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Cell Integration with Electrospun PMMA Nanofibers, Microfibers, Ribbons, and Films: A Microscopy Study

1
International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
2
Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Bioengineering 2019, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering6020041
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designing Tissue Scaffolds with Electrospun Fibers)
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Abstract

Tissue engineering requires properly selected geometry and surface properties of the scaffold, to promote in vitro tissue growth. In this study, we obtained three types of electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) scaffolds—nanofibers, microfibers, and ribbons, as well as spin-coated films. Their morphology was imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and characterized by average surface roughness and water contact angle. PMMA films had a smooth surface with roughness, Ra below 0.3 µm and hydrophilic properties, whereas for the fibers and the ribbons, we observed increased hydrophobicity, with higher surface roughness and fiber diameter. For microfibers, we obtained the highest roughness of 7 µm, therefore, the contact angle was 140°. All PMMA samples were used for the in vitro cell culture study, to verify the cells integration with various designs of scaffolds. The detailed microscopy study revealed that higher surface roughness enhanced cells’ attachment and their filopodia length. The 3D structure of PMMA microfibers with an average fiber diameter above 3.5 µm, exhibited the most favorable geometry for cells’ ingrowth, whereas, for other structures we observed cells growth only on the surface. The study showed that electrospinning of various scaffolds geometry is able to control cells development that can be adjusted according to the tissue needs in the regeneration processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: filopodia; osteoblast; fibers; ribbons; electrospinning; film; PMMA filopodia; osteoblast; fibers; ribbons; electrospinning; film; PMMA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ura, D.P.; Karbowniczek, J.E.; Szewczyk, P.K.; Metwally, S.; Kopyściański, M.; Stachewicz, U. Cell Integration with Electrospun PMMA Nanofibers, Microfibers, Ribbons, and Films: A Microscopy Study. Bioengineering 2019, 6, 41.

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