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Medicines, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2022) – 3 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Obesity is a chronic pathology that affects people of all ages, from infants to the elderly, residing in both developed and developing countries. It represents an epidemic with far-reaching consequences on health and morbidity. The literature has established that obesity is associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and death. Sarcopenic obesity is strongly associated with frailty, cardiometabolic dysfunction, physical disability, and mortality. This concept of sarcopenic obesity has emerged and is considered a public health risk in older adults. Sarcopenia and obesity are both considered multifactorial syndromes sharing various overlapping causes and feedback mechanisms. Preventing them is therefore essential. View this paper
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Article
Associations between Workers’ Health and Working Conditions: Would the Physical and Mental Health of Nonregular Employees Improve If Their Income Was Adjusted?
Medicines 2022, 9(7), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9070040 - 14 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Precarious employment can negatively affect health, but workers may be healthy if they earn enough income. This study uses equivalent disposable income and examines the interaction between income classes and employment types to clarify whether workers’ health improves as the income classes rise. [...] Read more.
Precarious employment can negatively affect health, but workers may be healthy if they earn enough income. This study uses equivalent disposable income and examines the interaction between income classes and employment types to clarify whether workers’ health improves as the income classes rise. In Japan, nonstandard workers, called nonregular employees, have remained high since 2013. Therefore, using data from the national cross-sectional Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions 2013, an official survey performed in Japan, we targeted a sample of employees aged 18 to 45 who graduated during the economic recession. Our final sample included 8282 employees (4444 males and 3838 females). The health (general and mental) status indicators used the dichotomized self-rated health and scores of the K6 questionnaires scored in the national survey. The association between income and health was almost proportional. Female workers tended to improve their health as their income class increased; however, this tendency was not observed in male workers, especially nonregular employees. Although the associations were weakened by added income information on the regression models, nonregular employees always showed inferior health to regular employees. The health status of nonregular employees, especially female nonregular employees, is statistically significantly lower than that of regular employees, even when the economic class is similar. In conclusion, improving low incomes for nonregular employees could improve health challenges, but income alone may not result in the same health status for regular and nonregular employees. Full article
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Communication
Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer: A Rare Phenomenon?
Medicines 2022, 9(7), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9070039 - 12 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Complication of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is critical. It causes rapid neurological deterioration, and subsequently, discontinuation of the ineffective treatment even in body tumor dormancy. Large molecular chemotherapeutic agents that are unlikely to penetrate the CSF space, are more likely to not treat LMC, [...] Read more.
Complication of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is critical. It causes rapid neurological deterioration, and subsequently, discontinuation of the ineffective treatment even in body tumor dormancy. Large molecular chemotherapeutic agents that are unlikely to penetrate the CSF space, are more likely to not treat LMC, typically in chemo-sensitive tumors. With the introduction of novel regimens, significant advances in overall survival have been observed even in formerly chemo-resistant tumors, such as pancreatic cancer. Although such cases are still rare, the number of pancreatic cancer patients complicated with LMC are increasing, and this therefore needs more recognition. A 49-year-old woman was diagnosed with stage IVa pancreatic cancer. She underwent surgery, and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy. After three lines of chemotherapy over a 3-year period, where the body disease remained dormant, the patient was complicated by LMC. The diagnosis was made 4 months after the onset of headache. The patient received intrathecal methotrexate treatment but succumbed shortly after treatment induction. Pancreatic cancer is still relatively chemo-resistant and is one of the least likely types of tumor to be complicated by LMC due to patients dying of the primary tumor. Advancements in treatments have led to a prolonged period of primary tumor control, but not in the CNS due to the poor penetration of chemo-agents to this site. The present case seems to be a typical result of modern era anti-cancer therapy. Therefore, we emphasize the necessity of earlier recognition of this complication so that we can initiate specific treatment targeting the CSF space, especially in this formerly chemo-resistant tumor in order to improve its prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology and Neurologic Diseases)
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Brief Report
Obesity and Frailty Syndrome in the Elderly: Prospective Study in Primary Care
Medicines 2022, 9(7), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9070038 - 24 Jun 2022
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Abstract
Background: Obesity is a chronic pathology that affects people of all ages, from infants to the elderly, residing in both developed and developing countries. Objective: Our aim is to study the link between obesity and frailty in the elderly. Method: A prospective study [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is a chronic pathology that affects people of all ages, from infants to the elderly, residing in both developed and developing countries. Objective: Our aim is to study the link between obesity and frailty in the elderly. Method: A prospective study was carried out in 12 General Medicine practices in Champagne-Ardenne, in the Departments of Marne and the Ardennes, France, for a period of 12 months (from 2 May 2019 through 30 April 2020). All patients included were aged 65 or older, in consultation with a general practitioner, and had an ADL (Activity of Daily Living) greater than or equal to 4. Frailty was measured using the Fried scale and the simplified ZULFIQAR frailty scale. Results: 268 patients aged 65 and over were included, with an average age of 77.5 years. A total of 100 were obese according to BMI. The mean Fried (/5) in the series was 1.57, and the mean sZFS (/5) was 0.91. Our study shows that obesity is not significantly correlated with frailty according to the FRIED sarcopenic scale, but is significantly correlated with frailty according to the sZFS scale. Conclusions: The link between obesity and frailty remains much debated, with the underlying emergence of sarcopenic obesity equally prevalent among the elderly. This is a preliminary study that should be followed by large-scale outpatient studies to better clarify the links between sarcopenia and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty Syndrome in the Elderly: a Real Challenge for Our Society)
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