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Social Determinants of Association among Diabetes Mellitus, Visual Impairment and Hearing Loss in a Middle-Aged or Old Population: Artificial-Neural-Network Analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2014–2016)

1
Center for Artificial Intelligence, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Neurology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geriatrics 2019, 4(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics4010030
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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Abstract

Background: This study introduces a new framework based on an artificial neural network (ANN) for testing whether social determinants are major determinants of association among diabetes mellitus, visual impairment and hearing loss in a middle-aged or old population. Methods: The data came from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2014–2016), with 6120 participants aged 45 years or more. The association was divided into eight categories: one category for having no disease, three categories for having one, three categories for having two and one category for having three. Variable importance, the effect of a variable on model performance, was used to evaluate the hypothesis based on whether family support, socioeconomic status and social activity in Y2014 are among the top 10 determinants of the association in the year 2016 (Y2016). Results: Based on variable importance from the ANN, brothers/sisters cohabiting (0.0167), voluntary activity (0.0148), income (0.0125), family activity (0.0125), parents alive (0.0121), leisure activity (0.0095) and meeting with friends (0.0092) in Y2014 are the top-10 determinants of comorbidity in Y2016. Conclusion: The findings of this study support the hypothesis, highlighting the importance of social determinants for the effective management of the comorbidities of the three diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: association; diabetes mellitus; visual impairment; hearing loss; social determinant; old population association; diabetes mellitus; visual impairment; hearing loss; social determinant; old population
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, K.-S.; Park, K.W. Social Determinants of Association among Diabetes Mellitus, Visual Impairment and Hearing Loss in a Middle-Aged or Old Population: Artificial-Neural-Network Analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2014–2016). Geriatrics 2019, 4, 30.

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