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Designs, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 8 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We present design guidelines on light emitting diode (LED) costumes for dance performances assuming [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Oil-Injected Twin-Screw Compressor with Multiphase Flow Models
Designs 2019, 3(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040054 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Growing demands for energy are motivating researchers to conduct in-depth analysis of positive displacement machines such as oil-injected screw compressors which are frequently used in industrial applications like refrigeration, oil and gas and air compression. The performance of these machines is strongly dependent [...] Read more.
Growing demands for energy are motivating researchers to conduct in-depth analysis of positive displacement machines such as oil-injected screw compressors which are frequently used in industrial applications like refrigeration, oil and gas and air compression. The performance of these machines is strongly dependent on the oil injection. Optimisation of oil has a great energy saving potential by both increasing efficiency and reducing other impacts on the environment. Therefore, a three-dimensional, transient computational fluid dynamics study of oil injection in a twin-screw compressor is conducted in this research. This study explores pseudo single-fluid multiphase (SFM) models of VOF (Volume of Fluid) and a mixture for their capability to predict the performance of the oil-injected twin screw compressor and compare this with the experimental values. SCORGTM (Screw Compressor Rotor Grid Generator) is used to generate numerical grids for unstructured solver Fluent with the special interface developed to facilitate user defined nodal displacement (UDND). The performance predictions with both VOF and mixture models provide accurate values for power consumption and flow rates with low deviation between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the experiment at 6000 RPM and 7.0 bar discharge pressure. In addition, the study reflects on differences in predicting oil distribution with VOF, mixture and Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid models. Overall, this study provides an insight into multiphase flow-modelling techniques available for oil-injected twin-screw compressors comprehensively accounting for the details of oil distribution in the compression chamber and integral compressor performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Virtual Mannequin Simulation for Customized Electromagnetic Shielding Maternity Garment Manufacturing
Designs 2019, 3(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040053 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Trying virtual garments on a virtual body has become widespread in the design industry as a result of 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system and progress in body measurement systems. Spending less time and cost compared to traditional methods of garment design is the [...] Read more.
Trying virtual garments on a virtual body has become widespread in the design industry as a result of 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system and progress in body measurement systems. Spending less time and cost compared to traditional methods of garment design is the main benefit of design software development. Moreover, it leads to improved garment fitting on the body which fulfills customer desires. In the present study, a parametric graphical method was utilized to develop a 3D virtual mannequin for the pregnancy period. The former, the 3D adaptive mannequin model was predicted based on a woman’s weight by analyzing body morphology evolution of a pregnant woman. The mannequin was verified by the results of another pregnant body. Then, the developed mannequin based on weight gain during maternity was applied to design a garment block pattern. The virtual try-on of the developed garment block pattern suggested that it was well-fitted on the 3D virtual mannequin while two armpit darts and two elastic seams were allocated. Hence, the developed garment block pattern will be used to make a personalized protective garment in our future work using an electromagnetic shielding woven fabric formerly manufactured by our group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of Customised Mesh for Twin Screw Vacuum Pumps
Designs 2019, 3(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040052 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 235
Abstract
The market for dry vacuum pumps is expected to increase in the coming years. Improving the efficiency of these machines requires comprehensive understanding of the flow dynamics within the working chambers. For this purpose, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used as it offers [...] Read more.
The market for dry vacuum pumps is expected to increase in the coming years. Improving the efficiency of these machines requires comprehensive understanding of the flow dynamics within the working chambers. For this purpose, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used as it offers better insight of the working process of a screw machine. In this study, a twin-screw vacuum pump with a large helix angle was analysed. This is a challenging case for CFD due to the limitations of grid generation in the transverse plane on the mesh quality. Two types of transverse meshes were generated using the software SCORGTM: casing to rotor non-conformal mesh and casing to rotor conformal mesh. The quality of the mesh in terms of aspect ratio and orthogonality were compared. The casing to rotor conformal mesh was used with ANSYS Fluent in order to obtain performance characteristics of the vacuum pump with the moderate helix angle of 62° such as the mass flow rate, rotor torque, and indicated power. The performance prediction results were satisfactory but the grid quality was relatively low with orthogonality reaching 40° and aspect ratio over 250 in some cases. As the helix angle increases the quality of mesh decreases. This paper presents the new development of a grid generation algorithm which uses the normal rack to map the fluid domain in the normal plane instead of the transverse plane. This new mesh generation method is expected to better align the computational grid with the main and leakage flows in order to significantly improve grid quality and reduce the numerical diffusion in case of screw machines with large helix angles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design Guidelines on LED Costumes for Dance Performances
Designs 2019, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040051 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 203
Abstract
We present design guidelines on light emitting diode (LED) costumes for dance performances assuming repetitive use during concerts. We used LED costumes more than 120 times for large concerts of well-known artists at venues of approximately 50,000 capacity that were commercially successesful and [...] Read more.
