Special Issue "Piezoelectric Direct Discharge"

A special issue of Plasma (ISSN 2571-6182).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 8322

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dariusz Z. Korzec
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Relyon Plasma GmbH, Regensburg, Germany
Interests: piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD); PDD spark and plasma bridge; PDD electrical diagnostics; PDD for surface activation; PDD for ozone production; PDD for disinfection and sterilization; PDD for treatment of organic material; physical limits of PDD; physical limits and reliability of piezoelectric transformer; PDD driven DBD
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Piezoelectric transformers (PT) have been broadly used to generate high-voltage applied to produce low-pressure plasmas (i.e., back-light discharge lamps for LCD displays), among other applications. The recent progress in PT technology made it possible to produce an atmospheric pressure plasma directly at the high-voltage surface of the PT without the use of an output electrode. This type of discharge is called piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD). Either air or various gas mixtures can be used as ionization gas. For PDD production, multilayer Rosen-type resonant PTs with voltage amplification on the order of magnitude of 1000 are used. Despite of some common properties with corona discharge and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), the ignition of micro-discharges directly at the ceramic surface makes PDD unique in physics and application potential. Many types and geometries of PDD are already known.

This Special Issue of Plasma responds to an increasing interest in PDD and its applications. We welcome contributions dealing with the physics, technology, and diagnostics of PDD. Recently, a growing number of novel PDD applications in very different fields (surface engineering, medicine, dentistry, food science, and many others) have been published. We encourage researchers using PDD in any scientific field to contribute to this Special Issue.

Dr. Dariusz Z. Korzec
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Physics and chemistry of the PDD
  • PDD powering and control
  • Electric and physical PDD simulation
  • Diagnostic techniques for PDD
  • PT technology for PDD
  • PDD for surface engineering
  • PDD for textile treatment
  • PDD for plasma medicine
  • PDD for disinfection
  • PDD against viruses
  • PDD in dentistry
  • PDD in food processing
  • PDD for odor control
  • PDD for VOC decomposition
  • PDD for agriculture, forestry, and gardening
  • PDD as ozone generator
  • PDD as ion source
  • PDD for plasma activated water (PAW) production

