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Inventions, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle An Automated Technique for Extracting Phasors from Protective Relay’s Event Reports
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Post-fault event report analysis is a crucial skill set for electric power engineers in the protection industry. This paper serves as a reference which elucidates the preprocessing procedures involved in transforming data present in event reports to phasors that can be used in
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Post-fault event report analysis is a crucial skill set for electric power engineers in the protection industry. This paper serves as a reference which elucidates the preprocessing procedures involved in transforming data present in event reports to phasors that can be used in various post-fault analysis application algorithms. The paper discusses key elements of this process such as interpreting the data and calculating voltage and current phasors from instantaneous sample values present in a fault record. A crucial component of event report analysis is choosing the appropriate time instant for calculating phasors for event report analysis. Conventionally, protection engineers manually perform event report analysis and arbitrarily select time instants after certain cycles of fault inception for this purpose. This approach prevents the process from being successfully automated. Furthermore, arbitrary selection of time instant does not utilize the entire fault data and may fail in several cases such as short time fault scenario and evolving fault scenario. For this purpose, this paper proposes an adaptive novel technique which utilizes the entire data present in the event report to select the most suitable time instant for event report analysis. The superiority of the proposed algorithm over conventional methods is demonstrated using three real-world scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies Enabling Smart Grid)
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Open AccessArticle A Distance-Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process Based Method for Event Detection on Social Media
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a method for event detection on social media, which aims at clustering media items into groups of events based on their textural information as well as available metadata. Our approach is based on distance-dependent Chinese Restaurant Process (ddCRP),
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In this paper, we propose a method for event detection on social media, which aims at clustering media items into groups of events based on their textural information as well as available metadata. Our approach is based on distance-dependent Chinese Restaurant Process (ddCRP), a clustering approach resembling Dirichlet process algorithm. Furthermore, we scrutinize the effectiveness of a series of pre-processing steps in improving the detection performance. We experimentally evaluated our method using the Social Event Detection (SED) dataset of MediaEval 2013 benchmarking workshop, which pertains to the discovery of social events and their grouping in event-specific clusters. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method attains very good performance rates compared to existing approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Machine Intelligence for Critical Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Thermogravitational Cycles: Theoretical Framework and Example of an Electric Thermogravitational Generator Based on Balloon Inflation/Deflation
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Several studies have involved a combination of heat and gravitational energy exchanges to create novel heat engines. A common theoretical framework is developed here to describe thermogravitational cycles which have the same efficiencies as the Carnot, Rankine, or Brayton cycles. Considering a working
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Several studies have involved a combination of heat and gravitational energy exchanges to create novel heat engines. A common theoretical framework is developed here to describe thermogravitational cycles which have the same efficiencies as the Carnot, Rankine, or Brayton cycles. Considering a working fluid enclosed in a balloon inside a column filled with a transporting fluid, a cycle is composed of four steps. Starting from the top of the column, the balloon goes down by gravity, receives heat from a hot source at the bottom, then rises and delivers heat to a cold source at the top. Unlike classic power cycles which need external work to operate the compressor, thermogravitational cycles can operate as a “pure power cycle” where no external work is needed to drive the cycle. To illustrate this concept, the prototype of a thermogravitational electrical generator is presented. It uses a hot source of average temperature near 57 °C and relies on the gravitational energy exchanges of an organic fluorinated fluid inside a balloon attached to a magnetic marble to produce an electromotive force of 50 mV peak to peak by the use of a linear alternator. This heat engine is well suited to be operated using renewable energy sources such as geothermal gradients or focused sunlight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics in the 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle 3-D Printable Polymer Pelletizer Chopper for Fused Granular Fabrication-Based Additive Manufacturing
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Although distributed additive manufacturing can provide high returns on investment, the current markup on commercial filament over base polymers limits deployment. These cost barriers can be surmounted by eliminating the entire process of fusing filament by three-dimensional (3-D) printing products directly from polymer
