Special Issue "Timing Detectors"

A special issue of Instruments (ISSN 2410-390X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2021).
Selected Papers from the 12th workshop on picosecond timing detectors, electronics and applications

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Matteo Centis-Vignali
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Italy
Interests: silicon detectors; timing detectors; instrumentation
Dr. Eraldo Oliveri
E-Mail
Guest Editor
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland
Interests: detector R&D; particle detectors; micro pattern gas detectors; timing detectors; modeling; electronics
Dr. Christopher Betancourt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Interests: particle physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to announce this Special Issue devoted to timing detectors.

The rise in luminosity at particle collider experiments resulted in an increased interest in recent years in detectors capable of measuring the time of arrival of single particles with a precision of a few tens of picoseconds. Several detector technologies can achieve this performance, and they find applications in different areas, both within and beyond high energy physics. In parallel with sensor technology, dedicated readout electronics are being developed, allowing for systems of practical size and number of channels.

This Special Issue aims to summarize the state-of-the-art of timing detectors exploring different and innovative technologies, modeling and simulation tools, readout strategies and electronics, and applications. This Special Issue should provide a reference for further technological developments and contain the necessary information to be an aid in finding new applications of timing detectors.

We invite contributions in the form of expert comprehensive reviews or research articles dealing with timing detectors from a wide perspective.

Contributions are expected to address but are not limited to the following areas:

  • Existing and future timing detector concepts;
  • Detector technologies (silicon, gas, Cherenkov, scintillators, etc.);
  • Detector modeling and simulation;
  • Signal processing;
  • Readout electronics;
  • Synchronization and clock distribution;
  • Timing applications (particle physics, medicine, etc.).

It is worth mentioning that, this special issue will also publish the selected papers from the 12th workshop on picosecond timing detectors, electronics and applications (University of Zurich, Switzerland, September 9-11, 2021). which focuses on fast timing detectors in the picosecond range including technological developments and large scale applications in physics experiments.

To learn more details about the workshop, please visit the conference website: https://indico.cern.ch/event/861104/.

Dr. Matteo Centis-Vignali
Dr. Eraldo Oliveri
Dr. Christopher Betancourt 
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Instruments is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • detector R&D
  • timing detectors
  • modeling and simulation
  • readout electronics
  • applications
  • instrumentation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Development of an MCP-Based Timing Layer for the LHCb ECAL Upgrade-2
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010007 (registering DOI) - 24 Jan 2022
Viewed by 107
Abstract
The increase in instantaneous luminosity during the high-luminosity phase of the LHC represents a significant challenge for future detectors. A strategy to cope with high-pileup conditions is to add a fourth dimension to the measurements of the hits, by exploiting the time separation [...] Read more.
The increase in instantaneous luminosity during the high-luminosity phase of the LHC represents a significant challenge for future detectors. A strategy to cope with high-pileup conditions is to add a fourth dimension to the measurements of the hits, by exploiting the time separation of the various proton–proton primary collisions. According to LHCb simulation studies, resolutions of about 10–20 picoseconds, at least an order of magnitude shorter than the average time span between primary interactions, would be greatly beneficial for the physics reach of the experiment. Microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers are compact devices capable of measuring the arrival time of charged particles with the required resolution. The technology of large-area picosecond photodetectors (LAPPDs) is under investigation to implement a timing layer that can be placed within a sampling calorimeter module with the purpose of measuring the arrival time of electromagnetic showers. LAPPD performances, using a Gen-I tile with a delay-line anode and a Gen-II with a capacitively coupled anode, have been measured thoroughly both with laser (wavelength of 405 nm and pulse width of 27.5 ps FWHM) and high-energy electron (1–5.8 GeV) beams. Time resolutions of the order of 30 ps for single photoelectrons and 15 ps for electromagnetic showers initiated by 5-GeV electrons, as measured at the shower maximum, are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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Article
Characterization of Irradiated Boron, Carbon-Enriched and Gallium Si-on-Si Wafer Low Gain Avalanche Detectors
Instruments 2022, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments6010002 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 137
Abstract
Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) are n-on-p silicon sensors with an extra doped p-layer below the n-p junction which provides signal amplification. The moderate gain of these sensors, together with the relatively thin active region, provides excellent timing performance for Minimum Ionizing Particles [...] Read more.
Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) are n-on-p silicon sensors with an extra doped p-layer below the n-p junction which provides signal amplification. The moderate gain of these sensors, together with the relatively thin active region, provides excellent timing performance for Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIPs). To mitigate the effect of pile-up during the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) era, both ATLAS and CMS experiments will install new detectors, the High-Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) and the End-Cap Timing Layer (ETL), that rely on the LGAD technology. A full characterization of LGAD sensors fabricated by Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM), before and after neutron irradiation up to 1015 neq/cm2, is presented. Sensors produced in 100 mm Si-on-Si wafers and doped with boron and gallium, and also enriched with carbon, are studied. The results include their electrical characterization (I-V, C-V), bias voltage stability and performance studies with the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and a Sr-90 radioactive source setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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Article
An LGAD-Based Full Active Target for the PIONEER Experiment
Instruments 2021, 5(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5040040 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
PIONEER is a next-generation experiment to measure the charged pion branching ratios to electrons vs. muons Re/μ=Γπ+e+ν(γ)Γπ+μ+ν(γ) and pion [...] Read more.
PIONEER is a next-generation experiment to measure the charged pion branching ratios to electrons vs. muons Re/μ=Γπ+e+ν(γ)Γπ+μ+ν(γ) and pion beta decay (Pib) π+π0eν. The pion to muon decay (πμe) has four orders of magnitude higher probability than the pion to electron decay (πeν). To achieve the necessary branching-ratio precision it is crucial to suppress the πμe energy spectrum that overlaps with the low energy tail of πeν. A high granularity active target (ATAR) is being designed to suppress the muon decay background sufficiently so that this tail can be directly measured. In addition, ATAR will provide detailed 4D tracking information to separate the energy deposits of the pion decay products in both position and time. This will suppress other significant systematic uncertainties (pulse pile-up, decay in flight of slow pions) to <0.01%, allowing the overall uncertainty in to be reduced to O (0.01%). The chosen technology for the ATAR is Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD). These are thin silicon detectors (down to 50 μm in thickness or less) with moderate internal signal amplification and great time resolution. To achieve a 100% active region several emerging technologies are being evaluated, such as AC-LGADs and TI-LGADs. A dynamic range from MiP (positron) to several MeV (pion/muon) of deposited charge is expected, the detection and separation of close-by hits in such a wide dynamic range will be a main challenge. Furthermore, the compactness and the requirement of low inactive material of the ATAR present challenges for the readout system, forcing the amplifier chip and digitizer to be positioned away from the active region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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Article
Fabrication and First Full Characterisation of Timing Properties of 3D Diamond Detectors
Instruments 2021, 5(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5040039 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Tracking detectors at future high luminosity hadron colliders are expected to be able to stand unprecedented levels of radiation as well as to efficiently reconstruct a huge number of tracks and primary vertices. To face the challenges posed by the radiation damage, new [...] Read more.
Tracking detectors at future high luminosity hadron colliders are expected to be able to stand unprecedented levels of radiation as well as to efficiently reconstruct a huge number of tracks and primary vertices. To face the challenges posed by the radiation damage, new extremely radiation hard materials and sensor designs will be needed, while the track and vertex reconstruction problem can be significantly mitigated by the introduction of detectors with excellent timing capabilities. Indeed, the time coordinate provides extremely powerful information to disentangle overlapping tracks and hits in the harsh hadronic collision environment. Diamond 3D pixel sensors optimised for timing applications provide an appealing solution to the above problems as the 3D geometry enhances the already outstanding radiation hardness and allows to exploit the excellent timing properties of diamond. We report here the first full timing characterisation of 3D diamond sensors fabricated by electrode laser graphitisation in Florence. Results from a 270MeV pion beam test of a first prototype and from tests with a β source on a recently fabricated 55×55μm2 pitch sensor are discussed. First results on sensor simulation are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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Article
Advantages and Requirements in Time Resolving Tracking for Astroparticle Experiments in Space
Instruments 2021, 5(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5020020 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
A large-area, solid-state detector with single-hit precision timing measurement will enable several breakthrough experimental advances for the direct measurement of particles in space. Silicon microstrip detectors are the most promising candidate technology to instrument the large areas of the next-generation astroparticle space borne [...] Read more.
A large-area, solid-state detector with single-hit precision timing measurement will enable several breakthrough experimental advances for the direct measurement of particles in space. Silicon microstrip detectors are the most promising candidate technology to instrument the large areas of the next-generation astroparticle space borne detectors that could meet the limitations on power consumption required by operations in space. We overview the novel experimental opportunities that could be enabled by the introduction of the timing measurement, concurrent with the accurate spatial and charge measurement, in Silicon microstrip tracking detectors, and we discuss the technological solutions and their readiness to enable the operations of large-area Silicon microstrip timing detectors in space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timing Detectors)
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