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Quantum Beam Sci., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The quality of laser beam melting (LBM) components is naturally influenced by the quality of the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
High Resolution Mapping of Orientation and Strain Gradients in Metals by Synchrotron 3D X-ray Laue Microdiffraction
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3010006
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Synchrotron 3D X-ray Laue microdiffraction, available at beamline 34-ID-E at Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, is a powerful tool for 3D non-destructive mapping of local orientations and strains at sub-micron scale in the bulk. With this technique, it is possible to [...] Read more.
Synchrotron 3D X-ray Laue microdiffraction, available at beamline 34-ID-E at Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, is a powerful tool for 3D non-destructive mapping of local orientations and strains at sub-micron scale in the bulk. With this technique, it is possible to study local residual stresses developed during manufacturing or while in service due to interactions between, for example, different phases and/or grains with different orientations in materials containing multiple or single phase(s). Such information is essential for understanding mechanical properties and designing advanced materials, but is largely non-existent in the current generation of materials models. In the present paper, the principle and experimental set-up of the 3D microdiffraction are introduced, followed by a description of a method for quantification of the local plastic deformation based on high-angular-resolution orientation maps. The quantification of local residual stresses in two model materials, ductile cast iron (two phases) and partially recrystallized pure nickel (single phase), using 3D microdiffraction will then be presented. The results show that 3D microdiffraction is important for understanding the origin of local residual stresses and to relate them to the microstructural evolution. Finally, the limitations of the 3D microdiffraction on the current generation synchrotron source and new possibilities after the synchrotron upgrade are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessReview
3D Visualized Characterization of Fracture Behavior of Structural Metals Using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Microtomography
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3010005
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (SR-μCT) is a non-destructive characterization method in materials science, which provides the quantitative reconstruction of a three-dimension (3D) volume image with spatial resolution of sub-micrometer level. The recent progress in brilliance and flux of synchrotron radiation source has enabled [...] Read more.
Synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (SR-μCT) is a non-destructive characterization method in materials science, which provides the quantitative reconstruction of a three-dimension (3D) volume image with spatial resolution of sub-micrometer level. The recent progress in brilliance and flux of synchrotron radiation source has enabled the fast investigation of the inner microstructure of metal matrix composites without complex sample preparation. The 3D reconstruction can quantitatively describe the phase distribution as well as voids/cracks formation and propagation in structural metals, which provides a powerful tool to investigate the deformation and fracture processes. Here, we present an overview of recent work using SR-μCT, on the applications in structural metals. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Helical Magnet MnSi: Skyrmions and Magnons
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3010004
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Since the late 1970s, MnSi has played a major role in developing the theory of helical magnets in non-centrosymmetric materials showing the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction (DMI). With a long helimagnetic pitch of 175 Å as compared to the lattice d-spacing of 4.55 Å, it [...] Read more.
Since the late 1970s, MnSi has played a major role in developing the theory of helical magnets in non-centrosymmetric materials showing the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction (DMI). With a long helimagnetic pitch of 175 Å as compared to the lattice d-spacing of 4.55 Å, it was ideal for performing neutron studies, especially as large single crystals could be grown. A (B-T)-phase diagram was measured, and in these studies, under the application of a field of about 180 mT perpendicular to the scattering vector Q, a so-called A-phase in the B-T phase diagram was found and first interpreted as a re-orientation of the magnetic helix. After the surprising discovery of the skyrmion lattice in the A-phase in 2009, much interest arose due to the rigidity of the skyrmionic lattice, which is only loosely bound to the crystal lattice, and therefore only relatively small current densities can already induce a motion of this lattice. A very interesting approach to even better understand the complex structures in the phase diagram is to measure and model the spin excitations in MnSi. As the helimagnetic state is characterized by a long pitch of about 175 Å, the associated characteristic excitations form a band structure due to Umklapp scattering and can only be observed at very small Q with energies below 1 meV. Similarly, the excitations of the skyrmion lattice are very soft and low-energetic. We investigated the magnons in MnSi in the whole (B,T)-phase diagram starting in the single-k helimagnetic state by applying a small magnetic field, B = 100 mT. This way, the complexity of the magnon spectrum is significantly reduced, allowing for a detailed comparison of the data with theory, resulting in a full theoretical understanding of the spin system of MnSi in all its different magnetic phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Magnetism)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Shape Analysis of Powder for Laser Beam Melting by Synchrotron X-ray CT
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3010003
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
The quality of components made by laser beam melting (LBM) additive manufacturing is naturally influenced by the quality of the powder bed. A packing density <1 and porosity inside the powder particles lead to intrinsic voids in the powder bed. Since the packing [...] Read more.
The quality of components made by laser beam melting (LBM) additive manufacturing is naturally influenced by the quality of the powder bed. A packing density <1 and porosity inside the powder particles lead to intrinsic voids in the powder bed. Since the packing density is determined by the particle size and shape distribution, the determination of these properties is of significant interest to assess the printing process. In this work, the size and shape distribution, the amount of the particle’s intrinsic porosity, as well as the packing density of micrometric powder used for LBM, have been investigated by means of synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT). Two different powder batches were investigated: Ti–6Al–4V produced by plasma atomization and stainless steel 316L produced by gas atomization. Plasma atomization particles were observed to be more spherical in terms of the mean anisotropy compared to particles produced by gas atomization. The two kinds of particles were comparable in size according to the equivalent diameter. The packing density was lower (i.e., the powder bed contained more voids in between particles) for the Ti–6Al–4V particles. The comparison of the tomographic results with laser diffraction, as another particle size measurement technique, proved to be in agreement. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of QuBS in 2018
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3010002
Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Stress Relaxation Related to Spontaneous Thin Film Buckling: Correlation between Finite Element Calculations and Micro Diffraction Analysis
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3010001
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Compressive residual stresses generated during thin film deposition may lead to undesirable film damage, such as delamination, buckling, and flaking, ultimately leading to the failure of the device employing the film. Understanding the residual stress generation and role in these damage mechanisms is [...] Read more.
Compressive residual stresses generated during thin film deposition may lead to undesirable film damage, such as delamination, buckling, and flaking, ultimately leading to the failure of the device employing the film. Understanding the residual stress generation and role in these damage mechanisms is necessary to preserve thin film integrity and optimize its functional properties. Thin shell theory has been used for decades to predict buckling but the results have not yet been correlated with experimental data since the techniques used to measure stress in metallic films were not able to do so at the required micron scale until recently. Micro scanning X-ray diffraction now enables the direct mapping of the local stress of metallic films. In this paper, finite element method based on thin shell theory and synchrotron X-ray micro diffraction have been used to determine stress maps of thin film buckling patterns. Calculations of the stress distribution in the metallic films have been performed taking into account the buckling geometry determined from optical measurements. Stress distributions over gold blisters and tungsten wrinkles obtained with the two techniques are in fair agreement and allow for the accurate determination of the stress relaxation profile from the bottom to the top of the buckling, validating the thin shell theory model. Full article
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Quantum Beam Sci. EISSN 2412-382X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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