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Open AccessArticle

Varve Distribution Reveals Spatiotemporal Hypolimnetic Hypoxia Oscillations During the Past 200 Years in Lake Lehmilampi, Eastern Finland

1
Department of Geography and Geology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland
2
Research center for Pan-Pacific civilizations, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto 603–8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Quaternary 2019, 2(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat2020020
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments)
We investigated 34 sediment cores to reconstruct spatiotemporal variations in hypolimnetic hypoxia for the past 200 years in Lehmilampi, a small lake in Eastern Finland. As hypoxia is essential for varve preservation, spatiotemporal changes in varve distribution were used as an indicator for hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations. The hypoxic water volume was used as a variable reflecting hypolimnetic hypoxia and determined for each year by estimating the water volume beneath the water depth where shallowest varves were preserved. As a result, seven hypoxia periods, highlighting the variations in hypolimnetic hypoxia, are established. These periods may be influenced by bioturbation, lake infill, and lake level changes. Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship between hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations and climatic factors. Diatom assemblage changes were also analyzed to estimate whether the hypoxia periods could be related to anthropogenic eutrophication. The diatom analyses suggest relatively stable nutrient conditions for the past 200 years in Lake Lehmilampi. Climate, on the other hand, seems to be an important driver of hypoxia oscillations based on correlation analysis. The role of individual forcing factors and their interaction with hypolimnetic hypoxia would benefit from further investigations. Understanding climatic and anthropogenic forcing behind hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations is essential when assessing the fate of boreal lakes in a multi-stressor world. View Full-Text
Keywords: varves; hypoxia; oxygen deficiency; lake sediments; eutrophication; hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations varves; hypoxia; oxygen deficiency; lake sediments; eutrophication; hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salminen, S.; Saarni, S.; Tammelin, M.; Fukumoto, Y.; Saarinen, T. Varve Distribution Reveals Spatiotemporal Hypolimnetic Hypoxia Oscillations During the Past 200 Years in Lake Lehmilampi, Eastern Finland. Quaternary 2019, 2, 20.

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