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Medicines, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Alkaline extracts of plants show much higher antiviral activity than hot water extracts. Their antiviral principles are higher molecular weight substances rather than lower molecular weight substances, such as degradation products. They instantly inactivate viruses, suggesting their application as gargle to eliminate viruses in the oral cavity. View this paper
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Article
Pomegranate Juice Extract Decreases Cisplatin Toxicity on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100066 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Background: Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. Chemotherapy regimens, targeted against lung cancer, are considered an effective treatment; albeit with multiple fatal side effects. An alternative strategy, nowadays, is using natural products. Medicinal plants have been used, in combination [...] Read more.
Background: Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. Chemotherapy regimens, targeted against lung cancer, are considered an effective treatment; albeit with multiple fatal side effects. An alternative strategy, nowadays, is using natural products. Medicinal plants have been used, in combination with chemotherapy, to ameliorate side effects. This study aims to investigate the antitumor effect of pomegranate juice (Punica granatum) on human lung adenocarcinoma basal epithelial cells (A549), to check the effect, when combined with low dose cisplatin (CDDP), at different doses. We also have evaluated the potential protective effect of pomegranate on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extract was done using standard classical tests. Total phenolic and sugar contents were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu and anthrone reagents, respectively. The antioxidant activity of pomegranate was estimated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The viability of A549 cells and PBMC was evaluated using the neutral red assay. Results: Our results demonstrated that Punica granatum or pomegranate juice (with different concentrations: 150, 300, 600 µg/mL) contained high levels of flavonoids, alkaloids, tanins, lignins, terpenoids, and phenols. The DPPH method showed that pomegranate juice had a strong antioxidant scavenging activity. Neutral red showed that combining pomegranate juice with low dose CDDP (8 µg/mL) decreased the cell viability of A549 cells, by 64%, compared to treatment with CDDP or pomegranate alone. When added to low dose CDDP, pomegranate increased the viability of normal PBMC cells by 46%. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that pomegranate could potentiate the anticancer effect of low dose CDDP on human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells) and could as well decrease its toxicity on PBMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Potential and Medical Use of Essential Oils)
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Review
Effects of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Health: A Narrative Review
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100065 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5500
Abstract
Background: Breathing is an essential part of life. Diaphragmatic breathing (DB) is slow and deep breathing that affects the brain and the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems through the modulation of autonomic nervous functions. However, the effects of DB on human health need [...] Read more.
Background: Breathing is an essential part of life. Diaphragmatic breathing (DB) is slow and deep breathing that affects the brain and the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems through the modulation of autonomic nervous functions. However, the effects of DB on human health need to be further investigated. Methods: The author conducted a PubMed search regarding the current evidence of the effect of DB on health. Results: This review consists of a total of 10 systematic reviews and 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DB appears to be effective for improving the exercise capacity and respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the effect of DB on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with asthma needs to be investigated, it may also help in reducing stress; treating eating disorders, chronic functional constipation, hypertension, migraine, and anxiety; and improving the QoL of patients with cancer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the cardiorespiratory fitness of patients with heart failure. Conclusions: Based on this narrative review, the exact usefulness of DB in clinical practice is unclear due to the poor quality of studies. However, it may be a feasible and practical treatment method for various disorders. Full article
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Article
Quantification of the Ability of Natural Products to Prevent Herpes Virus Infection
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100064 - 06 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is usually dormant and becomes apparent when body conditions decline. We investigated the anti-HSV activity of various natural and synthetic compounds for future clinical application. Methods: Mock- and HSV-infected Vero cells were treated for three days with various [...] Read more.
Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is usually dormant and becomes apparent when body conditions decline. We investigated the anti-HSV activity of various natural and synthetic compounds for future clinical application. Methods: Mock- and HSV-infected Vero cells were treated for three days with various concentrations of samples. For short exposure, 100-fold concentrated virus were preincubated for 3 min with samples, diluted to normal multiplicity of infection (MOI), before the addition to the cells. Anti-HSV activity was evaluated by the chemotherapy index. Results: Alkaline extracts of the leaves of Sasa sp. (SE) and pine cone (PCE) showed higher anti-HSV activity than 20 Japanese traditional herb medicines (Kampo formulas), four popular polyphenols, and 119 chromone-related compounds. Exposure of HSV to SE or PCE for 3 min almost completely eliminated the infectivity of HSV, whereas much longer exposure time was required for Kakkonto, the most active Kampo formulae. Anti-HSV activity of PCE and Kakkonto could be detected only when they were dissolved by alkaline solution (pH 8.0), but not by neutral buffer (pH 7.4). Anti-HSV activity of SE and povidone iodine was stable if they were diluted with neutral buffer. Conclusions: The present study suggests the applicability of SE and PCE for treatment of oral HSV and possibly other viruses. Full article
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Review
Genus Stachys: A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Bioactivity
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100063 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
Background: The genus Stachys L. (Lamiaceae) includes about 300 species as annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs, spread in temperate regions of Mediterranean, Asia, America and southern Africa. Several species of this genus are extensively used in various traditional medicines. They [...] Read more.
Background: The genus Stachys L. (Lamiaceae) includes about 300 species as annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs, spread in temperate regions of Mediterranean, Asia, America and southern Africa. Several species of this genus are extensively used in various traditional medicines. They are consumed as herbal preparations for the treatment of stress, skin inflammations, gastrointestinal disorders, asthma and genital tumors. Previous studies have investigated the chemical constituents and the biological activities of these species. Thus, the present review compiles literature data on ethnomedicine, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, clinical studies and the toxicity of genus Stachys. Methods: Comprehensive research of previously published literature was performed for studies on the traditional uses, bioactive compounds and pharmacological properties of the genus Stachys, using databases with different key search words. Results: This survey documented 60 Stachys species and 10 subspecies for their phytochemical profiles, including 254 chemical compounds and reported 19 species and 4 subspecies for their pharmacological properties. Furthermore, 25 species and 6 subspecies were found for their traditional uses. Conclusions: The present review highlights that Stachys spp. consist an important source of bioactive phytochemicals and exemplifies the uncharted territory of this genus for new research studies. Full article
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Review
Worldwide Use of RUCAM for Causality Assessment in 81,856 Idiosyncratic DILI and 14,029 HILI Cases Published 1993–Mid 2020: A Comprehensive Analysis
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100062 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Background: A large number of idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (iDILI) and herb induced liver injury(HILI) cases of variable quality has been published but some are a matter of concern if the cases were not evaluated for causality using a robust causality assessment [...] Read more.
Background: A large number of idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (iDILI) and herb induced liver injury(HILI) cases of variable quality has been published but some are a matter of concern if the cases were not evaluated for causality using a robust causality assessment method (CAM) such as RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as diagnostiinjuryc algorithm. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the worldwide use of RUCAM in iDILI and HILI cases. Methods: The PubMed database (1993–30 June 2020) was searched for articles by using the following key terms: Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method; RUCAM; Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury; iDILI; Herb induced liver injury; HILI. Results: Considering reports published worldwide since 1993, our analysis showed the use of RUCAM for causality assessment in 95,885 cases of liver injury including 81,856 cases of idiosyncratic DILI and 14,029 cases of HILI. Among the top countries providing RUCAM based DILI cases were, in decreasing order, China, the US, Germany, Korea, and Italy, with China, Korea, Germany, India, and the US as the top countries for HILI. Conclusions: Since 1993 RUCAM is certainly the most widely used method to assess causality in IDILI and HILI. This should encourage practitioner, experts, and regulatory agencies to use it in order to reinforce their diagnosis and to take sound decisions. Full article
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Communication
Effect of Orento, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, on IL-6, IL-8 Secretion, Type 1 Collagen Production and Alkaline Phosphatase Secretion in the Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line Saos-2
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100061 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2221
Abstract
Background: Orento, a traditional Japanese medicine, is known as Kampo medicine in Japan. We investigated the possible efficacy of Kampo medicine for periodontal disease. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of orento on the proliferation of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin [...] Read more.