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Although distributed additive manufacturing can provide high returns on investment, the current markup on commercial filament over base polymers limits deployment. These cost barriers can be surmounted by eliminating the entire process of fusing filament by three-dimensional (3-D) printing products directly from polymer granules. Fused granular fabrication (FGF) (or fused particle fabrication (FPF)) is being held back in part by the accessibility of low-cost pelletizers and choppers. An open-source 3-D printable invention disclosed here allows for precisely controlled pelletizing of both single thermopolymers as well as composites for 3-D printing. The system is designed, built, and tested for its ability to provide high-tolerance thermopolymer pellets with a number of sizes capable of being used in an FGF printer. In addition, the chopping pelletizer is tested for its ability to chop multi-materials simultaneously for color mixing and composite fabrication as well as precise fractional measuring back to filament. The US$185 open-source 3-D printable pelletizer chopper system was successfully fabricated and has a 0.5 kg/h throughput with one motor, and 1.0 kg/h throughput with two motors using only 0.24 kWh/kg during the chopping process. Pellets were successfully printed directly via FGF as well as indirectly after being converted into high-tolerance filament in a recyclebot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Advanced Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Pulse Width and Frequency Hybrid Modulated LLC Converter Adapted to Ultra Wide Voltage Range
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
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Abstract
In wide voltage range applications such as electric vehicles (EVs) onboard charging, conventional frequency modulated LLC topology has its intrinsic limitations. Its frequency span is extremely wide and the soft switching feature might get lost. To address this issue, this paper proposes a
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In wide voltage range applications such as electric vehicles (EVs) onboard charging, conventional frequency modulated LLC topology has its intrinsic limitations. Its frequency span is extremely wide and the soft switching feature might get lost. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel LLC resonant converter. The pulse width and frequency hybrid modulation are adopted to narrow down its switching frequency span. The operating principles, circuit modeling, and the design methodology are presented. A 1 kW rated prototype has been built to realize an efficient power flow between the 400 V DC bus and 200–440 V battery pack. The designed prototype validates the effectiveness of the proposed topology and modulation method. 96.8% peak efficiency is measured for the constructed experimental prototype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Enhancement by Nano-PCM in Aluminum Foam
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract
Thermal storage system (TES) with phase change material (PCM) is an important device to store thermal energy. It works as a thermal buffer to reconcile the supply energy with the energy demand. It has a wide application field, especially for solar thermal energy
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Thermal storage system (TES) with phase change material (PCM) is an important device to store thermal energy. It works as a thermal buffer to reconcile the supply energy with the energy demand. It has a wide application field, especially for solar thermal energy storage. The main drawback is the low value of thermal conductivity of the PCM making the system useless for thermal engineering applications. A way to resolve this problem is to combine the PCM with a highly conductive material like metal foam and/or nanoparticles. In this paper a numerical investigation on the metal foam effects in a latent heat thermal energy storage system, based on a phase change material with nanoparticles (nano-PCM), is accomplished. The modelled TES is a typical 70 L water tank filled with nano-PCM with pipes to transfer thermal energy from a fluid to the nano-PCM. The PCM is a pure paraffin wax and the nanoparticles are in aluminum oxide. The metal foam is made of aluminum with assigned values of porosity. The enthalpy-porosity theory is employed to simulate the phase change of the nano-PCM and the metal foam is modelled as a porous media. Numerical simulations are carried out using the Ansys Fluent code. The results are shown in terms of melting time, temperature at varying of time, and total amount of stored energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer and Its Innovative Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Versatile Setup for Measuring Multiple Behavior Endpoints in Zebrafish
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 451 | PDF Full-text (4260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The measurement of multiple behavior endpoints in zebrafish can provide informative clues within neurobehavioral field. However, multiple behavior evaluations usually require complicated and costly instrumental settings. Here, we reported a versatile setting that applied ten acrylic tanks arranging into five vertical layers and
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The measurement of multiple behavior endpoints in zebrafish can provide informative clues within neurobehavioral field. However, multiple behavior evaluations usually require complicated and costly instrumental settings. Here, we reported a versatile setting that applied ten acrylic tanks arranging into five vertical layers and two horizontal columns to perform multiple behavior assays simultaneously, such as the novel tank diving test, mirror-biting test, social interaction, shoaling, and predator escape assay. In total, ten behavioral performance were collected in a single video, and the XY coordination of fish locomotion can be tracked by using open source software of idTracker and ImageJ. We validated our setting by examining zebrafish behavioral changes after exposure to low dose ethanol (EtOH) for 96 h. Fish were observed staying longer time at bottom of the tank, less mirror biting interest, higher freezing time, less fear in predator test, and tight shoaling behaviors which indicated the anxiogenic effect was induced by low dosage exposure of EtOH in zebrafish. In conclusion, the setting in this study provided a simple, versatile and cost-effective way to assess multiple behavioral endpoints in zebrafish with high reliability and reproducibility for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Biotechnology and Materials)
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Open AccessEditorial Inventions 2018 Best Paper Award
Received: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
We are pleased to announce the second “Inventions Best Paper Award” for 2018. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Flow Oscillations in the Mainstream on Film Cooling
