Three Steps Mixed (Fire Tube–Water Tube) Vertical Boiler to Optimize Thermal Performance
- Three-pass boiler allows better use of the combustion heat from the exhaust gases and obtains a higher thermal efficiency.
- Multipurpose because it allows better use of the unit to be built from two points of view:
- The possibility of using alternative fuels such as diesel, natural gas, and LPG
- The use of the heat of combustion in heat-carrying fluids to produce hot water, steam, or thermal oil can be done in different units or the same unit.
- The boiler’s construction in two subsystems will allow the maintenance activities to be carried out more objectively and reduce the cost and frequency of maintenance.
2. Materials and Methods
- For the construction of the water and steam chamber, carbon steel ASTM 285-C was used, and for the tubes, ASTM 192 established by the ASME Code
- The exterior painting was done with anticorrosive paint and finishing paint 
2.1. Plate Thickness Calculation and Material Selection
- To measure the pressure, a manometer with a range of 0–200 psi approx. One psi.
- Contact thermometers with an approximation of 0.1 degrees to measure external surfaces
- Carbon steel plate, ASTM285 grade C in different thicknesses
- Seamless boiler tubes ASTM-192 seamless carbon steel boilers tubes
2.2. Boiler Construction Process Sequence
- Material type: Carbon steel plate ASTM 285 C
- Thickness: 1/4″ or 6.53 mm
- Plate dimensions: Depending on the dimensions required by the different sizes for its construction, it is possible to select larger plate dimensions
- Boiler tubes: For small powers, the manufacturers and the ASME Code recommend 2″ diameter.
- Distribution of the transfer area in three gas passes.
- Calculation of the total volume of liquid to be stored
- Dimensioning of the plates whose thickness was previously calculated.
- Tracing, cutting, rolling, and welding of the various sections of the boiler.
- Determination of the type of assembly of the sections previously built
- Selection of the seal gaskets.
- Assembly of the pre-fabricated sections through connecting flanges.
- Tightness test called a hydrostatic test.
- Installation of thermal insulation.
- External covering with galvanized iron plate.
2.3. Energy Characterization
- Qa = Heat absorbed
- Qc = Heat of combustion
- Qp = Lost heat
- Qp1 = heat lost in the exhaust gases
- Qp2 = heat lost by the enthalpy of water vapor in the gases
- Qp3 = heat lost to unburned gas
- Qp4 = heat lost by solid unburned
- Qp5 = heat lost by convection
- Qp6 = heat lost to radiation
2.4. Energy Characterization Using Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)
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|Pass Flue Gas Vertical Hot Water Boiler||Pass Two Flue Gas Vertical Boiler||Two-Pass Flue Gas Tubeless Boiler||Three-Pass Flue Gas Boiler|
|Combustion gases in a single cycle emit very hot gases around 500 °C, it was worked with diesel II||Combustion gases in two gas steps emit gases into the environment around 250 and 300 °C; it was worked with diesel fuel II||Combustion gases in two gas steps emit gases into the environment around 300 °C; it was worked with diesel oil II||In three gas steps, combustion gases emit gases into the environment around 185 degrees Celsius; it was worked with diesel oil.|
|Boiler efficiency %||89.57||90.01||90.58|
|Fuel comsumption (Kg/h)||19085.9||18938.4||18864.6|
|Fuel comsumption (Kg/s)||5.302||5.092||5.240|
|Heat Loss %||Diesel||Natural Gas||LPG|
|Sensible Heat in Dry Gases %||7.45||7.28||6.10||6.10||5.25||5.19|
|Enthalpy of water vapor in gases %||1.46||1.46||2.18||2.189||1.52||1.51|
|Resulting thermal efficiency%||89.21||89.31||90.25||90.24||92.4||92.42|
|Heat Loss %.||Fuel: LPG|
|Heat Water||Generate Steam|
|Sensitive heat in the||5.25||5.19|
|Dry Gases %.||1.52||1.51|
|Enthalpy of the steam of||0.19||0.23|
|Water in gases||0.29||0.24|
|Heat Water||Generate Steam|
|US$ /BHP||US$/kW||US$ /BHP||US$/kW|
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Aguilar Vizcarra, D.; Esenarro, D.; Rodriguez, C. Three Steps Mixed (Fire Tube–Water Tube) Vertical Boiler to Optimize Thermal Performance. Fluids 2021, 6, 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030093
Aguilar Vizcarra D, Esenarro D, Rodriguez C. Three Steps Mixed (Fire Tube–Water Tube) Vertical Boiler to Optimize Thermal Performance. Fluids. 2021; 6(3):93. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030093Chicago/Turabian Style
Aguilar Vizcarra, Duilio, Doris Esenarro, and Ciro Rodriguez. 2021. "Three Steps Mixed (Fire Tube–Water Tube) Vertical Boiler to Optimize Thermal Performance" Fluids 6, no. 3: 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030093