Special Issue "Annually Laminated Lake Sediments"

A special issue of Quaternary (ISSN 2571-550X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Bernd Zolitschka
Website
Guest Editor
Associate Editor
University of Bremen, Institute of Geography, GEOPOLAR, Celsiusstrasse 2, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
Interests: limnogeology; varves; high-resolution paleoclimatology; human influence on ecosystems and landscape; dating techniques and age-depth modelling
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Tylmann
Website
Guest Editor
University of Gdańsk, Institute of Geography
Interests: lake sediments; varves; limnological conditions and sedimentation processes; paleoenvironmental reconstructions; dating methods in paleolimnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The overall goal of this Special Issue of Quaternary is to explore and evaluate the potential of annually-laminated lake sediments (varves) from diverse lacustrine settings. They provide high-resolution sedimentary records with precise incremental time control in calendar years and offer time-series of biological, isotopic, geochemical and sedimentological parameters. Their analysis provides (1) climate reconstructions linked to hydroclimatic conditions and temperature, (2) information on natural disasters like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and floods, and (3) increase our understanding of anthropogenic impacts, such as soil erosion, pollution and eutrophication. Varves document frequencies and rates of change for environmentally relevant processes and enhance our understanding of sedimentary processes when applied together with sediment trapping and instrumental monitoring.

This Special Issue of Quaternary aims to present the diversity within the field and the state-of-the-art research on lake varves at all timescales and environments. It seeks to display a wide range of regional studies and methodological approaches, such as field and laboratory experiments, monitoring, image analysis and numerical modelling. We welcome manuscripts related to climate reconstruction, human impact and environmental monitoring, as well as improvements in geochronology and analytical techniques.

Prof. Dr. Bernd Zolitschka
Prof. Dr. Wojciech Tylmann
Guest Editors

 

