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Designs, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 8 articles

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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Kumar, P.M., Jagadeesh Babu, V., Subramanian, A., Bandla, A., Thakor, N., Ramakrishna, S. and Wei, H. The Design of a Thermoelectric Generator and Its Medical Applications. Designs 2019, 3, 22
Designs 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010008 - 11 Mar 2020
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Abstract
The author wishes to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Modules in Pleasurable Design to Fulfil Customer Requirements and Provide a Customized Product in the Food Industry
Designs 2020, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010007 - 01 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Customers’ needs and wants with regard to dairy products are increasingly diverse, and companies must be able to produce a variety of products. This study aimed to obtain alternative product configurations in accordance with customer requirements and to determine the types of modules [...] Read more.
Customers’ needs and wants with regard to dairy products are increasingly diverse, and companies must be able to produce a variety of products. This study aimed to obtain alternative product configurations in accordance with customer requirements and to determine the types of modules required to realize the product by synergizing conjoint analysis and the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The product configuration was based on pleasurable design consisting of three aspects, namely functionality, usability, and pleasure. Pleasurable design was chosen because it involves the human in the product design as a product user so that the product design is in accordance with customer expectations. The research used the survey method with consumers of ice cream. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the product attributes desired by consumers. Orthogonal design was used to construct alternative product configurations, while the product configuration rank was determined using conjoint analysis. Based on the results of the research, the selected attributes for the functionality aspects were taste and texture, the selected attributes for the usability aspects were shape and packaging materials, and the selected attributes for the pleasure aspects were health benefits and appearance. The orthogonal design results led to 25 alternative product configurations, followed by determination of the ranking of alternative product configurations. Then the DEMATEL method was applied to analyse the relationship between the product configuration attributes to determine the types of modules that must be provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Redesign of an In-Market Conveyor System for Manufacturing Cost Reduction and Design Efficiency Using DFMA Methodology
Designs 2020, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010006 - 19 Feb 2020
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Abstract
To remain competitive in the market, it is crucial to reduce the time and costs involved in product development. Design for manufacturing and assembly is an engineering methodology that can reduce costs without compromising reliability, performance and time to market objectives. This paper [...] Read more.
To remain competitive in the market, it is crucial to reduce the time and costs involved in product development. Design for manufacturing and assembly is an engineering methodology that can reduce costs without compromising reliability, performance and time to market objectives. This paper presents a case study for an in-market Table Top Chain (TTC) conveyor system used by a reputed company in Saudi Arabia. TTC conveyor systems are extensively used by major food companies around the world for transporting packaged bottles, glass and cans. There are three main types of these systems, i.e., straight running, side flexing and multiflex. This work focuses on the redesign of a side flexing TTC conveyor system. The existing design of the TTC conveyor system was analysed using the DFMA 9.3 software. The outcomes of the initial analysis were utilised to redesign the TTC conveyor system for cost and design efficiency improvements. The optimum design was selected using Pugh controlled convergence method and further tested for its structural performance using finite element analysis. The redesigned model showed substantial improvements with cost reductions of 29% and an increase in design efficiency from 1.7% to 5%. Finite element analysis has also been carried out with SolidWorks 2019 to validate the structural integrity of the new concept design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model Testing of Complex Embedded Systems Using EAST-ADL and Energy-Aware Mutations
Designs 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010005 - 19 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Nowadays, embedded systems are increasingly complex, meaning that traditional testing methods are costly to use and infeasible to directly apply due to the complex interactions between hardware and software. Modern embedded systems are also demanded to function based on low-energy computing. Hence, testing [...] Read more.
Nowadays, embedded systems are increasingly complex, meaning that traditional testing methods are costly to use and infeasible to directly apply due to the complex interactions between hardware and software. Modern embedded systems are also demanded to function based on low-energy computing. Hence, testing the energy usage is increasingly important. Artifacts produced during the development of embedded systems, such as architectural descriptions, are beneficial abstractions of the system’s complex structure and behavior. Electronic Architecture and Software Tools Architecture Description Language (EAST-ADL) is one such example of a domain-specific architectural language targeting the automotive industry. In this paper, we propose a method for testing design models using EAST-ADL architecture mutations. We show how fault-based testing can be used to generate, execute and select tests using energy-aware mutants—syntactic changes in the architectural description, used to mimic naturally occurring energy faults. Our goal is to improve testing of complex embedded systems by moving the testing bulk from the actual systems to models of their behaviors and non-functional requirements. We combine statistical model-checking, increasingly used in quality assurance of embedded systems, with EAST-ADL architectural models and mutation testing to drive the search for faults. We show the results of applying this method on an industrial-sized system developed by Volvo GTT. The results indicate that model testing of EAST-ADL architectural models can reduce testing complexity by bringing early and cost-effective automation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Product Development Approach Advisor for Navigating Common Design Methods, Processes, and Environments
Designs 2020, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010004 - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Many different product development approaches are taught and used in engineering and management disciplines. These formalized design methods, processes, and environments differ in the types of projects for which they are relevant, the project components they include, and the support they provide users. [...] Read more.
