Previous Issue
Volume 6, March

Table of Contents

Int. J. Neonatal Screen., Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 22 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessEditorial
A Visit with Dr. Louis Woolf, Recognizing His 100th Birthday and His Contributions to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Phenylketonuria
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020045 (registering DOI) - 30 May 2020
Viewed by 91
Abstract
One of the most dramatic discoveries in metabolic disease research was that of Ashbørn Følling, who in 1934, published his research outlining unusual biochemical findings in a set of siblings with severe developmental delay [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue History, Present and Future of Neonatal Screening)
Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Effectiveness Study of Newborn Screening Methods for Four Lysosomal Storage Disorders
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020044 (registering DOI) - 30 May 2020
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Newborn screening for one or more lysosomal disorders has been implemented in several US states, Japan and Taiwan by multiplexed enzyme assays using either tandem mass spectrometry or digital microfluidics. Another multiplex assay making use of immunocapture technology has also been proposed. To [...] Read more.
Newborn screening for one or more lysosomal disorders has been implemented in several US states, Japan and Taiwan by multiplexed enzyme assays using either tandem mass spectrometry or digital microfluidics. Another multiplex assay making use of immunocapture technology has also been proposed. To investigate the potential variability in performance of these analytical approaches, we implemented three high-throughput screening assays for the simultaneous screening for four lysosomal disorders: Fabry disease, Gaucher disease, mucopolysaccharidosis type I, and Pompe disease. These assays were tested in a prospective comparative effectiveness study using nearly 100,000 residual newborn dried blood spot specimens. In addition, 2nd tier enzyme assays and confirmatory molecular genetic testing were employed. Post-analytical interpretive tools were created using the software Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports (CLIR) to determine its ability to improve the performance of each assay vs. the traditional result interpretation based on analyte-specific reference ranges and cutoffs. This study showed that all three platforms have high sensitivity, and the application of CLIR tools markedly improves the performance of each platform while reducing the need for 2nd tier testing by 66% to 95%. Moreover, the addition of disease-specific biochemical 2nd tier tests ensures the lowest false positive rates and the highest positive predictive values for any platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CLIR Applications for Newborn Screening)
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Carrier Status by Determining SMN1 Copy Number Using Dried Blood Spots
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020043 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neuromuscular disease with autosomal recessive inheritance. The disease gene, SMN1, is homozygously deleted in 95% of SMA patients. Although SMA has been an incurable disease, treatment in infancy with newly developed drugs has dramatically improved [...] Read more.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neuromuscular disease with autosomal recessive inheritance. The disease gene, SMN1, is homozygously deleted in 95% of SMA patients. Although SMA has been an incurable disease, treatment in infancy with newly developed drugs has dramatically improved the disease severity. Thus, there is a strong rationale for newborn and carrier screening for SMA, although implementing SMA carrier screening in the general population is controversial. We previously developed a simple, accurate newborn SMA screening system to detect homozygous SMN1 deletions using dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Here, we modified our previous system to detect the heterozygous deletions of SMN1, which indicates SMA carrier status. The system involves a calibrator-normalized relative quantification method using quantitative nested PCR technology. Our system clearly separated the DBS samples with one SMN1 copy (carrier status with a heterozygous deletion of SMN1) from the DBS samples with two SMN1 copies (non-carrier status with no deletion of SMN1). We also analyzed DBS samples from SMA families, confirmed SMA in the affected children, and determined the carrier status of their parents based on the SMN1 copy number. In conclusion, our system will provide essential information for risk assessment and genetic counseling, at least for SMA families. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Expanded Screening of One Million Swedish Babies with R4S and CLIR for Post-Analytical Evaluation of Data
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020042 - 27 May 2020
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Sweden has one neonatal screening laboratory, receiving 115 to 120 thousand samples per year. Among the one million babies screened by tandem mass spectrometry from November 2010 until July 2019, a total of 665 babies were recalled and 311 verified as having one [...] Read more.