We present design guidelines on light emitting diode (LED) costumes for dance performances assuming repetitive use during concerts. We used LED costumes more than 120 times for large concerts of well-known artists at venues of approximately 50,000 capacity that were commercially successesful and we updated the LED costume design twice based on our experiences during these concerts. Through analyzing the position of broken LEDs and the types of breakage and the problems that occurred during actual performances, we devised 17 design guidelines on LED costumes for dance performances. Thanks to these design guidelines, the LEDs on the costume are more difficult to break and we can prepare for any contingencies that may occur during a performance. We fabricated an improved LED costume based on our design guidelines and conducted endurance tests involving dancing. Throughout the endurance tests, the LEDs did not break, and other factors that cause LED breakage were found. We participated in two exhibitions to conduct special LED dance performances. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of 3D Printing Process Parameters on the Dielectric Properties of High Permittivity Composites
Designs 2019, 3(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040050 - 05 Nov 2019
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a well-known and greatly accessible additive manufacturing technology, that has found great use in the prototyping and manufacture of radiofrequency componentry, by using a range of composite thermoplastic materials that possess superior properties, when compared to standard materials [...] Read more.
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a well-known and greatly accessible additive manufacturing technology, that has found great use in the prototyping and manufacture of radiofrequency componentry, by using a range of composite thermoplastic materials that possess superior properties, when compared to standard materials for 3D printing. However, due to their nature and synthesis, they are often a great challenge to print successfully which in turn affects their microwave properties. Hence, determining the optimum printing strategy and settings is important to advance this area. The manufacturing study presented in this paper shows the impact of the main process parameters: printing speed, hatch spacing, layer height and material infill, during 3D printing on the relative permittivity (εr), and loss tangent (tanδ) of the resultant additively manufactured test samples. A combination of process parameters arising from this study, allowed successful 3D printing of test samples, that marked a relative permittivity of 9.06 ± 0.09 and dielectric loss of 0.032 ± 0.003. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed RF Devices and Antennas)
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Open AccessArticle
Geometric Parameter Control of Infill Patterns
Designs 2019, 3(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040049 - 31 Oct 2019
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Existing studies on infill patterns have tended to focus on pattern design rather than on geometric parameters. During this study, we propose a new controlling method focused specifically on the geometric parameters of infill patterns. The input parameters of this method can be [...] Read more.
Existing studies on infill patterns have tended to focus on pattern design rather than on geometric parameters. During this study, we propose a new controlling method focused specifically on the geometric parameters of infill patterns. The input parameters of this method can be used to create 3D printed objects with more lightweight interiors. The presented approach partitions a region of an object with user-specified distance inputs that are used to create infill pattern elements. Moreover, the proposed method will enable the generation of new design variations derived from a single pattern type with similar topologies and varying geometric parameters. The hexagonal pattern variations comprising regular and irregular elements have been presented. The variations of infill pattern design are useful for creating more lightweight and stronger 3D fabrications. The proposed approach is applicable for many different patterns, including linear pattern designs. The goal of this study is to devise a more cost-effective method of creating 3D-printed objects through the application of customizable infill patterns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Resilient Modulus for Coarse-Grained Subgrade Soils from Quick Shear Tests for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Designs
Designs 2019, 3(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040048 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The resilient modulus represents the subgrade soil stiffness, and it is considered one of the key material inputs in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The resilient modulus is typically estimated in the laboratory using a repeated load cyclic triaxial test, which [...] Read more.
The resilient modulus represents the subgrade soil stiffness, and it is considered one of the key material inputs in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The resilient modulus is typically estimated in the laboratory using a repeated load cyclic triaxial test, which is complex and time consuming to perform. Technical ability is also required to prepare the test specimens, particularly for coarse-grained soils. Therefore, there is a need to estimate the resilient modulus of coarse-grained soils from other simpler tests. In this study, correlations of resilient modulus with soil index properties and quick shear (QS) test results (quick shear strength, stress at 1% strain and tangent modulus) were developed for remolded coarse-grained soils, collected from different geographic regions in South Carolina. The developed models showed good correlations of resilient modulus to tangent modulus and soil index properties. The average tangent, modulus obtained from 30% and 50% of maximum stress of the QS tests, moisture content, optimum moisture content, dry unit weight, and maximum dry unit weight showed a statistically significant effect on estimating the resilient modulus for coarse-grained subgrade soils. The validation study confirms that the developed models can be used for predicting the resilient modulus for South Carolina coarse-grained soils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Microwave Characterization Methods for Additively Manufactured Materials
Designs 2019, 3(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs3040047 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 394
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) has become more important and common in recent years. Advantages of AM include the ability to rapidly design and fabricate samples much faster than traditional manufacturing processes and to create complex internal geometries. Materials are crucial components of microwave systems [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) has become more important and common in recent years. Advantages of AM include the ability to rapidly design and fabricate samples much faster than traditional manufacturing processes and to create complex internal geometries. Materials are crucial components of microwave systems and proper and accurate measurement of their dielectric properties is important to aid a high level of accuracy in design. There are numerous measurement techniques and finding the most appropriate method is important and requires consideration of all different factors and limitations. One limitation of sample preparation is that the sample size needs to fit in the measurement method. By utilizing the advantage of additive manufacturing, the material can be characterized using different measurement methods. In this paper, the additive manufacturing process and dielectric measurement methods have been critically reviewed. The test specimens for measuring dielectric properties were fabricated using fused filament fabrication (FFF)-based additive manufacturing and were measured using four different commercial dielectric properties measurement instruments including split post dielectric resonator (SPDR), rectangular waveguide, TE01δ cavity resonator, and open resonator. The measured results from the four techniques have been compared and have shown reasonable agreement with measurements within a 10 percent range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D-Printed RF Devices and Antennas)
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