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Quaternary is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • varves
  • high-resolution paleoclimatology
  • reconstructions of environmental change
  • human impact
  • hydroclimatic conditions
  • incremental dating
  • monitoring and process studies
  • multiproxy analysis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Annually Laminated Lake Sediments—Recent Progress
Quaternary 2020, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat3010005 - 03 Mar 2020
Abstract
The collection of papers entitled “Annually Laminated Lake Sediments” illustrates the recent progress made in varved sediment research and highlights the variety of methodological approaches and research directions used. The contributions cover the monitoring of modern sediment fluxes using sediment traps, geochronological and [...] Read more.
The collection of papers entitled “Annually Laminated Lake Sediments” illustrates the recent progress made in varved sediment research and highlights the variety of methodological approaches and research directions used. The contributions cover the monitoring of modern sediment fluxes using sediment traps, geochronological and sedimentological analyses of varves, multi-proxy investigations, including geochemical and biological proxies, as well as spatiotemporal analyses based on multi-core studies supported by satellite images. The scientific issues discussed the influences of hydroclimatological phenomena on short-term changes in sediment flux, the relationships between biogeochemical processes in the water column and the formation of varves, the preservation of environmental signals in varves, and possibilities of synchronizing varved records with other high-resolution environmental archives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Modern Analogue Approach Applied to High-Resolution Varved Sediments—A Synthesis for Lake Montcortès (Central Pyrenees)
Quaternary 2020, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat3010001 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In Quaternary paleosciences, the rationale behind analogical inference presupposes that former processes can be explained by causes operating now, although their intensity and rates can vary through time. In this paper we synthesised the results of different modern analogue studies performed in a [...] Read more.
In Quaternary paleosciences, the rationale behind analogical inference presupposes that former processes can be explained by causes operating now, although their intensity and rates can vary through time. In this paper we synthesised the results of different modern analogue studies performed in a varved lake. We discuss their potential value to obtain best results from high resolution past records. Different biogeochemical contemporary processes revealed seasonality and year-to-year variability, e.g., calcite precipitation, lake oxygenation, production and deposition of pollen and phytoplankton growth. Fingerprints of the first two of these processes were clearly evidenced in the varve-sublayers and allow understanding related to past events. Pollen studies suggested the possibility of identifying and characterizing seasonal layers even in the absence of varves. Marker pigments in the water column were tightly associated with phytoplankton groups living today; most of them were identified in the sediment record as well. We observed that 50% of these marker pigments were destroyed between deposition and permanent burying. In another study, seasonality in the production/distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and derived temperature estimates were investigated in catchment soils and particles settling in the lake. The signatures of brGDGTs in depositional environments mainly were representative of stable conditions of soils in the catchment that last over decades; no brGDGTs seemed to be produced within the lake. The main contribution of this review is to show the advantages and limitations of a multiproxy modern-analogue approach in Lake Montcortès as a case study and proposing new working hypotheses for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Varve Distribution Reveals Spatiotemporal Hypolimnetic Hypoxia Oscillations During the Past 200 Years in Lake Lehmilampi, Eastern Finland
Quaternary 2019, 2(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat2020020 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
We investigated 34 sediment cores to reconstruct spatiotemporal variations in hypolimnetic hypoxia for the past 200 years in Lehmilampi, a small lake in Eastern Finland. As hypoxia is essential for varve preservation, spatiotemporal changes in varve distribution were used as an indicator for [...] Read more.
We investigated 34 sediment cores to reconstruct spatiotemporal variations in hypolimnetic hypoxia for the past 200 years in Lehmilampi, a small lake in Eastern Finland. As hypoxia is essential for varve preservation, spatiotemporal changes in varve distribution were used as an indicator for hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations. The hypoxic water volume was used as a variable reflecting hypolimnetic hypoxia and determined for each year by estimating the water volume beneath the water depth where shallowest varves were preserved. As a result, seven hypoxia periods, highlighting the variations in hypolimnetic hypoxia, are established. These periods may be influenced by bioturbation, lake infill, and lake level changes. Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship between hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations and climatic factors. Diatom assemblage changes were also analyzed to estimate whether the hypoxia periods could be related to anthropogenic eutrophication. The diatom analyses suggest relatively stable nutrient conditions for the past 200 years in Lake Lehmilampi. Climate, on the other hand, seems to be an important driver of hypoxia oscillations based on correlation analysis. The role of individual forcing factors and their interaction with hypolimnetic hypoxia would benefit from further investigations. Understanding climatic and anthropogenic forcing behind hypolimnetic hypoxia oscillations is essential when assessing the fate of boreal lakes in a multi-stressor world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ultra-High-Resolution Monitoring of the Catchment Response to Changing Weather Conditions Using Online Sediment Trapping