Sweden has one neonatal screening laboratory, receiving 115 to 120 thousand samples per year. Among the one million babies screened by tandem mass spectrometry from November 2010 until July 2019, a total of 665 babies were recalled and 311 verified as having one of the diseases screened for with this methodology, giving a positive predictive value (PPV) of 47% and an incidence of 1:3200. The PPV was high (41%) already in the first year after start of screening, thanks to the availability of the collaborative project Region 4 Stork database. The PPV is presently 58%. This improvement was achieved by the implementation of second-tier analyses in the screening for methylmalonic aciduria, propionic aciduria, isovaleric aciduria, and homocystinuria, and the employment of various post analytical tools of the Region 4 Stork, and its successor the collaborative laboratory integrated reports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CLIR Applications for Newborn Screening)
Open AccessArticle
Genomic Analysis of Historical Cases with Positive Newborn Screens for Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Shows That a Validated Second-Tier Biochemical Test Can Replace Future Sequencing
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020041 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of β-oxidation caused by pathogenic variants in the ACADS gene. Analyte testing for SCADD in blood and urine, including newborn screening (NBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on dried blood spots (DBSs), [...] Read more.
Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of β-oxidation caused by pathogenic variants in the ACADS gene. Analyte testing for SCADD in blood and urine, including newborn screening (NBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on dried blood spots (DBSs), is complicated by the presence of two relatively common ACADS variants (c.625G>A and c.511C>T). Individuals homozygous for these variants or compound heterozygous do not have clinical disease but do have reduced short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) activity, resulting in elevated blood and urine metabolites. As part of a larger study of the potential role of exome sequencing in NBS in California, we reviewed ACADS sequence and MS/MS data from DBSs from a cohort of 74 patients identified to have SCADD. Of this cohort, approximately 60% had one or more of the common variants and did not have the two rare variants, and thus would need no further testing. Retrospective analysis of ethylmalonic acid, glutaric acid, 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, and methylsuccinic acid demonstrated that second-tier testing applied before the release of the newborn screening result could reduce referrals by over 50% and improve the positive predictive value for SCADD to above 75%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CLIR Applications for Newborn Screening)
Open AccessReview
Constructing a Bioethical Framework to Evaluate and Optimise Newborn Bloodspot Screening for Cystic Fibrosis
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020040 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Newborn bloodspot screening for cystic fibrosis is a valid public health strategy for populations with a high incidence of this inherited condition. There are a wide variety of approaches to screening and in this paper, we propose that a bioethical framework is required [...] Read more.
Newborn bloodspot screening for cystic fibrosis is a valid public health strategy for populations with a high incidence of this inherited condition. There are a wide variety of approaches to screening and in this paper, we propose that a bioethical framework is required to determine the most appropriate screening protocol for a population. This framework depends on the detailed evaluation of the ethical consequences of all screening outcomes and placing these in the context of the genetic profile of the population screened, the geography of the region and the healthcare resources available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis)
Open AccessCase Report
The Importance of Succinylacetone: Tyrosinemia Type I Presenting with Hyperinsulinism and Multiorgan Failure Following Normal Newborn Screening
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020039 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) is an inborn error of tyrosine metabolism with features including liver dysfunction, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma; renal dysfunction that may lead to failure to thrive and bone disease; and porphyric crises. Once fatal in most infantile-onset cases, pre-symptomatic diagnosis [...] Read more.
Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) is an inborn error of tyrosine metabolism with features including liver dysfunction, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma; renal dysfunction that may lead to failure to thrive and bone disease; and porphyric crises. Once fatal in most infantile-onset cases, pre-symptomatic diagnosis through newborn screening (NBS) protocols, dietary management, and pharmacotherapy with nitisinone have improved outcomes. Succinylacetone provides a sensitive and specific marker for the detection of TT1 but is not universally utilized in screening protocols for the disease. Here, we report an infant transferred to our facility for evaluation and management of hyperinsulinism who subsequently developed acute-onset liver, respiratory, and renal failure around one month of life. She was found to have TT1 caused by novel pathogenic variant in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (c.1014 delC, p.Cys 338 Ter). Her NBS, which utilized tyrosine as a primary marker, had been reported as normal, with a tyrosine level of 151 µmol/L (reference: < 280 µmol/L). Retrospective analysis of dried blood spot samples via tandem mass spectrometry showed detectable succinylacetone ranging 4.65–10.34 µmol/L. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with TT1 whose initial presenting symptom was hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. The case highlights the importance of maintaining a high suspicion for metabolic disease in critically ill children, despite normal NBS. We also use the case to advocate for NBS for TT1 using succinylacetone quantitation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
National Program for External Quality Assessment of Chinese Newborn Screening Laboratories
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020038 - 09 May 2020
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Objectives: To analyze the coefficient of variation (CV) of external quality assessment (EQA) in Chinese newborn screening (NBS) laboratories. Method: EQA’s robust CV was analyzed by the Clinet-EQA evaluation system. Results: Participating laboratories of the EQA program increased annually. There was more than [...] Read more.
