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Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5010011

Mechanisms of Antisense Transcription Initiation with Implications in Gene Expression, Genomic Integrity and Disease Pathogenesis

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
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Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Instability and Non-Coding RNA)
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Abstract

Non-coding antisense transcripts arise from the strand opposite the sense strand. Over 70% of the human genome generates non-coding antisense transcripts while less than 2% of the genome codes for proteins. Antisense transcripts and/or the act of antisense transcription regulate gene expression and genome integrity by interfering with sense transcription and modulating histone modifications or DNA methylation. Hence, they have significant pathological and physiological relevance. Indeed, antisense transcripts were found to be associated with various diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiac and neurodegenerative disorders, and, thus, have promising potentials for prognostic and diagnostic markers and therapeutic development. However, it is not clearly understood how antisense transcription is initiated and epigenetically regulated. Such knowledge would provide new insights into the regulation of antisense transcription, and hence disease pathogenesis with therapeutic development. The recent studies on antisense transcription initiation and its epigenetic regulation, which are limited, are discussed here. Furthermore, we concisely describe how antisense transcription/transcripts regulate gene expression and genome integrity with implications in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic development. View Full-Text
Keywords: antisense transcription; long non-coding RNA; chromatin modification; GAL10; NuA4; TFIID; SAGA; RNA polymerase II antisense transcription; long non-coding RNA; chromatin modification; GAL10; NuA4; TFIID; SAGA; RNA polymerase II
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Barman, P.; Reddy, D.; Bhaumik, S.R. Mechanisms of Antisense Transcription Initiation with Implications in Gene Expression, Genomic Integrity and Disease Pathogenesis. Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5, 11.

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