers, are completely incomparable in magnitude, herewith Fc << Fg << FvdW. In the last decade, numerous attempts have been made to explain how a particle on a nonconducting surface can acquire a charge sufficient for the electrostatic forces that arise to approach the adhesive forces’ values. However, despite some successes, many questions remain unanswered. This article presents a brief analysis of the charge appearance process on a solitary dust speck and a speck lying on the surface. To explain the detachment of dust particles from the surface caused by electrostatic forces and the accumulation of a charge on those particles sufficient for levitation, one should take into account the charge density fluctuations on the surface. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop