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Instruments, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) starting in 2029 promises exciting discovery potential, giving unprecedented sensitivity to new physics models and precision characterization of the Higgs boson. To maintain performance in this challenging environment, the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter will have entirely new electronics read out the entire detector with full precision at the LHC frequency of 40 MHz and provide high granularity trigger information, while withstanding high operational radiation doses. New results will be presented from front-end and off-detector component development, along with highlights from machine learning applications. The future steps of the project will be discussed, with an eye toward installation in the ATLAS cavern. View this paper
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8 pages, 509 KiB  
Article
DOME: Discrete Oriented Muon Emission in GEANT4 Simulations
by Ahmet Ilker Topuz, Madis Kiisk and Andrea Giammanco
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030042 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2486 | Correction
Abstract
The simulation of muon tomography requires a multi-directional particle source that traverses a number of horizontal detectors of limited angular acceptance that are used to track cosmic-ray muons. In this study, we describe a simple strategy that can use GEANT4 simulations to produce [...] Read more.
The simulation of muon tomography requires a multi-directional particle source that traverses a number of horizontal detectors of limited angular acceptance that are used to track cosmic-ray muons. In this study, we describe a simple strategy that can use GEANT4 simulations to produce a hemispherical particle source. We initially generate random points on a spherical surface of practical radius by using a Gaussian distribution for the three components of the Cartesian coordinates, thereby obtaining a generating surface for the initial position of the particles to be tracked. Since we do not require the bottom half of the sphere, we take the absolute value of the vertical coordinate, resulting in a hemisphere. Next, we direct the generated particles into the target body by selectively favoring the momentum direction along the vector constructed between a random point on the hemispherical surface and the origin of the target, thereby minimizing particle loss through source biasing. We also discuss a second scheme where the coordinate transformation is performed between the spherical and Cartesian coordinates, and the above-source biasing procedure is applied to orient the generated muons towards the target. Finally, a recipe based on restrictive planes from our previous study is discussed. We implement our strategies by using G4ParticleGun in the GEANT4 code. While we apply these techniques to simulations for muon tomography via scattering, these source schemes can be applied to similar studies for atmospheric sciences, space engineering, and astrophysics where a 3D particle source is a necessity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muography, Applications in Cosmic-Ray Muon Imaging)
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12 pages, 4150 KiB  
Article
Including Calorimeter Test Beams in Geant-val—The Physics Validation Testing Suite of Geant4
by Lorenzo Pezzotti, Andrey Kiryunin, Dmitri Konstantinov, Alberto Ribon, Pavol Strizenec and on behalf of the Geant4 Collaboration
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030041 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1368
Abstract
The Geant4 simulation toolkit is currently adopted by many particle physics experiments, including those at the Large Hadron Collider and the ones proposed for future lepton and hadron colliders. In the present era of precision tests for the Standard Model and increasingly detailed [...] Read more.
The Geant4 simulation toolkit is currently adopted by many particle physics experiments, including those at the Large Hadron Collider and the ones proposed for future lepton and hadron colliders. In the present era of precision tests for the Standard Model and increasingly detailed detectors proposed for the future colliders scenario, Geant4 plays a key role. It is required to remain a reliable and stable toolkit for detector simulations and at the same time undergo major improvements in both physics accuracy and computational performance. Calorimeter beam tests involve various particles at different energy scales and represent ideal benchmarks for the physics modeling and assessment of Monte Carlo tools for radiation–matter simulation. We present the first results of a broad validation campaign on test beam data targeting data deployment and preservation with geant-val, the Geant4 validation and testing suite. We investigate the Geant4 capability to model the calorimeter response, energy fluctuations, and shower shapes using data from the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter and the CALICE silicon-tungsten calorimeter. The evolution over the recent years of the recommended set of physics processes for high-energy physics applications is outlined and compared to alternative models for hadronic interactions. Full article
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11 pages, 6381 KiB  
Article
R&D of a Novel High Granularity Crystal Electromagnetic Calorimeter
by Baohua Qi and Yong Liu
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030040 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Future electron-positron collider experiments aim at the precise measurement of the Higgs boson, electroweak physics and the top quark. Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a novel highly granular crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is proposed to address major challenges from jet reconstruction and to [...] Read more.
Future electron-positron collider experiments aim at the precise measurement of the Higgs boson, electroweak physics and the top quark. Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a novel highly granular crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is proposed to address major challenges from jet reconstruction and to achieve the optimal EM energy resolution of around 2–3%/E(GeV) with the homogeneous structure. Extensive R&D efforts have been carried out to evaluate the requirements and potentials of the crystal calorimeter concept from sensitive detection units to a full sub-detector system. The requirements on crystal candidates, photon sensors as well as readout electronics are parameterized and quantified in Geant4 full simulation. Experiments including characterizations of crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are performed to validate and improve the simulation results. The physics performance of the crystal ECAL is been studied with the particle flow algorithm “ArborPFA” which is also being optimized. Furthermore, a small-scale detector module with a crystal matrix and SiPM arrays is under development for future beam tests to study the performance for EM showers. Full article
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10 pages, 3187 KiB  
Article
Reconstruction of 3D Shower Shape with the Dual-Readout Calorimeter
by Sanghyun Ko, Hwidong Yoo and Seungkyu Ha
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030039 - 13 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1464
Abstract
The dual-readout calorimeter has two channels, Cherenkov and scintillation, that measure the fraction of an electromagnetic (EM) component within a shower by using different responses of each channel to the EM and hadronic component. It can measure the energy of EM and hadronic [...] Read more.
The dual-readout calorimeter has two channels, Cherenkov and scintillation, that measure the fraction of an electromagnetic (EM) component within a shower by using different responses of each channel to the EM and hadronic component. It can measure the energy of EM and hadronic shower simultaneously—its concept inspired the integrated design for measuring both EM and hadronic showers, which left the task of reconstructing longitudinal shower shapes to the utilization of timing. We explore the possibility of longitudinal shower shape reconstruction using signal processing on silicon photomultiplier timing, and 3D shower shape by combining lateral and longitudinal information. We present a comparison between Monte Carlo (MC) and reconstructed longitudinal shower shapes from the simulation, and the application of 3D shower shapes associated with the dual nature of the calorimeter to identify electrons, hadrons, and hadronic punch-thru or muons. Full article
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8 pages, 2231 KiB  
Article
Split Hopkinson Tension Bar and Universal Testing Machine for High-Speed X-ray Imaging of Materials under Tension
by Puneeth Jakkula, Amitay Cohen, Bratislav Lukić, David Levi-Hevroni, Alexander Rack, Georg Ganzenmüller and Stefan Hiermaier
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030038 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Studying the failure behaviour of engineered or natural materials under dynamic loading scenarios is of high importance, for example to investigate the fracture mechanics and to prevent catastrophic failures of constructions. When dynamic loading is coupled to high-speed X-ray imaging, not only surface [...] Read more.
Studying the failure behaviour of engineered or natural materials under dynamic loading scenarios is of high importance, for example to investigate the fracture mechanics and to prevent catastrophic failures of constructions. When dynamic loading is coupled to high-speed X-ray imaging, not only surface information but images of the interior of the specimens during failure are accessible. Here, a custom designed Split Hopkinson Tension Bar (SHTB) coupled a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) has been developed, dedicated to study quasi-static and dynamic response using ultra-high speed X-ray phase contrast imaging. Both systems follow a compact design which allows them to be temporarily installed at a synchrotron beamline. A brief description of the installation and usage of these setups are outlined. Selected example applications outline the potential of these systems. Both systems can be considered for proposal experiments at beamline ID19 of the European synchrotron ESRF on request. Full article
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11 pages, 7760 KiB  
Article
ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Commissioning for the LHC Run 3
by Alessandra Betti
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030037 - 8 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1516
Abstract
The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9 [...] Read more.
The Liquid Argon Calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η|<3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from |η|=1.5 to |η|=4.9. They also provide inputs to the first level of the ATLAS trigger. After a successful period of data taking during the LHC Run 2 between 2015 and 2018, the ATLAS detector entered into a long period of shutdown. In 2022, the LHC will restart and the Run 3 period should see an increase of luminosity and pile-up of up to 80 interactions per bunch crossing. To cope with these harsher conditions, a new trigger readout path has been installed during the long shutdown. This new path should significantly improve the triggering performance on electromagnetic objects. This will be achieved by increasing the granularity of the objects available at trigger level by up to a factor of ten. The installation of this new trigger readout chain also required the update of the legacy system. More than 1500 boards of the precision readout have been extracted from the ATLAS pit, refurbished and re-installed. The legacy analog trigger readout, which will remain during the LHC Run 3 as a backup of the new digital trigger system, has also been updated. For the new system, 124 new on-detector boards have been added. Those boards that are operating in a radiative environment are digitizing the calorimeter trigger signals at 40 MHz. The digital signal is sent to the off-detector system and processed online to provide the measured energy value for each unit of readout. In total up to 31 Tbps are analyzed by the processing system and more than 62Tbps are generated for downstream reconstruction. To minimize the triggering latency the processing system had to be installed underground. The limited available space imposed a very compact hardware structure. To achieve a compact system, large FPGAs with high throughput have been mounted on ATCA mezzanines cards. In total, no more than three ATCA shelves are used to process the signal from approximately 34,000 channels. Given that modern technologies have been used compared to the previous system, all the monitoring and control infrastructure is being adapted and commissioned as well. This contribution presents the challenges of the installation, the commissioning and the milestones still to be completed towards the full operation of both the legacy and the new readout paths for the LHC Run 3. Full article
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11 pages, 43031 KiB  
Editorial
25 Years of Dual-Readout Calorimetry
by Richard Wigmans
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030036 - 7 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Twenty-five years ago, at the CALOR1997 conference in Tucson, the idea of dual-readout calorimetry was first presented. In this talk, I discuss the considerations that led to that proposal, and describe the developments that have since taken place, to the point where dual-readout [...] Read more.
Twenty-five years ago, at the CALOR1997 conference in Tucson, the idea of dual-readout calorimetry was first presented. In this talk, I discuss the considerations that led to that proposal, and describe the developments that have since taken place, to the point where dual-readout calorimetry is now considered a major candidate for experiments at future colliders. Full article
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6 pages, 4462 KiB  
Article
Development of Novel Designs of Resistive Plate Chambers
by Burak Bilki, Yasar Onel, Jose Repond, Kutlu Kagan Sahbaz, Mehmet Tosun and Lei Xia
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030035 - 7 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are a key active media of the muon systems of current and future collider experiments as well as the CALICE (semi-)digital hadron calorimeter. The outstanding issues with RPCs can be listed as the loss of efficiency for the detection [...] Read more.
Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are a key active media of the muon systems of current and future collider experiments as well as the CALICE (semi-)digital hadron calorimeter. The outstanding issues with RPCs can be listed as the loss of efficiency for the detection of particles when subjected to high particle fluxes and the limitations associated with the common RPC gases. We developed novel RPC designs with: low resistivity glass plates; a single resistive plate; and a single resistive plate and a special anode plate coated with high secondary electron emission yield material. The cosmic and beam tests confirmed the viability of these new approaches for calorimetric applications. The chambers also have improved single-particle response, such as a pad multiplicity close to unity. Here, we report on the construction of various different glass RPC designs and their performance measurements in laboratory tests and with particle beams. We also discuss future test plans, which include the long-term performance tests of the newly developed RPCs, investigation of minimal gas flow chambers, and feasibility study for the large-size chambers. Full article
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6 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
Performance Study of a New Cluster Splitting Algorithm for the Reconstruction of PANDA EMC Data
by Ziyu Zhang, Guang Zhao, Shengsen Sun, Qing Pu, Chunxiu Liu, Chunxu Yu, Dong Liu, Hang Qi, Guangshun Huang, Tobias Stockmanns, Beijiang Liu, Fei Wang, Yitong Zhang and Xiaoyan Shen
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030034 - 5 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
For high-energy π0 mesons, the angle between the two final-state photons decreases with the increase in the energy of the π0, which enhances the probability of overlapping electromagnetic showers. The performance of the cluster splitting algorithm in the EMC reconstruction [...] Read more.
For high-energy π0 mesons, the angle between the two final-state photons decreases with the increase in the energy of the π0, which enhances the probability of overlapping electromagnetic showers. The performance of the cluster splitting algorithm in the EMC reconstruction is crucial for the mass resolution measurement of π0 with high energy. The cluster splitting algorithm is based on the theoretical lateral distribution of the electromagnetic showers. A simple implementation of the lateral distribution can be described as a (multi-)exponential function. In a realistic electromagnetic calorimeter, considering the granularity of the detector, the measured energy in a cell is actually the integral of the theoretical energy deposition, which deviates from the exponential function. Based on the simulation of the barrel EMC in the P¯ANDA experiment, a cluster splitting algorithm with a new lateral energy development function is developed. The energy resolution of overlapping showers with high energy has been improved. Full article
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7 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Photodiode Read-Out System for the Calorimeter of the Herd Experiment
by Pietro Betti, Oscar Adriani, Matias Antonelli, Yonglin Bai, Xiaohong Bai, Tianwei Bao, Eugenio Berti, Lorenzo Bonechi, Massimo Bongi, Valter Bonvicini, Sergio Bottai, Weiwei Cao, Jorge Casaus, Zhen Chen, Xingzhu Cui, Raffaello D’Alessandro, Sebastiano Detti, Yongwei Dong, Noemi Finetti, Valerio Formato, Miguel Angel Velasco Frutos, Jiarui Gao, Xiaozhen Liang, Ran Li, Xin Liu, Linwei Lyu, Gustavo Martinez, Nicola Mori, Jesus Marin Munoz, Lorenzo Pacini, Paolo Papini, Cecilia Pizzolotto, Zheng Quan, JunJun Qin, Dalian Shi, Oleksandr Starodubtsev, Zhicheng Tang, Alessio Tiberio, Valerio Vagelli, Elena Vannuccini, Bo Wang, Junjing Wang, Le Wang, Ruijie Wang, Gianluigi Zampa, Nicola Zampa, Zhigang Wang, Ming Xu, Li Zhang and Jinkun Zhengadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030033 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
HERD is a future experiment for the direct detection of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument is based on a calorimeter optimized not only for a good energy resolution but also for a large acceptance. Each crystal composing the calorimeter is equipped with [...] Read more.
HERD is a future experiment for the direct detection of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument is based on a calorimeter optimized not only for a good energy resolution but also for a large acceptance. Each crystal composing the calorimeter is equipped with two read-out systems: one based on wavelength-shifting fibers and the other based on two photodiodes with different active areas assembled in a monolithic package. In this paper, we describe the photodiode read-out system, focusing on experimental requirements, design and estimated performances. Finally, we show how these features lead to the flight model project of the photodiode read-out system. Full article
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11 pages, 2089 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Highly Granular Hadronic Calorimeter with Scintillating Glass Tiles
by Dejing Du and Yong Liu
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030032 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a new hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) with scintillating glass tiles is proposed to address major challenges from precision measurements of jets at the future lepton colliders, such as the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Tiles of high-density scintillating glass, [...] Read more.
Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a new hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) with scintillating glass tiles is proposed to address major challenges from precision measurements of jets at the future lepton colliders, such as the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Tiles of high-density scintillating glass, with a high-energy sampling fraction, can significantly improve the hadronic energy resolution in the low-energy region (typically below 10 GeV for major jet components at Higgs factories). The hadronic energy resolution of single hadrons and the effects of key parameters of scintillating glass have been evaluated in the Geant4 full simulation, followed by the physics benchmark studies on the Higgs boson with jets in the final state. R&D efforts of scintillating glass materials are ongoing within a dedicated collaboration since 2021 with the aim to achieve a high light yield, a high density, and a low cost. Measurements have been performed for the first batches of scintillating glass samples including the light yield, emission and scintillation spectra, scintillation decay times, and cosmic responses. An optical simulation model of a single scintillating glass tile has been established to provide guidance in the development of scintillating glass. Highlights of the expected detector performance and the latest scintillating glass developments are presented in this contribution. Full article
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11 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
FASER’s Electromagnetic Calorimeter Test Beam Studies
by Charlotte Cavanagh
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030031 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
FASER, or the Forward Search Experiment, is a new experiment at CERN designed to complement the LHC’s ongoing physics program, extending its discovery potential to light and weakly interacting particles that may be produced copiously at the LHC in the far-forward region. New [...] Read more.
FASER, or the Forward Search Experiment, is a new experiment at CERN designed to complement the LHC’s ongoing physics program, extending its discovery potential to light and weakly interacting particles that may be produced copiously at the LHC in the far-forward region. New particles targeted by FASER, such as long-lived dark photons or axion-like particles, are characterised by a signature with two oppositely charged tracks or two photons in the multi-TeV range that emanate from a common vertex inside the detector. The full detector was successfully installed in March 2021 in an LHC side tunnel 480 m downstream from the interaction point in the ATLAS detector. FASER is planned to be operational for LHC Run 3. The experiment is composed of a silicon-strip tracking-based spectrometer using three dipole magnets with a 20 cm aperture, supplemented by four scintillator stations and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The FASER electromagnetic calorimeter is constructed from four spare LHCb calorimeter modules. The modules are of the Shashlik type with interleaved scintillator and lead plates that result in 25 radiation lengths and 1% energy resolution for TeV electromagnetic showers. In 2021, a test beam campaign was carried out using one of the CERN SPS beam lines to set up the calibration of the FASER calorimeter system in preparation for physics data taking. The relative calorimeter response to electrons with energies between 10 and 300 GeV, as well as high energy muons and pions, has been measured under various high voltage settings and beam positions. The measured calorimeter resolution, energy calibration, and particle identification capabilities are presented. Full article
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9 pages, 1261 KiB  
Article
Energy Reconstruction and Calibration of the MicroBooNE LArTPC
by Richard Diurba
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030030 - 29 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1371
Abstract
MicroBooNE uses a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) for simultaneous tracking and calorimetry. Neutrino oscillation experiments plan to use LArTPCs over the next several decades. A challenge for these current and future experiments lies in characterizing detector performance and reconstruction capabilities with [...] Read more.
MicroBooNE uses a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) for simultaneous tracking and calorimetry. Neutrino oscillation experiments plan to use LArTPCs over the next several decades. A challenge for these current and future experiments lies in characterizing detector performance and reconstruction capabilities with thorough associated systematic uncertainties. This work includes updates related to LArTPC detector physics challenges by reviewing MicroBooNE’s recent publications on calorimetry and its applications. Highlights include discussions on signal processing, calorimetric calibration, and particle identification. Full article
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10 pages, 2296 KiB  
Article
Upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC
by Charlotte Cooke
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030029 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosities of up to 7.5×1034 cm2s1 and 4500 fb1, respectively, from 2029 onwards. To cope with [...] Read more.
The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosities of up to 7.5×1034 cm2s1 and 4500 fb1, respectively, from 2029 onwards. To cope with the extreme conditions of up to 200 collisions per bunch crossing, and increased data rates, the on- and off-detector electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will be replaced. A dual gain trans-impedance amplifier and an ASIC providing two 160 MHz ADC channels, gain selection, and data compression will be used. The lead tungstate crystals and avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in the current ECAL will keep performing well and will therefore be maintained. The noise increase in the APDs, due to radiation-induced dark currents, will be minimised by reducing the ECAL operating temperature from 18 °C to around 9 °C. Prototype HL-LHC electronics have been tested and have shown promising results. In two test beam periods using the CERN SPS H4 beamline and an electron beam, the new electronics achieved the target energy resolution and a timing resolution consistent that is consistent with our requirements of 30 ps timing for energies greater than 50 GeV. Full article
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10 pages, 88719 KiB  
Article
Development of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics and Machine Learning for the HL-LHC
by Julia Gonski and on behalf of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030028 - 26 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The High Luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) starting in 2029 promises exciting discovery potential, giving unprecedented sensitivity to key new physics models and precise characterization of the Higgs boson. In order to maintain current performance in this challenging environment, the [...] Read more.
The High Luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) starting in 2029 promises exciting discovery potential, giving unprecedented sensitivity to key new physics models and precise characterization of the Higgs boson. In order to maintain current performance in this challenging environment, the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter will get entirely new electronics that reads out the entire detector with full precision at the LHC frequency of 40 MHz, and provides high granularity trigger information, while withstanding high operational radiation doses. New results will be presented from both front-end and off-detector component development, along with highlights from machine learning applications. The future steps and outlook of the project will be discussed, with an eye towards installation in the ATLAS cavern beginning in 2026. Full article
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6 pages, 1819 KiB  
Article
RADiCAL—Precision Timing, Ultracompact, Radiation-Hard Electromagnetic Calorimetry
by Thomas Anderson, Thomas Barbera, Bradley Cox, Paul Debbins, Maxwell Dubnowski, Kiva Ford, Maxwell Herrmann, Chen Hu, Colin Jessop, Ohannes Kamer-Koseyan, Alexander Ledovskoy, Yasar Onel, Carlos Perez-Lara, Randal Ruchti, Daniel Ruggiero, Daniel Smith, Mark Vigneault, Yuyi Wan, Mitchell Wayne, James Wetzel, Liyuan Zhang and Ren-Yuan Zhuadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030027 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
To address the challenges of providing high-performance calorimetry in future hadron collider experiments under conditions of high luminosity and high radiation (FCC-hh environments), we conducted R&D on advanced calorimetry techniques suitable for such operation, based on scintillation and wavelength-shifting technologies and photosensor (SiPM [...] Read more.
To address the challenges of providing high-performance calorimetry in future hadron collider experiments under conditions of high luminosity and high radiation (FCC-hh environments), we conducted R&D on advanced calorimetry techniques suitable for such operation, based on scintillation and wavelength-shifting technologies and photosensor (SiPM and SiPM-like) technology. In particular, we focused our attention on ultra-compact radiation-hard EM calorimeters based on modular structures (RADiCAL modules) consisting of alternating layers of the very dense absorber and scintillating plates, read out via radiation hard wavelength shifting (WLS) solid fiber or capillary elements to photosensors positioned either proximately or remotely, depending upon their radiation tolerance. RADiCAL modules provide the capability to measure simultaneously and with high precision the position, energy and timing of EM showers. This paper provides an overview of the instrumentation and photosensor R&D associated with the RADiCAL program. Full article
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7 pages, 3906 KiB  
Project Report
Calorimetry in a Neutrino Observatory: The JUNO Experiment
by Beatrice Jelmini
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030026 - 24 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1352
Abstract
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose experiment under construction in southern China; detector completion is expected in 2023. JUNO is a homogeneous calorimeter consisting of a target mass of 20 kt of an organic liquid scintillator, aiming to detect antineutrinos [...] Read more.
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose experiment under construction in southern China; detector completion is expected in 2023. JUNO is a homogeneous calorimeter consisting of a target mass of 20 kt of an organic liquid scintillator, aiming to detect antineutrinos from reactors to investigate the neutrino oscillation mechanism. The scintillation and Cerenkov light emitted after the interaction of antineutrinos with the liquid scintillator is seen by a compound system of 20 inch large PMTs and 3 inch small PMTs, with a total photo-coverage of 78%. A dual-calorimetry technique is developed based on the presence of the two independent photosensor systems which are characterized by different average light level regimes, resulting in different dynamic ranges. Thanks to this novel technique, an unprecedented high light yield, and in combination with a comprehensive multiple-source and multi-position calibration campaign, JUNO is expected to reach energy-related systematic uncertainties below 1% and an effective energy resolution of 3% at 1%, required for the neutrino oscillation analysis. Full article
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9 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
Performance and Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter
by Tomas Davidek
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030025 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1469
Abstract
The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of steel plates acting as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The wavelength-shifting fibers collect the light from scintillators and carry [...] Read more.
The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of steel plates acting as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The wavelength-shifting fibers collect the light from scintillators and carry it to the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns and stored on detector until a trigger decision is received. The TileCal front-end electronics read out the signals produced by 9852 channels, whose dynamic range covers the interval from 30 MeV to 2 TeV. Each stage of the signal propagation from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. During LHC Run-2, high-momentum isolated muons and isolated hadrons have been used to study and validate the electromagnetic scale and the hadronic response, respectively. The time resolution was studied with multi-jet events. Results of performance studies that address calibration, stability, energy scale, uniformity and time resolution are presented. Full article
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19 pages, 1466 KiB  
Article
Atmospheric and Geodesic Controls of Muon Rates: A Numerical Study for Muography Applications
by Amélie Cohu, Matias Tramontini, Antoine Chevalier, Jean-Christophe Ianigro and Jacques Marteau
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030024 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
Muon tomography or muography is an innovative imaging technique using atmospheric muons. The technique is based on the detection of muons that have crossed a target and the measurement of their attenuation or deviation induced by the medium. Muon flux models are key [...] Read more.
Muon tomography or muography is an innovative imaging technique using atmospheric muons. The technique is based on the detection of muons that have crossed a target and the measurement of their attenuation or deviation induced by the medium. Muon flux models are key ingredients to convert tomographic and calibration data into the 2D or 3D density maps of the target. Ideally, they should take into account all possible types of local effects, from geomagnetism to atmospheric conditions. Two approaches are commonly used: semi-empirical models or Monte Carlo simulations. The latter offers the advantage to tackle down many environmental and experimental parameters and also allows the optimization of the nearly horizontal muons flux, which remains a long-standing problem for many muography applications. The goal of this paper is to identify through a detailed simulation what kind of environmental and experimental effects may affect the muography imaging sensitivity and its monitoring performance. The results have been obtained within the CORSIKA simulation framework, which offers the possibility to tune various parameters. The paper presents the simulation’s configuration and the results obtained for the muon fluxes computed in various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muography, Applications in Cosmic-Ray Muon Imaging)
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14 pages, 6914 KiB  
Article
Upgrade of the HIVIPP Deposition Apparatus for Nuclear Physics Thin Targets Manufacturing
by Sara Cisternino, Hanna Skliarova, Piergiorgio Antonini, Juan Esposito, Liliana Mou, Lorenzo Pranovi, Gaia Pupillo and Gabriele Sciacca
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030023 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
The High Energy Vibrational Powder Plating (HIVIPP) technique allows for the preparation of targets starting from refractory metal powders with negligible material losses during the process, thus preserving the expensive isotope-enriched materials. An upgraded HIVIPP apparatus was developed at the Legnaro National Laboratory [...] Read more.
The High Energy Vibrational Powder Plating (HIVIPP) technique allows for the preparation of targets starting from refractory metal powders with negligible material losses during the process, thus preserving the expensive isotope-enriched materials. An upgraded HIVIPP apparatus was developed at the Legnaro National Laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNL), and it is reported in this work. Particular attention was paid to the design of the sample holder, the automation of the power supply, and the control of the process, all with the aim of obtaining a versatile and reliable apparatus. Several tests have been carried out and the related results are reported proving the flexibility of the apparatus and the process reproducibility. The main result is a ‘ready to use’ technology at INFN-LNL for the preparation of isotopically enriched refractory metal targets that cannot be manufactured using standard techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Instruments 2021–2022)
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16 pages, 13775 KiB  
Review
Modern Trends in Neutron Scattering Instrument Technologies
by Georg Ehlers, Morris L. Crow, Yacouba Diawara, Franz X. Gallmeier, Xiaosong Geng, Garrett E. Granroth, Raymond D. Gregory, Fahima F. Islam, Robert O. Knudson IV, Fankang Li, Matthew S. Loyd and Bogdan Vacaliuc
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030022 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
This article reviews some current trends that can be observed in the development of neutron scattering instrument technologies. While the number of neutron scattering facilities worldwide and the number of beam days they offer are largely stable, their scientific impact is increasing through [...] Read more.
This article reviews some current trends that can be observed in the development of neutron scattering instrument technologies. While the number of neutron scattering facilities worldwide and the number of beam days they offer are largely stable, their scientific impact is increasing through improving instrumental capabilities, new and more versatile instruments, and more efficient data collection protocols. Neutron beams are becoming smaller but more intense, and instruments are being designed to utilize more ‘useful’ neutrons in unit time. This article picks and discusses a few recent developments in the areas of integrated source and instrument design, use of computational tools, new detectors, and experiment automation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Instruments 2021–2022)
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9 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Two Prism Critical Angle Refractometry with Attenuating Media
by Spyridon Koutsoumpos, Panagiotis Giannios and Konstantinos Moutzouris
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030021 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
We present a concept that enables the determination of the complex refractive index of attenuating media from two critical angles, measured sequentially at two interfaces between a single sample and two different prisms. The proposed method is general in that it applies with [...] Read more.
We present a concept that enables the determination of the complex refractive index of attenuating media from two critical angles, measured sequentially at two interfaces between a single sample and two different prisms. The proposed method is general in that it applies with s and p polarisation states, thus it is suited for the characterisation of isotropic as well as anisotropic media. Uncertainty analysis indicates that relative error in the determination of the real (imaginary) index can be less than 104 (in the order of 10%), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Devices Instrumentation and Applications II)
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5 pages, 1246 KiB  
Communication
A Compact Avalanche-Transistor-Based Pulse Generator for Transcranial Infrared Light Stimulation (TILS) Experiments
by Abraham Lopez, Haley N. Strong, Kendra I. McGlothen, Dustin J. Hines and R. Jacob Baker
Instruments 2022, 6(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6030020 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1603
Abstract
A pulse generator using an avalanche transistor operating in current-mode second breakdown driving a 780 nm laser diode is reported. The laser diode is mounted on the skull of a mouse and used in transcranial infrared light stimulation (TILS) experiments. The output current [...] Read more.
A pulse generator using an avalanche transistor operating in current-mode second breakdown driving a 780 nm laser diode is reported. The laser diode is mounted on the skull of a mouse and used in transcranial infrared light stimulation (TILS) experiments. The output current pulse width is approximately 2 ns in an attempt to generate a true impulse-like optical pulse excitation for the TILS experiments. Full article
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