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of oscillations in the main flow and the coolant jets on film cooling at various frequencies (0 to 2144 Hz) at low and high average blowing ratios. Numerical simulations are performed using LES
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The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of oscillations in the main flow and the coolant jets on film cooling at various frequencies (0 to 2144 Hz) at low and high average blowing ratios. Numerical simulations are performed using LES Smagorinsky–Lilly turbulence model for calculation of the adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and using the DES Realizable k-epsilon turbulence model for obtaining the Stanton number ratios (St/Sto). Additionally, multi-frequency inlet velocities are applied to the main and coolant flows to explore the effects of multi-frequency unsteady flows and the results are compared to those at single frequencies. The results show that at a low average blowing ratio (M = 0.5) if the oscillation frequency is increased from 0 to 180 Hz, the effectiveness decreases and the Stanton number ratio increases. However, when the frequency goes from 180 to 268 Hz, the effectiveness sharply increases and the Stanton number ratio increases slightly. If the frequency changes from 268 to 1072 Hz, the film cooling effectiveness decreases and the Stanton number ratio increases slightly. If the frequency goes from 1072 to 2144 Hz, the film cooling effectiveness climbs up and the Stanton number ratio decreases. The results show that at high average blowing ratio (M = 1.0) the trends of the film cooling effectiveness are similar to those at low blowing ratio (M = 0.5) except from 0 to 90 Hz. If the frequency goes from 0 to 90 Hz at M = 1.0, the film cooling effectiveness increases and the Stanton number ratio decreases. It can be said that it is important to include the effects of oscillating flows when designing film cooling systems for a gas turbine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer and Its Innovative Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Digitization and Visualization of Folk Dances in Cultural Heritage: A Review
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
According to UNESCO, cultural heritage does not only include monuments and collections of objects, but also contains traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed to our descendants. Folk dances represent part of cultural heritage and their preservation for the next
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According to UNESCO, cultural heritage does not only include monuments and collections of objects, but also contains traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed to our descendants. Folk dances represent part of cultural heritage and their preservation for the next generations appears of major importance. Digitization and visualization of folk dances form an increasingly active research area in computer science. In parallel to the rapidly advancing technologies, new ways for learning folk dances are explored, making the digitization and visualization of assorted folk dances for learning purposes using different equipment possible. Along with challenges and limitations, solutions that can assist the learning process and provide the user with meaningful feedback are proposed. In this paper, an overview of the techniques used for the recording of dance moves is presented. The different ways of visualization and giving the feedback to the user are reviewed as well as ways of performance evaluation. This paper reviews advances in digitization and visualization of folk dances from 2000 to 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Machine Intelligence for Critical Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Robust Information Life Cycle Management Framework for Securing and Governing Critical Infrastructure Systems
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
In modern societies, the rampant growth of the Internet, both on the technological and social level, has created fertile ground for the emergence of new types of risk. On top of that, it enhances pre-existing threats by offering new means for accessing and
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In modern societies, the rampant growth of the Internet, both on the technological and social level, has created fertile ground for the emergence of new types of risk. On top of that, it enhances pre-existing threats by offering new means for accessing and exploiting Critical Infrastructures. As the kinds of potential threats evolve, the security, safety and resilience of these infrastructures must be updated accordingly, both at a prevention, as well as a real-time confrontation level. Our research approaches the security of these infrastructures with a focus on the data and utilization of every possible piece of information that derives from this ecosystem. Such a task is quite daunting, since the quantity of data that requires processing resides in the Big Dataspace. To address this, we introduce a new well-defined Information Life Cycle in order to properly model and optimise the way information flows through a modern security system. This life cycle covers all the possible stages, starting from the collection phase up until the exploitation of information intelligence. That ensures the efficiency of data processing and filtering while increasing both the veracity and validity of the final outcome. In addition, an agile Framework is introduced that is optimised to take full advantage of the Information Life Cycle. As a result, it exploits the generated knowledge taking the correct sequence of actions that will successfully address possible threats. This Framework leverages every possible data source that could provide vital information to Critical Infrastructures by performing analysis and data fusion being able to cope with data variety and variability. At the same time, it orchestrates the pre-existing processes and resources of these infrastructures. Through rigorous testing, it was found that response time against hazards was dramatically decreased. As a result, this Framework is an ideal candidate for strengthening and shielding the infrastructures’ resilience while improving management of the resources used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Machine Intelligence for Critical Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Single-Stage Tandem Soft-Switching Converter with Low Input Current Distortion
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
In order to improve the power factor and reduce the input current harmonics, power factor correction (PFC) converters are utilized. This paper introduces a single-stage continuous conduction mode (CCM) soft-switched power factor correction (PFC) converter with a tandem topology. The proposed topology has
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In order to improve the power factor and reduce the input current harmonics, power factor correction (PFC) converters are utilized. This paper introduces a single-stage continuous conduction mode (CCM) soft-switched power factor correction (PFC) converter with a tandem topology. The proposed topology has two operating modes, namely resonant operation mode and boost operation mode. Such a design and control realizes the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and zero current switching (ZCS) of the power switches. The proposed topology has been introduced to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current further in the boost PFC converter under lower power and higher output voltage conditions. The simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the performance of the proposed design and its control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies Enabling Smart Grid)
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Open AccessArticle Deep Learning Based Surveillance System for Open Critical Areas
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
How to automatically monitor wide critical open areas is a challenge to be addressed. Recent computer vision algorithms can be exploited to avoid the deployment of a large amount of expensive sensors. In this work, we propose our object tracking system which, combined
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How to automatically monitor wide critical open areas is a challenge to be addressed. Recent computer vision algorithms can be exploited to avoid the deployment of a large amount of expensive sensors. In this work, we propose our object tracking system which, combined with our recently developed anomaly detection system. can provide intelligence and protection for critical areas. In this work. we report two case studies: an international pier and a city parking lot. We acquire sequences to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach in challenging conditions. We report quantitative results for object counting, detection, parking analysis, and anomaly detection. Moreover, we report state-of-the-art results for statistical anomaly detection on a public dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Machine Intelligence for Critical Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical-Free Extraction of Functional Mitochondria Using a Microfluidic Device
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes the use of a chip-based microfluidic device to extract functional and chemical free mitochondria. A simple microfluidic device was designed and fabricated. An osteosarcoma cybrid cell line was employed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed microfluidic device. The membrane
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This paper proposes the use of a chip-based microfluidic device to extract functional and chemical free mitochondria. A simple microfluidic device was designed and fabricated. An osteosarcoma cybrid cell line was employed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed microfluidic device. The membrane proteins (mitochondrial complex I-V and Tom20) and morphology of the extracted mitochondria were examined by Western blot and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The purity and mitochondrial membrane potential of the extracted mitochondria were individually measured by 10-N-alkyl acridine orange and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester staining via flow cytometry. Experimental results revealed that expressed pattern of complex I–V in device-extracted mitochondria was close to that of mitochondria in total cell lysis and device extraction significantly prevented chemical modification of complex IV protein via a conventional kit, although device extract similar amounts of mitochondria to the conventional kit revealed by Tom20 expression. Furthermore, purity of device-extracted mitochondria was above 93.7% and mitochondria still retained normal activity after device extraction proven by expression of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the entire mitochondrial morphology. These results confirmed that the proposed microfluidic device could obtain functional mitochondria without structural damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics and Nanofluidics)
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Open AccessArticle Distributed Strain Sensing from Different Optical Fiber Configurations
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
Strain distributions were obtained from optical fibers arranged in three different configurations on transversely-loaded cantilevered beams. Traditional strain measurement sensors, such as strain gauges, are limited to measuring strain at discrete points on a structural member. However, distributed optical fibers can measure high
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Strain distributions were obtained from optical fibers arranged in three different configurations on transversely-loaded cantilevered beams. Traditional strain measurement sensors, such as strain gauges, are limited to measuring strain at discrete points on a structural member. However, distributed optical fibers can measure high spatial (<1 mm spacing) strain or temperature distributions. In this study, optical fibers in spiral, grid, and rosette configurations were bonded to aluminum cantilevered beams subjected to tip loads. Strain distributions from optical fiber sensors were measured using a swept wavelength coherent interferometric technique. The optical fiber strain measurements show good agreement with strain gauge measurements. The attributes of each sensor configuration are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring and Their Applications Across Industry)
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Inventions EISSN 2411-5134 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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