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Infrastructures, Volume 5, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The article focuses on the problem of accurate measurement of ground settlements (“ground loss”) during the excavation of a metro tunnel in the historical center of Athens. Measurements on isolated high-rise buildings and slender chimneys (insets) indicate a high-amplitude, 3-D ground deformation, higher than those predicted to occur in the tunnel influence zone (shown in a Google Map background), while measurements on low-height buildings usually underestimate ground subsidence. This is because part of the deformation is accommodated by the internal deformation of buildings (static soil–structure interaction). Such underestimation of the ground subsidence may lead to costly failures during tunneling, including sinkholes. An analogous effect is observed in Venice: increased tilting in towers, but limited deformation of palazzos. View this paper
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Article
The Selected Issues of Adaptation of 19th and 20th Century Post-Industrial Buildings in Łódź
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080069 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
The paper deals with selected technical problems related to the adaptation for new uses of the structure of existing post-industrial buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. A major difficulty is the fact that the strength and geometric properties of [...] Read more.
The paper deals with selected technical problems related to the adaptation for new uses of the structure of existing post-industrial buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. A major difficulty is the fact that the strength and geometric properties of cast-iron, steel, and masonry elements often differ significantly from the values characterizing contemporary materials. Due to uncertainty regarding the load-carrying capacity of historical structures, in many cases there is a need to carry out destructive tests of elements taken from the buildings. As the example of cast-iron girders in the former spinning mill of “I. Poznański” demonstrated, such tests can prove a significant margin of load-carrying capacity and confirm the possibility of adapting the structure to new purposes. The paper also presents examples of strengthening the existing wooden ceilings by joining with the reinforced concrete structure, which allowed the keeping of the original elements and an increase of the allowable load. Selected problems related to the assessment of historical masonry structures were also described. The discussed examples of structural failures showed that they often resulted from incorrect assessment of the strength of historical masonry elements as well as improperly conducted construction works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Article
Development of a Method to Study Evaporation of a Volatile Solvent in an Isolated Subsurface Structure: A Practical Exercise in Risk Minimization
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080068 - 08 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
This article describes development and confirmatory testing of a method to study the evaporation of a volatile solvent containing ignitable ingredients in an isolated subsurface structure, a type of confined space. Accidental spillage and surreptitious disposal of chemical products in streets create a [...] Read more.
This article describes development and confirmatory testing of a method to study the evaporation of a volatile solvent containing ignitable ingredients in an isolated subsurface structure, a type of confined space. Accidental spillage and surreptitious disposal of chemical products in streets create a risk of fire and explosions in these structures. Development of the method included consideration about instrument safety; personal exposure; volume of the structure (2.5 m3); evaporation rate; temperature of the airspace; and number of opening(s) in the manhole cover. Confirmatory testing utilized 10 mL of lacquer thinner (60% to 80% toluene, 10% to 20% methylethyl ketone (MEK), 5% to 10% methanol and 1% to 9% acetone) on a wetted paper towel positioned near the bottom of the structure. This methodology produced a maximum of 2150 ppm of ‘isobutylene units’ on a PID (PhotoIonization sensor) positioned about 15 cm above the sample. This concentration corresponds to about 1140 ppm of toluene (less than 10% of the Lower Flammable Limit of 12,700 ppm). This method offers a stable, safe platform for study of the process. Evaporation of solvent and exchange between the external atmosphere and the airspace regulate the concentration of vapor, which can typically persist for 24 to 48 h. Full article
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Article
Reliability Analysis of Intersection Sight Distance at Roundabouts
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080067 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
This paper presents a reliability-based method for the design of intersection sight distance (ISD) at traffic roundabouts using the linear and nonlinear deceleration profiles of the entry vehicles. The reliability method is based on the first-order second moment method which is simple and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a reliability-based method for the design of intersection sight distance (ISD) at traffic roundabouts using the linear and nonlinear deceleration profiles of the entry vehicles. The reliability method is based on the first-order second moment method which is simple and relatively accurate compared with advanced methods. The nonlinear deceleration profile includes a shape parameter that produces the linear profile as a special case. Deterministic and reliability-based formulas for the required ISD for an approaching vehicle are developed for the entry vehicle on the left and the vehicle on the circulating roadway. Then, the design values of the ISD legs, applicable to any type of roundabout, are presented for different probabilities of non-compliance (Pnc) and different coefficients of variations. For the special case of single-lane symmetrical roundabouts, which have a well-defined geometry, the lateral clearance needs are established. The sensitivity analysis shows that ISD is very sensitive to both the mean and variance of the critical headway. The results show that the deterministic method results in ISD values that correspond to a very small Pnc, indicating that the method is very conservative. The proposed method, which provides flexibility in selecting ISD for any given Pnc, should be of interest to highway designers and practitioners to promote roundabout safety. Full article
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Review
Review of Enzyme-Induced Calcite Precipitation as a Ground-Improvement Technique
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080066 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
Calcite-induced precipitation methods (CIPMs) have recently become potential techniques in geotechnical engineering for improving the shear strength of sandy soil. One of the most promising methods among them is enzyme-induced calcite precipitation (EICP). In this technique, a mixed solution composed of reagents and [...] Read more.
