Next Article in Journal
Poly[(N-acryloyl glycinamide)-co-(N-acryloyl l-alaninamide)] and Their Ability to Form Thermo-Responsive Hydrogels for Sustained Drug Delivery
Previous Article in Journal
Supramolecular Strategy Effects on Chitosan Bead Stability in Acidic Media: A Comparative Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Physicochemical, Complexation and Catalytic Properties of Polyampholyte Cryogels
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Porous Starch Materials via Supercritical- and Freeze-Drying

Institute of Thermal Separation Processes, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), 22073 Hamburg, Germany
Nestlé Product Technology Centre York, Nestec York LTD, PO BOX 204, York YO91 1XY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryogelation and Cryogels)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5856 KB, uploaded 28 February 2019]   |  


The production of porous materials based on starch has been explored with supercritical drying—yielding aerogel—and freeze-drying. The two drying procedures were applied on the same gelling solution of amylomaize starch pasted at 140 °C and for two concentrations (5 and 10 wt.%). After gelation and retrogradation, water from the samples to be supercritically dried was exchanged to ethanol. The resulting starch aerogel presented high specific surface area (197 m2/g). Freeze-drying was assessed by investigating the effect of the gelation, retrogradation, freezing temperature, and sublimation pressure. The resulting starch materials were macroporous, with limited specific surface area and limited mechanical integrity. Cohesive open cell foam with pore size of ~20 µm was produced by quenching the hot starch melt in liquid nitrogen. The highest specific surface area obtained with freeze-drying was 7.7 m2/g for the hot starch melt frozen at −20 °C. View Full-Text
Keywords: freeze-drying; supercritical drying; aerogel; starch; open cell foam; cryogel; cryogelation freeze-drying; supercritical drying; aerogel; starch; open cell foam; cryogel; cryogelation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Baudron, V.; Gurikov, P.; Smirnova, I.; Whitehouse, S. Porous Starch Materials via Supercritical- and Freeze-Drying. Gels 2019, 5, 12.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Gels EISSN 2310-2861 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top