Many different product development approaches are taught and used in engineering and management disciplines. These formalized design methods, processes, and environments differ in the types of projects for which they are relevant, the project components they include, and the support they provide users. This paper details a review of sixteen well-established product development approaches, the development of a decision support system to help designers and managers navigate these approaches, and the administration of a survey to gather subjective assessments and feedback from design experts. The included approaches—design thinking, systems thinking, total quality management, agile development, waterfall process, engineering design, spiral model, vee model, axiomatic design, value-driven design, decision-based design, lean manufacturing, six sigma, theory of constraints, scrum, and extreme programming—are categorized based on six criteria: complexity, guidance, phase, hardware or software applicability, values, and users. A decision support system referred to as the Product Development Approach Advisor (PD Advisor) is developed to aid designers in navigating these approaches and selecting an appropriate approach based on specific project needs. Next, a survey is conducted with design experts to gather feedback on the support system and the categorization of approaches and criteria. The survey results are compared to the original classification of approaches by the authors to validate and provide feedback on the PD Advisor. The findings highlight the value and limitations of the PD Advisor for product development practice and education, as well as the opportunities for future work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Tip Leakage Flows in a Roots Blower
Designs 2020, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010003 - 06 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can help in understanding the nature of leakage flow phenomena inside the rotary positive displacement machines (PDMs). However, due to the lack of experimental results, the analysis of leakage flows in rotary PDMs by CFD has not yet been [...] Read more.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can help in understanding the nature of leakage flow phenomena inside the rotary positive displacement machines (PDMs). However, due to the lack of experimental results, the analysis of leakage flows in rotary PDMs by CFD has not yet been fully validated. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) tests with a microscopic lens and phase-lock were conducted to obtain the velocity field around the tip gap in an optical Roots blower. The three-dimensional unsteady CFD model of the Roots blower with the dynamic grids generated by Screw Compressor Rotor Grid Generation (SCORG) was established to predict the gap flow under the same operating conditions. The images obtained by the PIV tests were analyzed and some factors which compromise the quality of test results in the gap flow were identified, such as reflections and transparency of the window. The flow fields obtained by CFD have the same flow pattern and velocity magnitude as the experimental results in the majority of observed regions but overestimate the leakage flow velocity. The CFD results show a vortex induced by the leakage flow in the downstream region of the gap. The flow losses in the tip gap mainly happen at the entrance upstream of the gap. Finally, some suggestions for future work are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CFD Simulations of Single- and Twin-Screw Machines with OpenFOAM
Designs 2020, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010002 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Over the last decade, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly applied for the design and analysis of positive displacement machines employed in vapor compression and power generation applications. Particularly, single-screw and twin-screw machines have received attention from the researchers, leading to the [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly applied for the design and analysis of positive displacement machines employed in vapor compression and power generation applications. Particularly, single-screw and twin-screw machines have received attention from the researchers, leading to the development and application of increasingly efficient techniques for their numerical simulation. Modeling the operation of such machines including the dynamics of the compression (or expansion) process and the deforming working chambers is particularly challenging. The relative motion of the rotors and the variation of the gaps during machine operation are a few of the major numerical challenges towards the implementation of reliable CFD models. Moreover, evaluating the thermophysical properties of real gases represents an additional challenge to be addressed. Special care must be given to defining equation of states or generating tables and computing the thermodynamic properties. Among several CFD suite available, the open-source OpenFOAM tool OpenFOAM, is regarded as a reliable and accurate software for carrying out CFD analyses. In this paper, the dynamic meshing techniques available within the software as well as new libraries implemented for expanding the functionalities of the software are presented. The simulation of both a single-screw and a twin-screw machine is described and results are discussed. Specifically, for the single-screw expander case, the geometry will be released as open-access for the entire community. Besides, the real gas modeling possibilities implemented in the software will be described and the CoolProp thermophysical library integration will be presented. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Designs in 2019
Designs 2020, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs4010001 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 258
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months [...] Full article
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