Background: Orento, a traditional Japanese medicine, is known as Kampo medicine in Japan. We investigated the possible efficacy of Kampo medicine for periodontal disease. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of orento on the proliferation of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, the production of type 1 collagen, and the secretion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 (Saos-2 cells). Methods: The proliferation of Saos-2 cells was assessed by MTT assay. IL-6 and IL-8 levels, type 1 collagen production and ALP secretion were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ALP assays. Saos-2 cells were treated with or without 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/mL of orento for 24 h. Results: Orento (10 μg/mL) significantly induced the proliferation of Saos-2 cells. At this concentration, orento suppressed IL-6 and IL-8 and enhanced type 1 collagen production and ALP secretion. Conclusions: These results indicate that orento controls the IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and cellular metabolism of osteoblasts, resulting in the secretion of early bone-related biomarkers. Full article
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Article
Impact of ED Organization with a Holding Area and a Dedicated Team on the Adherence to International Guidelines for Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Experience of an Emergency Department Organized in Areas of Intensity of Care
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100060 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
Background: Adherence to guidelines by physicians of an emergency department (ED) depends on many factors: guideline and environmental factors; patient and practitioner characteristics; the social-political context. We focused on the impact of the environmental influence and of the patients’ characteristics on adherence to [...] Read more.
Background: Adherence to guidelines by physicians of an emergency department (ED) depends on many factors: guideline and environmental factors; patient and practitioner characteristics; the social-political context. We focused on the impact of the environmental influence and of the patients’ characteristics on adherence to the guidelines. It is our intention to demonstrate how environmental factors such as ED organization more affect adherence to guidelines than the patient’s clinical presentation, even in a clinically insidious disease such as pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: A single-center observational study was carried out on all patients who were seen at our Department of Emergency and Acceptance from 1 January to 31 December 2017 for PE. For the assessment of adherence to guidelines, we used the European guidelines 2014 and analyzed adherence to the correct use of clinical decision rule (CDR as Wells, Geneva, and YEARS); the correct initiation of heparin therapy; and the management of patients at high risk for short-term mortality. The primary endpoint of our study was to determine whether adherence to the guidelines as a whole depends on patients’ management in a holding area. The secondary objective was to determine whether adherence to the guidelines depended on patient characteristics such as the presence of typical symptoms or severe clinical features (massive pulmonary embolism; organ damage). Results: There were significant differences between patients who passed through OBI and those who did not, in terms of both administration of heparin therapy alone (p = 0.007) and the composite endpoints of heparin therapy initiation and observation/monitoring (p = 0.004), as indicated by the guidelines. For the subgroups of patients with massive PE, organ damage, and typical symptoms, there was no greater adherence to the decision making, administration of heparin therapy alone, and the endpoints of heparin therapy initiation and guideline-based observation/monitoring. Conclusions: Patients managed in an ED holding area were managed more in accordance with the guidelines than those who were managed only in the visiting ED rooms and directly hospitalized from there. Full article
Article
Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil from Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. from Guatemala
Medicines 2020, 7(10), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7100059 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Background:Pimenta dioica is a native tree of Central America, Southern Mexico, and the Caribbean used in traditional medicine. It grows in wet forests in the Guatemalan departments of Petén and Izabal. Since the plant is not being economically exploited in Guatemala, this [...] Read more.
Background:Pimenta dioica is a native tree of Central America, Southern Mexico, and the Caribbean used in traditional medicine. It grows in wet forests in the Guatemalan departments of Petén and Izabal. Since the plant is not being economically exploited in Guatemala, this study was aimed at determining the composition of the essential oil of P. dioica leaves and fruits and the antibacterial activity of the leaves in order to evaluate its possible use in health products. The essential oils of fruits and leaves are used as rubefacient, anti-inflammatory, carminative, antioxidant, and antiflatulent in different countries. Methods: Fruits and leaves of P. dioica from Izabal Department were collected in April 2014 and extracted by hydrodistillation method. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results: Yields of 1.02 ± 0.11% for dried leaves and 1.51 ± 0.26% for fruits were obtained. Eugenol was the main component (65.9–71.4%). The leaf oil showed growth inhibition against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: The authors consider that the tree’s leaves can be evaluated as a source of ingredients for antiseptic products, and that it is important to evaluate other types of properties such as anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Potential and Medical Use of Essential Oils)
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