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Plasma, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 6 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Beginnings of Developing Kinetic Scenarios of Plasma Evolution Due to Coulomb Collisions
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 252-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020017 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
A new logic of reducing the two-time formalism to a highly informative scenario of redistribution of plasma particles in momentum due to Coulomb collisions is reported. Based on objective plasma evolution equations following from a properly reduced full plasma description, it has a [...] Read more.
A new logic of reducing the two-time formalism to a highly informative scenario of redistribution of plasma particles in momentum due to Coulomb collisions is reported. Based on objective plasma evolution equations following from a properly reduced full plasma description, it has a more sound foundation than that presented in the previous report on increasing the informativeness of scenarios of the phenomenon. The possibilities of adapting the approach to the further development of more informative scenarios of plasma collisional relaxation and the modelling of transport phenomena are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
Open AccessArticle
Delayed Discharge Bridging Two Sputtering Modes from Modulated Pulsed Power Magnetron Sputtering (MPPMS) to Deep Oscillation Magnetron Sputtering (DOMS)
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 239-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020016 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Delayed discharges due to electrical breakdown are observed in modulated pulsed pow er magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) plasma of titanium. The delayed discharge, which is remarkable with decreasing argon gas pressure, transforms the discharge current waveform from a standard modulated pulsed discharge current waveform [...] Read more.
Delayed discharges due to electrical breakdown are observed in modulated pulsed pow er magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) plasma of titanium. The delayed discharge, which is remarkable with decreasing argon gas pressure, transforms the discharge current waveform from a standard modulated pulsed discharge current waveform to a comb-like discharge current waveform consisting of several pulses with high power. In addition, the delay times, consisting of statistical times and formative times in the delayed MPPMS discharges, are experimentally measured with the help of Laue plot analysis. The pressure dependence of delay times observed indicates that the delayed discharge behavior matches the breakdown characteristics well. In the present study, the delayed discharge dynamics of the comb-like discharge current waveform, which can be the origin of deep oscillation magnetron sputtering, are investigated based on measurement of the delay times and the characteristics of discharge current waveforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrostatic Dust-Acoustic Rogue Waves in an Electron Depleted Dusty Plasma
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 230-238; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020015 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The formation of gigantic dust-acoustic (DA) rouge waves (DARWs) in an electron depleted unmagnetized opposite polarity dusty plasma system is theoretically predicted. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that the NLSE leads to [...] Read more.
The formation of gigantic dust-acoustic (DA) rouge waves (DARWs) in an electron depleted unmagnetized opposite polarity dusty plasma system is theoretically predicted. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that the NLSE leads to the modulational instability (MI) of DA waves (DAWs), and to the formation of DARWs, which are caused by to the effects of nonlinearity and dispersion in the propagation of DAWs. The conditions for the MI of DAWs and the basic properties of the generated DARWs are numerically identified. It is also seen that the striking features (viz., instability criteria, amplitude and width of DARWs, etc.) of the DAWs are significantly modified by the effects of super-thermality of ions, number density, mass and charge state of the plasma species, etc. The results obtained from the present investigation will be useful in understanding the MI criteria of DAWs and associated DARWs in electron depleted unmagnetized opposite polarity dusty plasma systems like Earth’s mesosphere (where the D-region plasma could suffer from electron density depletion), cometary tails, Jupiter’s magnetosphere, and F-ring of Saturn, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Plasma Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of a Metal Ion Beam Using a Vacuum Magnetron Discharge
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 222-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020014 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
We have designed, fabricated and characterized an ion source based on a vacuum magnetron discharge. The magnetron discharge is initiated by a vacuum arc discharge, the plasma of which flows onto the magnetron sputtering target working surface. The vacuum arc material is usually [...] Read more.
We have designed, fabricated and characterized an ion source based on a vacuum magnetron discharge. The magnetron discharge is initiated by a vacuum arc discharge, the plasma of which flows onto the magnetron sputtering target working surface. The vacuum arc material is usually the same as that of the magnetron target. The discharges operate at a residual pressure of 3 × 10−6 Torr without working gas feed. Pulses of vacuum arc (30 μs) and magnetron discharge (up to 300 μs) are applied simultaneously. After ignition by the vacuum arc, the magnetron discharge runs in a self-sustained mode. Cu–Cu, Ag–Ag, Zn–Zn, and Pb–Pb pairs of magnetron target material and vacuum arc cathode material were tested, as well as mixed pairs; for example, Cu vacuum arc cathode and Pb magnetron target. An ion beam was extracted from the discharge plasma by applying an accelerating voltage of up to 20 kV between the plasma expander and grounded electrodes. The ion beam collector current reached 80 mA. The ion beam composition, analyzed by a time-of-flight spectrometer, shows that the beam consists mainly of singly-charged (about 90%) and doubly-charged (about 10% current fraction) magnetron target material ions. The ion beam radial current density non-uniformity was as low as ±5% over a diameter of 6.6 cm, which is the diameter of the source output aperture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasmas for Ion Beam Generation)
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Efficient Small Anode Ion Source
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 214-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020013 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
We describe some modifications to a Bernas-type ion source that improve the ion beam production efficiency and source operating lifetime. The ionization efficiency of a Bernas type ion source has been improved by using a small anode that is a thin rod, oriented [...] Read more.
We describe some modifications to a Bernas-type ion source that improve the ion beam production efficiency and source operating lifetime. The ionization efficiency of a Bernas type ion source has been improved by using a small anode that is a thin rod, oriented along the magnetic field. The transverse electric field of the small anode causes the plasma to drift in the crossed ExB field to the emission slit. The cathode material recycling was optimized to increase the operating lifetime, and the wall potential optimized to suppress deposition of material and subsequent flake formation. A three-electrode extraction system was optimized for low energy ion beam production and efficient space charge neutralization. An ion beam with emission current density up to 60 mA/cm2 has been extracted from the modified source running on BF3 gas. Space charge neutralization of positive ion beams was improved by injecting electronegative gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Temperature Plasmas for Ion Beam Generation)
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Open AccessArticle
Charge Density Fluctuations on a Dielectric Surface Exposed to Plasma or UV Radiation
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 201-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020012 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Dust particles on a nonconductive surface are known to acquire electric charge and detach from the surface under plasma conditions and/or when affected by ultraviolet radiation. Similar phenomena occur as a result of electrostatic surface cleaning (shedding) as well as in nature, e.g., [...] Read more.
Dust particles on a nonconductive surface are known to acquire electric charge and detach from the surface under plasma conditions and/or when affected by ultraviolet radiation. Similar phenomena occur as a result of electrostatic surface cleaning (shedding) as well as in nature, e.g., when observing levitation of dust particles above the lunar surface. A detachment of dust particles from the surface should occur when the electrostatic forces of their repulsion Fc exceed the sum of the gravitation Fg forces and the adhesive van der Waals FvdW forces acting on the particle on a nonconducting surface. However, a paradoxical situation usually arises: the three primary forces of different nature Fc, Fg, and FvdW, acting on a speck of dust with a characteristic size of the order of hundreds or thousands of nanometers, are completely incomparable in magnitude, herewith Fc << Fg << FvdW. In the last decade, numerous attempts have been made to explain how a particle on a nonconducting surface can acquire a charge sufficient for the electrostatic forces that arise to approach the adhesive forces’ values. However, despite some successes, many questions remain unanswered. This article presents a brief analysis of the charge appearance process on a solitary dust speck and a speck lying on the surface. To explain the detachment of dust particles from the surface caused by electrostatic forces and the accumulation of a charge on those particles sufficient for levitation, one should take into account the charge density fluctuations on the surface. Full article
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