Quaternary 2019, 2(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat2020018 - 12 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between meteorological and hydrological observations and sediment flux rate changes, in order to better understand catchment dynamics. The meteorological and hydrological observations included local air temperature, wind speed, water temperature, and ice cover, while [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between meteorological and hydrological observations and sediment flux rate changes, in order to better understand catchment dynamics. The meteorological and hydrological observations included local air temperature, wind speed, water temperature, and ice cover, while the sediment flux rate was observed in the lake basin using a modified sediment trap technique. This study demonstrates the advantages of a new online methodology applied in conventional sediment trapping to obtain flux rate information with daily resolution. A prototype of a high-resolution online sediment trap was tested in Savilahti Bay, Lake Kallavesi, eastern Finland, during the period from 22 October 2017 to 6 October 2018. The daily resolutions of meteorological, hydrological, and sediment flux rate data were analyzed using statistical methods. The results indicate relationships between temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and sediment flux rate, but the urban site also showed erosional changes due to anthropogenic land use. Sediment flux ceased during winter season and spring floods were recorded as pronounced peaks in sediment flux, while the growing season showed generally higher sediment accumulation rates. This research also provides valuable information on the catchment response to short-term weather events. The influence of a storm led to larger sediment flux for several days. The importance of wind speed and frost formation on sedimentation, which has been difficult to address due to trap deployment times of typically several months, is now supported. Used together with varved sediment archives, online sediment trapping will facilitate the interpretation of paleoclimatic proxy records and modeling of detailed weather and erosion conditions that are related to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Dropstones in Lacustrine Sediments as a Record of Snow Avalanches—A Validation of the Proxy by Combining Satellite Imagery and Varve Chronology at Kenai Lake (South-Central Alaska)
Quaternary 2019, 2(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat2010011 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Snow avalanches cause many fatalities every year and damage local economies worldwide. The present-day climate change affects the snowpack and, thus, the properties and frequency of snow avalanches. Reconstructing snow avalanche records can help us understand past variations in avalanche frequency and their [...] Read more.
Snow avalanches cause many fatalities every year and damage local economies worldwide. The present-day climate change affects the snowpack and, thus, the properties and frequency of snow avalanches. Reconstructing snow avalanche records can help us understand past variations in avalanche frequency and their relationship to climate change. Previous avalanche records have primarily been reconstructed using dendrochronology. Here, we investigate the potential of lake sediments to record snow avalanches by studying 27 < 30-cm-long sediment cores from Kenai Lake, south-central Alaska. We use X-ray computed tomography (CT) to image post-1964 varves and to identify dropstones. We use two newly identified cryptotephras to update the existing varve chronology. Satellite imagery is used to understand the redistribution of sediments by ice floes over the lake, which helps to explain why some avalanches are not recorded. Finally, we compare the dropstone record with climate data to show that snow avalanche activity is related to high amounts of snowfall in periods of relatively warm or variable temperature conditions. We show, for the first time, a direct link between historical snow avalanches and dropstones preserved in lake sediments. Although the lacustrine varve record does not allow for the development of a complete annual reconstruction of the snow avalanche history in the Kenai Lake valley, our results suggest that it can be used for long-term decadal reconstructions of the snow-avalanche history, ideally in combination with similar records from lakes elsewhere in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Grain-Size Distribution and Structural Characteristics of Varved Sediments from Lake Żabińskie (Northeastern Poland)
Quaternary 2019, 2(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat2010008 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Typically, the description of varve microfacies is based on microscopic sedimentary structures, while standard grain-size analysis is commonly applied with lower resolution. Studies involving a direct comparison of varve microfacies and particle-size distributions, common for clastic environments, are scarce for biogenic varves. In [...] Read more.
Typically, the description of varve microfacies is based on microscopic sedimentary structures, while standard grain-size analysis is commonly applied with lower resolution. Studies involving a direct comparison of varve microfacies and particle-size distributions, common for clastic environments, are scarce for biogenic varves. In this study, we analyzed nine-year resolution grain-size data from Lake Żabińskie (northeastern Poland) to detect differences between varve microfacies. Six varve microfacies were differentiated using grain-size distributions and sedimentological attributes (calcite layer thickness, dark layer thickness, mass accumulation rate). However, changes in particle-size distributions between different varve types are relatively small and indicate a similar source for the material deposited. Decomposition of grain-size distributions with the end-member approach allows recognition of relative changes for the deposition of allochthonous (mineral) and autochthonous (carbonates, (hydr)oxides) components. Grain-size data suggest that sources of allochthonous material remained constant, while varve formation was controlled mostly by in-lake processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Using Annual Resolution Pollen Analysis to Synchronize Varve and Tree-Ring Records
Quaternary 2019, 2(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat2030023 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fossil wood and varved lake sediments allow proxy analysis with exceptionally high, (sub-)annual resolution. Both archives provide dating through ring and layer counting, yet with different accuracy. In wood, counting errors are small and can be eliminated through cross-dating because tree-rings show regionally [...] Read more.
Fossil wood and varved lake sediments allow proxy analysis with exceptionally high, (sub-)annual resolution. Both archives provide dating through ring and layer counting, yet with different accuracy. In wood, counting errors are small and can be eliminated through cross-dating because tree-rings show regionally synchronous patterns. In varved sediments, counting errors are larger and cross-dating is hampered by missing regional patterns in varve parameters. Here, we test whether annual pollen analysis is suited to synchronize varve records. To that end, annual pollen deposition was estimated in three short cores from two lakes in north-eastern Germany for the period 1980–2017 CE. Analysis has focused on Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies, which show the strongest annual variations in flowering (mast). For both tree taxa, annual flowering variations recorded by forest and pollen monitoring are well represented in varved lake sediments, hence indeed allow us to synchronize the records. Some pollen mast events were not recognized, which may relate to sampling uncertainties, redeposition or regional variations in flowering. In Fagus sylvatica, intense flowering limits wood growth in the same year. Peaks in pollen deposition hence correlate with minima in tree-ring width, which provides a link between varved lake sediments and fossil wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Annually Laminated Lake Sediments) Printed Edition available
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