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Generation of Negative Air Ions by Use of Piezoelectric Cold Plasma Generator
Plasma 2021, 4(3), 399-407; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4030029 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The negative air ions (NAI) are used for the removal of particles or droplets from the air. In this study, three types of piezoelectric cold plasma generators (PCPG), in combination with cylindrical electrostatic ion filters, are applied for NAI production. The high voltage [...] Read more.
The negative air ions (NAI) are used for the removal of particles or droplets from the air. In this study, three types of piezoelectric cold plasma generators (PCPG), in combination with cylindrical electrostatic ion filters, are applied for NAI production. The high voltage on the filter cylinder is induced by the electric field from the piezoelectric transformer of the PCPG. To achieve the dc bias, the cylinder of the electrostatic filter is connected to the ground over ultrafast switching diodes. The ion concentrations are measured for different airflows, PCPG powers, and electrostatic filter geometries. The NAI concentration in the order of magnitude of 107 cm3, and a negative-to-positive ion concentration ratio of over 200 is reached. The production of ozone is evaluated and the PCPG configuration with a minimum ozone production rate is proposed. The ozone concentration below 60 ppb is reached in the airflow of 90 m3/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Direct Discharge)
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Article
Surface Characterisation of PEEK and Dentin, Treated with Atmospheric Non-Thermal PDD Plasma, Applicable for Dental Chair-Side Procedures
Plasma 2021, 4(3), 389-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4030028 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
This study investigates the suitability of Piezoelectric Direct Discharge Plasma as a tool for wetting behaviour modification of PEEK and dentin, and compares the results of this method with low-pressure plasma treatment and phosphoric acid etching. Static contact angle measurements were made, roughness [...] Read more.
This study investigates the suitability of Piezoelectric Direct Discharge Plasma as a tool for wetting behaviour modification of PEEK and dentin, and compares the results of this method with low-pressure plasma treatment and phosphoric acid etching. Static contact angle measurements were made, roughness was assessed using tactile measurement, and AFM and SEM images were taken. An optimum operating distance of ≤15 mm was determined for the plasma based on the water contact angle. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that despite only a fraction of the power, the PDD plasma also produces hydrophilic and nanostructured PEEK surfaces with a 38° water contact angle in the same plasma time. In contrast, the gold standard of dental surface modification of dentin—phosphoric acid etching—showed no measurable contact angle due to the exposed dentin tubules. Treatment with PDD plasma reduces the water contact angle of dentin from 65° to 43° and is not negative affected by water. Wet, PDD plasma-treated dentin samples show a water contact angle of only 26.5°. The dentin tubules exposed by chemical etching led to a significantly increased roughness. No comparable effect could be demonstrated for plasma treatment on dentin, but based on the contact angle measurements, a chemically strongly activated surface with strongly polar interaction behaviour can be assumed. The additional use of the PDD plasma technique to improve wetting could therefore have a positive effect on the adhesive bond between human dentin and polymeric dental restorative materials or, depending on the adhesive system, replace the etching process altogether. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Direct Discharge)
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Article
Aerosol Charging with a Piezoelectric Plasma Generator
Plasma 2021, 4(3), 377-388; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4030027 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
A novel piezoelectric plasma generator developed by TDK Electronics GmbH & Co. OG, the CeraPlas®, was investigated for its feasibility as a charger for aerosol particles. The CeraPlas® charger was directly compared to a commercially available bipolar X-ray charger regarding [...] Read more.
A novel piezoelectric plasma generator developed by TDK Electronics GmbH & Co. OG, the CeraPlas®, was investigated for its feasibility as a charger for aerosol particles. The CeraPlas® charger was directly compared to a commercially available bipolar X-ray charger regarding its efficiency of charging atomized NaCl particles in a size range from 30 nm to 100 nm. First results show the ability of the CeraPlas® to perform bipolar aerosol charging with high reproducibility, and measurements of the charge distribution in the Nit product yielded about 1012 m−3 s for our experimental charging configuration. Unwanted generation of ozone was suppressed by a dedicated charging chamber and operation in N2 atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Direct Discharge)
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Article
Multi-Device Piezoelectric Direct Discharge for Large Area Plasma Treatment
Plasma 2021, 4(2), 281-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4020019 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
The piezoelectric cold plasma generators (PCPG) allow for production of the piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD), which is a kind of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (APP). The subjects of this study are different arrays of PCPGs for large-area treatment of planar substrates. Two limiting [...] Read more.
The piezoelectric cold plasma generators (PCPG) allow for production of the piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD), which is a kind of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (APP). The subjects of this study are different arrays of PCPGs for large-area treatment of planar substrates. Two limiting factors are crucial for design of such arrays: (i) the parasitic coupling between PCPGs resulting in minimum allowed distance between devices, and (ii) the homogeneity of large area treatment, requiring an overlap of the activation zones resulting from each PCPG. The first limitation is investigated by the use of electric measurements. The minimum distance for operation of 4 cm between two PCPGs is determined by measurement of the energy coupling from an active PCPG to a passive one. The capacitive probe is used to evaluate the interference between signals generated by two neighboring PCPGs. The second limitation is examined by activation image recording (AIR). Two application examples illustrate the compromising these two limiting factors: the treatment of large area planar substrates by PCPG array, and the pretreatment of silicon wafers with an array of PCPG driven dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Direct Discharge)
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Review

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Review
Piezoelectric Direct Discharge: Devices and Applications
Plasma 2021, 4(1), 1-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma4010001 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
The piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD) is a comparatively new type of atmospheric pressure gaseous discharge for production of cold plasma. The generation of such discharge is possible using the piezoelectric cold plasma generator (PCPG) which comprises the resonant piezoelectric transformer (RPT) with voltage [...] Read more.
The piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD) is a comparatively new type of atmospheric pressure gaseous discharge for production of cold plasma. The generation of such discharge is possible using the piezoelectric cold plasma generator (PCPG) which comprises the resonant piezoelectric transformer (RPT) with voltage transformation ratio of more than 1000, allowing for reaching the output voltage >10 kV at low input voltage, typically below 25 V. As ionization gas for the PDD, either air or various gas mixtures are used. Despite some similarities with corona discharge and dielectric barrier discharge, the ignition of micro-discharges directly at the ceramic surface makes PDD unique in its physics and application potential. The PDD is used directly, in open discharge structures, mainly for treatment of electrically nonconducting surfaces. It is also applied as a plasma bridge to bias different excitation electrodes, applicable for a broad range of substrate materials. In this review, the most important architectures of the PDD based discharges are presented. The operation principle, the main operational characteristics and the example applications, exploiting the specific properties of the discharge configurations, are discussed. Due to the moderate power achievable by PCPG, of typically less than 10 W, the focus of this review is on applications involving thermally sensitive materials, including food, organic tissues, and liquids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Direct Discharge)
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