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An LGAD-Based Full Active Target for the PIONEER Experiment
Article

Characterization of Irradiated Boron, Carbon-Enriched and Gallium Si-on-Si Wafer Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

1
Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Carrer Can Magrans s/n, Edifici Cn, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
2
Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), EP Department, Esplanade des Particules 1, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
3
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig de Lluís Companys, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Matteo Centis-Vignali, Eraldo Oliveri and Christopher Betancourt
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010002
Received: 16 November 2021 / Revised: 24 December 2021 / Accepted: 26 December 2021 / Published: 30 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) are n-on-p silicon sensors with an extra doped p-layer below the n-p junction which provides signal amplification. The moderate gain of these sensors, together with the relatively thin active region, provides excellent timing performance for Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs). To mitigate the effect of pile-up during the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) era, both ATLAS and CMS experiments will install new detectors, the High-Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) and the End-Cap Timing Layer (ETL), that rely on the LGAD technology. A full characterization of LGAD sensors fabricated by Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM), before and after neutron irradiation up to 1015 neq/cm2, is presented. Sensors produced in 100 mm Si-on-Si wafers and doped with boron and gallium, and also enriched with carbon, are studied. The results include their electrical characterization (I-V, C-V), bias voltage stability and performance studies with the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and a Sr-90 radioactive source setup. View Full-Text
Keywords: LGAD; timing detectors; silicon sensors LGAD; timing detectors; silicon sensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Castillo García, L.; Gkougkousis, E.L.; Grieco, C.; Grinstein, S. Characterization of Irradiated Boron, Carbon-Enriched and Gallium Si-on-Si Wafer Low Gain Avalanche Detectors. Instruments 2022, 6, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010002

AMA Style

Castillo García L, Gkougkousis EL, Grieco C, Grinstein S. Characterization of Irradiated Boron, Carbon-Enriched and Gallium Si-on-Si Wafer Low Gain Avalanche Detectors. Instruments. 2022; 6(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castillo García, Lucía, Evangelos L. Gkougkousis, Chiara Grieco, and Sebastian Grinstein. 2022. "Characterization of Irradiated Boron, Carbon-Enriched and Gallium Si-on-Si Wafer Low Gain Avalanche Detectors" Instruments 6, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010002

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