Objectives: To analyze the coefficient of variation (CV) of external quality assessment (EQA) in Chinese newborn screening (NBS) laboratories. Method: EQA’s robust CV was analyzed by the Clinet-EQA evaluation system. Results: Participating laboratories of the EQA program increased annually. There was more than a 11-fold increase in phenylalanine (Phe) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It has shown a declining robust CV, which has tended to level off in recent years. The interquartile range (IQR) of Phe and TSH’s robust CV has decreased from 15.5% to 1.5% and from 22.8% to 1.8%, respectively. Compared to bacterial inhibition assay (BIA), the robust CV of Phe has been shown to be relatively reduced in the fluorescence assay and quantitative enzymatic assay (QEA). The robust CV by ELISA was relatively unstable compared to DELFIA and FEIA. In addition, the robust CVs of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 17-alpha-hydroxy progesterone (17-OHP) by Genetic Screening Processor (GSP) were lower than other systems. The median of robust CV by non-derivatized MS/MS (Fenghua) in Phe and free carnitine were around 2.2–4.7% and 2.6–5.2%. Conclusion: Neonatal screening has developed rapidly in China and the majority of participant laboratories had satisfactory performance for the quantitative results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Newborn Screening Protocols and Positive Predictive Value for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Vary across the United States
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020037 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is mandated throughout the US. Filter paper blood specimens are assayed for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP). Prematurity, low birth weight, or critical illness cause falsely elevated results. The purpose of this report is to [...] Read more.
Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is mandated throughout the US. Filter paper blood specimens are assayed for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP). Prematurity, low birth weight, or critical illness cause falsely elevated results. The purpose of this report is to highlight differences in protocols among US state laboratories. We circulated a survey to state laboratory directors requesting qualitative and quantitative information about individual screening programs. Qualitative and quantitative information provided by 17 state programs were available for analysis. Disease prevalence ranged from 1:9941 to 1:28,661 live births. Four state laboratories mandated a second screen regardless of the initial screening results; most others did so for infants in intensive care units. All but one program utilized birthweight cut-points, but cutoffs varied widely: 17OHP values of 25 to 75 ng/mL for birthweights >2250–2500 g. The positive predictive values for normal birthweight infants varied from 0.7% to 50%, with the highest predictive values based in two of the states with a mandatory second screen. Data were unavailable for negative predictive values. These data imply differences in sensitivity and specificity in CAH screening in the US. Standardization of newborn screening protocols could improve the positive predictive value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAH Screening—Challenges and Opportunities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Performance of Dried-Blood-Spot DNA Extraction Methods in Next Generation Sequencing
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020036 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 650
Abstract
An increasing number of newborn screening laboratories in the United States and abroad are moving towards incorporating next-generation sequencing technology, or NGS, into routine screening, particularly for cystic fibrosis. As more programs utilize this technology for both cystic fibrosis and beyond, it is [...] Read more.
An increasing number of newborn screening laboratories in the United States and abroad are moving towards incorporating next-generation sequencing technology, or NGS, into routine screening, particularly for cystic fibrosis. As more programs utilize this technology for both cystic fibrosis and beyond, it is critical to identify appropriate DNA extraction methods that can be used with dried blood spots that will result in consistent, high-quality sequencing results. To provide comprehensive quality assurance and technical assistance to newborn screening laboratories wishing to incorporate NGS assays, CDC’s Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch designed a study to evaluate the performance of nine commercial or laboratory-developed DNA extraction methods that range from a highly purified column extraction to a crude detergent-based no-wash boil prep. The DNA from these nine methods was used in two NGS library preparations that interrogate the CFTR gene. All DNA extraction methods including the cruder preps performed reasonably well with both library preps. One lower-concentration, older sample was excluded from one of the assay evaluations due to poor performance across all DNA extraction methods. When 84 samples, versus eight, were run on a flow cell, the DNA quality and quantity were more significant variables. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Implementing Statewide Newborn Screening for New Disorders: U.S. Program Experiences
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020035 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Data were collected from 39 newborn screening (NBS) programs to provide insight into the time and factors required for implementing statewide screening for Pompe, Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). Newborn screening program readiness to screen statewide [...] Read more.