Calcite-induced precipitation methods (CIPMs) have recently become potential techniques in geotechnical engineering for improving the shear strength of sandy soil. One of the most promising methods among them is enzyme-induced calcite precipitation (EICP). In this technique, a mixed solution composed of reagents and the urease enzyme, which produces calcite, is utilized as the grouting material. The precipitated calcite in granular soil provides ties among the grains of soil and limits their mobility, thus promoting an improvement in strength and stiffness and also a reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil. This paper discusses the potential increase in the strength and stiffness of the soil, the additional materials for grouting, the effect of these materials on the treatment process, and the engineering properties of the soil. The possible sources of the urease enzyme and the applicability of the EICP method to other soil types are also discussed in this paper. The environmental and economic impacts of the application of EICP are also presented. The envisioned plans for application, potential advantages, and limitations of EICP for soil stabilization are discussed. Finally, the primary challenges and opportunities for development in future research are briefly addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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Article
Accuracy Comparison of Aerial Lidar, Mobile-Terrestrial Lidar, and UAV Photogrammetric Capture Data Elevations over Different Terrain Types
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080065 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Lidar and other remotely sensed data such as UAV photogrammetric data capture are being collected and utilized for roadway design on an increasing basis. These methods are desirable over conventional survey due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness over large areas. A high degree [...] Read more.
Lidar and other remotely sensed data such as UAV photogrammetric data capture are being collected and utilized for roadway design on an increasing basis. These methods are desirable over conventional survey due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness over large areas. A high degree of relative accuracy is achievable through the establishment of survey control. In this case study, elevations (z-values) derived from mobile-terrestrial lidar, aerial lidar, and UAV photogrammetric capture collected with survey control were statistically compared to conventionally surveyed elevations. A cost comparison of the methods is also included. Each set of z-values corresponds to a discrete horizontal point originally part of the conventional survey, collected as cross-sections. These cross-sections were surveyed at three approximate tenth-mile sample locations along US-30 near Georgetown, Idaho. The cross-sections were collected as elevational accuracy verification, and each sample location was selected as an area where the mobile-terrestrial lidar in particular was expected to have more difficulty achieving accuracy off the road surface. Processing and analysis were performed in Esri ArcMap 10.6, and all data were obtained from the Idaho Transportation Department, District 5. Overall, the aerial lidar elevations were found to be closest to conventionally surveyed elevations; on road surface and level terrain, mobile-terrestrial and UAV photogrammetric capture elevations were closer to the conventionally measured elevations. Full article
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Article
Ground Loss and Static Soil–Structure Interaction during Urban Tunnel Excavation: Evidence from the Excavation of the Athens Metro
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080064 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Ground settlement above urban tunnels is a threat for nearby buildings, because it may lead to their differential settlement, tilting, and damage, depending on their structural characteristics, on ground conditions, and on the excavation procedure. Still, for few cases only details on ground [...] Read more.
Ground settlement above urban tunnels is a threat for nearby buildings, because it may lead to their differential settlement, tilting, and damage, depending on their structural characteristics, on ground conditions, and on the excavation procedure. Still, for few cases only details on ground settlement are known. In this article we analyze ground subsidence data during the excavation of Lines 2 and 3 of the Athens Metro. Based on this evidence, and in comparison with previous studies, we show that observations of elevation changes and of tilting of buildings may underestimate the amount of ground loss; this is because part of the ground deformation may be compensated by the stiffness of buildings or accommodated by internal deformation of sizeable buildings hosting measuring benchmarks. This effect can be described as static soil–structure interaction (sSSI), in analogy to the dynamic SSI produced during earthquakes. sSSI can produce bias in monitoring data above an advancing tunnel front, leading to skew and not to symmetric subsidence curves if observations are made on one side on buildings and on the other side in open spaces (‘greenfields’). Furthermore, we show that ‘bowls’ of increased subsidence are observed along subsidence troughs during excavation; such ‘bowls’, not infrequently underestimated because of sSSI, may conceal a potential for sinkholes and other types of failure. Isolated towers on the contrary describe well ground subsidence and tilting. Full article
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Article
A Piecewise-Defined Function for Modelling Traffic Noise on Urban Roads
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080063 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
In this paper, a piecewise-defined function is proposed to estimate traffic noise in urban areas. The proposed approach allows the use of the model even in the case of very low or zero flows for which the classical logarithmic form is not suitable. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a piecewise-defined function is proposed to estimate traffic noise in urban areas. The proposed approach allows the use of the model even in the case of very low or zero flows for which the classical logarithmic form is not suitable. A model based on the proposed approach is calibrated for a real case and compared with the results obtained with a model based only on the logarithmic form. The results obtained show how the proposed piecewise-defined function, linear for low traffic flows and logarithmic for medium-high volumes, is able to better represent real noise pollution levels in all conditions. The proposed approach is particularly useful when comparing two plan scenarios from the point of view of noise effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Systems: Safety Modeling, Visions and Strategies)
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Article
Understanding Multi-Vehicle Collision Patterns on Freeways—A Machine Learning Approach
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080062 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Generating meaningful inferences from crash data is vital to improving highway safety. Classic statistical methods are fundamental to crash data analysis and often regarded for their interpretability. However, given the complexity of crash mechanisms and associated heterogeneity, classic statistical methods, which lack versatility, [...] Read more.
Generating meaningful inferences from crash data is vital to improving highway safety. Classic statistical methods are fundamental to crash data analysis and often regarded for their interpretability. However, given the complexity of crash mechanisms and associated heterogeneity, classic statistical methods, which lack versatility, might not be sufficient for granular crash analysis because of the high dimensional features involved in crash-related data. In contrast, machine learning approaches, which are more flexible in structure and capable of harnessing richer data sources available today, emerges as a suitable alternative. With the aid of new methods for model interpretation, the complex machine learning models, previously considered enigmatic, can be properly interpreted. In this study, two modern machine learning techniques, Linear Discriminate Analysis and eXtreme Gradient Boosting, were explored to classify three major types of multi-vehicle crashes (i.e., rear-end, same-direction sideswipe, and angle) occurred on Interstate 285 in Georgia. The study demonstrated the utility and versatility of modern machine learning methods in the context of crash analysis, particularly in understanding the potential features underlying different crash patterns on freeways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovate, Research, and Maintain Transportation Infrastructure)
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