Data were collected from 39 newborn screening (NBS) programs to provide insight into the time and factors required for implementing statewide screening for Pompe, Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). Newborn screening program readiness to screen statewide for a condition was assessed using four phases: (1) approval to screen; (2) laboratory, follow-up, and information technology capabilities; (3) education; and (4) implementation of statewide newborn screening. Seventeen states (43.6%) reached statewide implementation for at least one new disorder. Those states reported that it took 28 months to implement statewide screening for Pompe and MPS I, 30.5 months for ALD, and 20 months for SMA. Using survival curve analysis to account for states still in progress, the estimated median time to statewide screening increased to 75 months for Pompe and 66 months for MPS I. When looking at how long each readiness component took to complete, laboratory readiness was one of the lengthier processes, taking about 39 months. Collaboration with other NBS programs and hiring were the most frequently mentioned facilitators to implementing newborn screening. Staffing or inability to hire both laboratory and follow-up staff was the most frequently mentioned barrier. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis in Russia: A Catalyst for Improved Care
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020034 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 255
Abstract
In order to assess the effectiveness of the detection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by screening compared with diagnoses based on clinical manifestations, the data of the National CF Patient Registry (NCFPR) from the year 2012 (group I: children aged 6–9 years, diagnosed [...] Read more.
In order to assess the effectiveness of the detection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by screening compared with diagnoses based on clinical manifestations, the data of the National CF Patient Registry (NCFPR) from the year 2012 (group I: children aged 6–9 years, diagnosed prior to the start of screening) were compared with the data in the NCFPR from the year 2015 (group II: children 6–9 years after the start of screening) for CF patients from the Moscow region. Homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT (F508del) were separately compared in both groups. The average diagnosis age, genotype, body mass index, spirometry data, pulmonary infection, medications, and presence of complications were analyzed. This study demonstrated that in the c.1521_1523delCTT (F508del) homozygote group, the patients diagnosed by screening had significant advantages over the patients born before the start of newborn screening in the diagnosis age, the number of patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, the pulmonary function, and the growth in the percentiles. Newborn screening (NBS) detects nearly twice as many CF patients as the diagnostics based on clinical symptoms during the same time period. Importantly, patients will benefit from the early diagnosis of the disease and the early start of therapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Combined Impact of CLIR Post-Analytical Tools and Second Tier Testing on the Performance of Newborn Screening for Disorders of Propionate, Methionine, and Cobalamin Metabolism
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020033 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The expansion of the recommend uniform screening panel to include more than 50 primary and secondary target conditions has resulted in a substantial increase of false positive results. As an alternative to subjective manipulation of cutoff values and overutilization of molecular testing, here [...] Read more.
The expansion of the recommend uniform screening panel to include more than 50 primary and secondary target conditions has resulted in a substantial increase of false positive results. As an alternative to subjective manipulation of cutoff values and overutilization of molecular testing, here we describe the performance outcome of an algorithm for disorders of methionine, cobalamin, and propionate metabolism that includes: (1) first tier screening inclusive of the broadest available spectrum of markers measured by tandem mass spectrometry; (2) integration of all results into a score of likelihood of disease for each target condition calculated by post-analytical interpretive tools created byCollaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports (CLIR), a multivariate pattern recognition software; and (3) further evaluation of abnormal scores by a second tier test measuring homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and methylcitric acid. This approach can consistently reduce false positive rates to a <0.01% level, which is the threshold of precision newborn screening. We postulate that broader adoption of this algorithm could lead to substantial savings in health care expenditures. More importantly, it could prevent the stress and anxiety experienced by many families when faced with an abnormal newborn screening result that is later resolved as a false positive outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CLIR Applications for Newborn Screening)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Second Tier Molecular Genetic Testing in Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease: Landscape and Challenges
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020032 - 05 Apr 2020
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Pompe disease (PD) is screened by a two tier newborn screening (NBS) algorithm, the first tier of which is an enzymatic assay performed on newborn dried blood spots (DBS). As first tier enzymatic screening tests have false positive results, an immediate second tier [...] Read more.
Pompe disease (PD) is screened by a two tier newborn screening (NBS) algorithm, the first tier of which is an enzymatic assay performed on newborn dried blood spots (DBS). As first tier enzymatic screening tests have false positive results, an immediate second tier test on the same sample is critical in resolving newborn health status. Two methodologies have been proposed for second tier testing: (a) measurement of enzymatic activities such as of Creatine/Creatinine over alpha-glucosidase ratio, and (b) DNA sequencing (a molecular genetics approach), such as targeted next generation sequencing. (tNGS). In this review, we discuss the tNGS approach, as well as the challenges in providing second tier screening and follow-up care. While tNGS can predict genotype-phenotype effects when known, these advantages may be diminished when the variants are novel, of unknown significance or not discoverable by current test methodologies. Due to the fact that criticisms of screening algorithms that utilize tNGS are based on perceived complexities, including variant detection and interpretation, we clarify the actual limitations and present the rationale that supports optimizing a molecular genetic testing approach with tNGS. Second tier tNGS can benefit clinical decision-making through the use of the initial NBS DBS punch and rapid turn-around time methodology for tNGS, that includes copy number variant analysis, variant effect prediction, and variant ‘cut-off’ tools for the reduction of false positive results. The availability of DNA sequence data will contribute to the improved understanding of genotype-phenotype associations and application of treatment. The ultimate goal of second tier testing should enable the earliest possible diagnosis for the earliest initiation of the most effective clinical interventions in infants with PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020031 - 05 Apr 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Glycogen storage disease type II (also known as Pompe disease (PD)) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in α-glucosidase (AαGlu), resulting in lysosomal glycogen accumulation in skeletal and heart muscles. Accumulation and tissue damage rates depend on residual enzyme activity. Enzyme [...] Read more.
Glycogen storage disease type II (also known as Pompe disease (PD)) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in α-glucosidase (AαGlu), resulting in lysosomal glycogen accumulation in skeletal and heart muscles. Accumulation and tissue damage rates depend on residual enzyme activity. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) should be started before symptoms are apparent in order to achieve optimal outcomes. Early initiation of ERT in infantile-onset PD improves survival, reduces the need for ventilation, results in earlier independent walking, and enhances patient quality of life. Newborn screening (NBS) is the optimal approach for early diagnosis and treatment of PD. In NBS for PD, measurement of AαGlu enzyme activity in dried blood spots (DBSs) is conducted using fluorometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or digital microfluidic fluorometry. The presence of pseudodeficiency alleles, which are frequent in Asian populations, interferes with NBS for PD, and current NBS systems cannot discriminate between pseudodeficiency and cases with PD or potential PD. The combination of GAA gene analysis with NBS is essential for definitive diagnoses of PD. In this review, we introduce our experiences and discuss NBS programs for PD implemented in various countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Timely Needs for Infantile Onset Pompe Disease Newborn Screening—Practice in Taiwan
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020030 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Pompe disease Newborn screening (NBS) aims at diagnosing patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) early enough so a timely treatment can be instituted. Since 2015, the National Taiwan University NBS Center has changed the method for Pompe disease NBS from fluorometric assay to [...] Read more.
Pompe disease Newborn screening (NBS) aims at diagnosing patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) early enough so a timely treatment can be instituted. Since 2015, the National Taiwan University NBS Center has changed the method for Pompe disease NBS from fluorometric assay to tandem mass assay. From 2016 to 2019, 14 newborns were reported as high-risk for Pompe disease at a median age of 9 days (range 6–13), and 18 were with a borderline risk at a median age of 13 days (9–28). None of the borderline risks were IOPD patients. Among the 14 at a high-risk of Pompe disease, four were found to have cardiomyopathy, and six were classified as potential late-onset Pompe disease. The four classic IOPD newborns, three of the four having at least one allele of the cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-positive variant, started enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) at a median age of 9 days (8–14). Western Blot analysis and whole gene sequencing confirmed the CRIM-positive status in all cases. Here, we focus on the patient without the known CRIM-positive variant. Doing ERT before knowing the CRIM status created a dilemma in the decision and was discussed in detail. Our Pompe disease screening and diagnostic program successfully detected and treated patients with IOPD in time. However, the timely exclusion of a CRIM-negative status, which is rare in the Chinese population, is still a challenging task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Achieving Congruence among Reference Laboratories for Absolute Abundance Measurement of Analytes for Rare Diseases: Psychosine for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Krabbe Disease
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020029 - 31 Mar 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Measurement of the absolute concentration of the biomarker psychosine in dried blood spots (DBS) is useful for diagnosis and prognosis of Krabbe disease and to support newborn screening of this leukodystrophy. As for assays for more common diseases, it is important to achieve [...] Read more.
Measurement of the absolute concentration of the biomarker psychosine in dried blood spots (DBS) is useful for diagnosis and prognosis of Krabbe disease and to support newborn screening of this leukodystrophy. As for assays for more common diseases, it is important to achieve congruence when multiple clinical laboratories provide testing. Four clinical laboratories, one research laboratory, and a commercial vendor collaborated with the goal to achieve congruence in quantitative psychosine measurement in DBS. A set of DBS calibrators was prepared by a single vendor and used in each reference laboratory to make a standard curve of measured psychosine in DBS versus the stated calibrator psychosine level. Congruence between the participating five laboratories was achieved using the psychosine DBS calibrators. This allowed application of disease-specific reference ranges obtained by the reference laboratory with the most extensive data by the other reference laboratories. Congruence between multiple reference laboratories in the measurement of the absolute concentration of biomarkers in DBS (and by extension other samples) is possible by the use of a common set of DBS calibrators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening and Follow-Up Diagnostic Testing for Krabbe Disease)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Pancreatitis-Associated Protein in Neonatal Screening for Cystic Fibrosis: Strengths and Weaknesses
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020028 - 30 Mar 2020
Viewed by 283
Abstract
There are currently four countries and one local region in Europe that use PAP in their newborn screening programme. The first country to employ PAP at a national level was the Netherlands, which started using IRT/PAP/DNA/EGA in 2011. Germany followed in 2016 with [...] Read more.
There are currently four countries and one local region in Europe that use PAP in their newborn screening programme. The first country to employ PAP at a national level was the Netherlands, which started using IRT/PAP/DNA/EGA in 2011. Germany followed in 2016 with a slightly different IRT/PAP/DNA strategy. Portugal also started in 2016, but with an IRT/PAP/IRT programme, and in 2017, Austria changed its IRT/IRT protocol to an IRT/PAP/IRT program. In 2018, Catalonia started to use an IRT/PAP/IRT/DNA strategy. The strengths of PAP are the avoidance of carrier detection and a lower detection rate of CFSPID. PAP seems to have advantages in detecting CF in ethnically-diverse populations, as it is a biochemical approach to screening, which looks for pancreatic injury. Compared to an IRT/IRT protocol, an IRT/PAP protocol leads to earlier diagnoses. While PAP can be assessed with the same screening card as the first IRT, the second IRT in an IRT/IRT protocol requires a second heel prick around the 21st day of the patient’s life. However, IRT/PAP has two main weaknesses. First, an IRT/PAP protocol seems to have a lower sensitivity compared to a well-functioning IRT/DNA protocol, and second, IRT/PAP that is performed as a purely biochemical protocol has a very low positive predictive value. However, if the advantages of PAP are to be exploited, a combination of IRT/PAP with genetic screening or a second IRT as a third tier could be an alternative for a sufficiently performing CF-NBS protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Psychological Impact of NBS for CF
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020027 - 30 Mar 2020
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis has resulted in diagnosis often before symptoms are recognised, leading to benefits including reduced disease severity, decreased burden of care, and lower costs. The psychological impact of this often unsought diagnosis on the parents of seemingly well children [...] Read more.
Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis has resulted in diagnosis often before symptoms are recognised, leading to benefits including reduced disease severity, decreased burden of care, and lower costs. The psychological impact of this often unsought diagnosis on the parents of seemingly well children is less well understood. The time during which the screening result is communicated to families but before the confirmatory test results are available is recognised as a period of uncertainty and it is this uncertainty that can impact most on parents. Evidence suggests this may be mitigated against by ensuring the time between communication and confirmatory testing is minimized and health professionals involved in communicating positive newborn screening results and diagnostic results for cystic fibrosis to families are knowledgeable and able to provide appropriate reassurance. This is particularly important in the case of false positive results or when the child is given a Cystic Fibrosis Screen Positive, Inconclusive Diagnosis designation. However, to date, there are no formal mechanisms in place to support health professionals undertaking this challenging role, which would enable them to meet the expectations set out in specific guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis)
Open AccessReview
Use of Dried Blood Spot Specimens to Monitor Patients with Inherited Metabolic Disorders
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020026 - 26 Mar 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Monitoring of patients with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) using dried blood spot (DBS) specimens has been routinely used since the inception of newborn screening (NBS) for phenylketonuria in the 1960s. The introduction of flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA–MS/MS) in the 1990s [...] Read more.
Monitoring of patients with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) using dried blood spot (DBS) specimens has been routinely used since the inception of newborn screening (NBS) for phenylketonuria in the 1960s. The introduction of flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA–MS/MS) in the 1990s facilitated the expansion of NBS for IMDs. This has led to increased identification of patients who require biochemical monitoring. Monitoring of IMD patients using DBS specimens is widely favoured due to the convenience of collecting blood from a finger prick onto filter paper devices in the patient’s home, which can then be mailed directly to the laboratory. Ideally, analytical methodologies with a short analysis time and high sample throughput are required to enable results to be communicated to patients in a timely manner, allowing prompt therapy adjustment. The development of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC–MS/MS), means that metabolic laboratories now have the capability to routinely analyse DBS specimens with superior specificity and sensitivity. This advancement in analytical technology has led to the development of numerous assays to detect analytes at low concentrations (pmol/L) in DBS specimens that can be used to monitor IMD patients. In this review, we discuss the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical variables that may affect the final test result obtained using DBS specimens used for monitoring of patients with an IMD. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Processing Newborn Bloodspot Screening Results for CF
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020025 - 25 Mar 2020
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Every newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) result for cystic fibrosis (CF) consists of two parts: a screening part in the laboratory and a clinical part in a CF centre. When introducing an NBS programme, more attention is usually paid to the laboratory part, especially [...] Read more.
Every newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) result for cystic fibrosis (CF) consists of two parts: a screening part in the laboratory and a clinical part in a CF centre. When introducing an NBS programme, more attention is usually paid to the laboratory part, especially which algorithm is most suitable for the region or the country. However, the clinical part, how a positive screening result is processed, is often underestimated and can have great consequences for the affected child and their parents. A clear algorithm for the diagnostic part in CF centres is also important and influences the performance of a CF NBS programme. The processing of a positive screening result includes the initial information given to the parents, the invitation to the sweat test, what to do if a sweat test fails, information about the results of the sweat test, the inconclusive diagnosis and the carrier status, which is handled differently from country to country. The time until the definitive diagnosis and adequate information is given, is considered by the parents and the CF team as the most important factor. The communication of a positive NBS result is crucial. It is not a singular event but rather a process that includes ensuring the appropriate clinicians are aware of the result and that families are informed in the most efficient and effective manner to facilitate consistent and timely follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary
Universal Implementation of Newborn Screening in India
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6020024 - 25 Mar 2020
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Newborn screening is a successful program in many developed countries. In India, the benefits of dried blood spot screening have been recognized and that screening is slowly gaining traction. There are significant issues standing in the way of universal implementation of a newborn [...] Read more.
Newborn screening is a successful program in many developed countries. In India, the benefits of dried blood spot screening have been recognized and that screening is slowly gaining traction. There are significant issues standing in the way of universal implementation of a newborn screening program in India: awareness, cost, advocacy, public policy, and politics. Three regional screening programs, Chandigarh, Goa, and Kerala could serve as models for other programs in India. The data for this commentary were based on personal experiences from managing public newborn screening programs, searches on PubMed and Google, and personal interactions with experts in the field. The overwhelming recommendation is to universally screen for congenital hypothyroidism in India, because it is easy and inexpensive to treat, with excellent outcomes. It would also be beneficial to consider screening universally for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency due to its high incidence and ease of treatment. Finally, sickle cell disease should be screened in those areas in India where it is prevalent due to the costs associated with universal screening. Achieving universal screening is a challenge, and it is very difficult to predict when every baby born in India will be screened for at least congenital hypothyroidism. Full article
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop