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Medicines, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 6 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The relationship between polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy seems [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Outcomes Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency among Indexed Hospitalizations with Cardiovascular Disease and Cerebrovascular Disorder—A Nationwide Study
Medicines 2020, 7(11), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7110072 - 22 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Background: According to past studies, recovery and survival following severe vascular events such as acute myocardial infarction and stroke are negatively impacted by vitamin D deficiency. However, the national estimate on disability-related burden is unclear. We intend to evaluate the prevalence and [...] Read more.
Background: According to past studies, recovery and survival following severe vascular events such as acute myocardial infarction and stroke are negatively impacted by vitamin D deficiency. However, the national estimate on disability-related burden is unclear. We intend to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebrovascular disorder (CeVD). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on the Nationwide Inpatient Sample data (2016–2017) of adult (≥18 years) hospitalizations. We identified patients with a secondary diagnosis of VDD and a primary diagnosis of CVD and CeVD using the 9th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, clinical modification code (ICD-10-CM) codes. A univariate and mixed-effect multivariable survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the prevalence, disability, and discharge disposition of patients with CVD and CeVD in the presence of VDD. Results: Among 58,259,589 USA hospitalizations, 3.44%, 2.15%, 0.06%, 1.28%, 11.49%, 1.71%, 0.38%, 0.23%, and 0.08% had primary admission of IHD, acute MI, angina, AFib, CHF, AIS, TIA, ICeH, and SAH, respectively and 1.82% had VDD. The prevalence of hospitalizations due to CHF (14.66% vs. 11.43%), AIS (1.87% vs. 1.71%), and TIA (0.4% vs. 0.38%) was higher among VDD patients as compared with non-VDD patients (p < 0.0001). In a regression analysis, as compare with non-VDD patients, the VDD patients were associated with higher odds of discharge to non-home facilities with an admission diagnosis of CHF (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07–1.09), IHD (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21–1.28), acute MI (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.19–1.28), AFib (aOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.16–1.27), and TIA (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.11–1.28). VDD was associated with higher odds of severe or extreme disability among patients hospitalized with AIS (aOR 1.1, 95% CI 1.06–1.14), ICeH (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08–1.38), TIA (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25–1.47), IHD (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33–1.41), acute MI (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.38–1.49), AFib (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.15), and CHF (aOR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02–1.05) as compared with non-VDD. Conclusions: CVD and CeVD in the presence of VDD increase the disability and discharge to non-home facilities among USA hospitalizations. Future studies should be planned to evaluate the effect of VDD replacement for improving outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology and Vascular Disease)
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Oral Intake of Royal Jelly Has Protective Effects against Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Toxicity in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Medicines, 2019, 6, 2
Medicines 2020, 7(11), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7110071 - 19 Nov 2020
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Abstract
We, the authors, wish to make the following correction to our published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as New Cancer Treatments) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Hospital-Acquired Serum Ionized Calcium Derangements and Their Associations with In-Hospital Mortality
Medicines 2020, 7(11), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7110070 - 19 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Background: The objective of this study was to report the incidence of in-hospital serum ionized calcium derangement and its impact on mortality. Methods: We included 12,599 non-dialytic adult patients hospitalized at a tertiary medical center from January 2009 to December 2013 with [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this study was to report the incidence of in-hospital serum ionized calcium derangement and its impact on mortality. Methods: We included 12,599 non-dialytic adult patients hospitalized at a tertiary medical center from January 2009 to December 2013 with normal serum ionized calcium at admission and at least 2 in-hospital serum ionized calcium values. Using serum ionized calcium of 4.60–5.40 mg/dL as the normal reference range, in-hospital serum ionized calcium levels were categorized based on the presence of hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia in hospital. We performed logistic regression to assess the relationship of in-hospital serum ionized calcium derangement with mortality. Results: Fifty-four percent of patients developed new serum ionized calcium derangements: 42% had in-hospital hypocalcemia only, 4% had in-hospital hypercalcemia only, and 8% had both in-hospital hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. In-hospital hypocalcemia only (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.01–1.64), in-hospital hypercalcemia only (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.02–2.68), and both in-hospital hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.14–2.62) were all significantly associated with increased in-hospital mortality, compared with persistently normal serum ionized calcium levels. Conclusions: In-hospital serum ionized calcium derangements affect more than half of hospitalized patients and are associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W.Theob. (Menispermaceae): A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities
Medicines 2020, 7(11), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7110069 - 10 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Background:Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W.Theob. (Menispermaceae) is a perennial climber distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. The main aim of this article is to collect and analyze the scientific information related to traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Methods: Scientific [...] Read more.
Background:Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W.Theob. (Menispermaceae) is a perennial climber distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. The main aim of this article is to collect and analyze the scientific information related to traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Methods: Scientific information on C. hirsutus was retrieved from the online bibliographic databases (e.g. MEDLINE/PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Scopus). Information regarding traditional uses was also acquired from secondary resources including books and proceedings. Results: Different plant parts of C. hirsutus were reported to be used for the treatment of fever, skin diseases, stomach disorders and urinary diseases. Alkaloids such as jasminitine, hirsutine, cohirsitine and their derivatives along with a few flavonoids, triterpene derivatives and volatile compounds were reported from whole plant or different plant parts. Extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective activities among others. Conclusion: Although widely used in traditional medicines, only a few studies have been performed related to chemical constituents. Most of the biological activity evaluations were carried out using in vitro evaluation methods and only a few studies were carried out in animal models. In the future, properly designed in vivo and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the pharmacological activities of C. hirsutus along with bioassay-guided studies to isolate and identify the active constituents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Identification and Classification of Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) and PMR-Like Syndromes Following Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) Therapy: Discussion Points and Grey Areas Emerging from a Systematic Review of Published Literature
Medicines 2020, 7(11), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7110068 - 03 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Background: Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) is one of the most frequent rheumatologic immune-related adverse effects (IRAEs) in cancer patients following therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Atypical findings in many patients often lead to diagnosing PMR-like syndromes. Materials and methods: The aim [...] Read more.
Background: Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) is one of the most frequent rheumatologic immune-related adverse effects (IRAEs) in cancer patients following therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Atypical findings in many patients often lead to diagnosing PMR-like syndromes. Materials and methods: The aim of our research was to review reported diagnoses of PMR and PMR-like syndromes following ICIs therapy, and assess whether they can be redefined as adverse drug reaction (ADR). In line with PRISMA guidelines, we carried out a systematic search on three main bibliographic databases, based on a combination of subject headings and free text. We included all studies and case-reports published after 2011 (when FDA approved the use of the first ICI) describing the association of PMR or PMR-like syndromes with all types of ICIs therapy. We excluded reviews, conference abstracts, comments, secondary articles, and non-English language studies. Results: We reviewed data from seven studies and eight case-reports, involving a total of 54 patients. Limitations included: the small size of all studies; only one retrospective study used validated criteria for PMR; most reports assessed IRAEs by clinical judgment only and did not seek validation through assessment scales. To date, it remains a conundrum whether IRAEs-PMR is identical to the idiopathic form of the disease, or whether it should be considered a subset of the disease or a new entity. Conclusions: Our review indicates that the relationship between PMR and ICIs therapy is yet to be clearly understood and defined and that future research should remedy the current limits in study design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Anticancer Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview
Use of Herbal Medications for Treatment of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Medicines 2020, 7(11), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7110067 - 28 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Arthritis is a chronic condition that affects nearly a quarter of the United States population. Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two major forms of arthritis associated with severe joint pain and reduced quality of life. Various pharmacological interventions may be utilized [...] Read more.
Arthritis is a chronic condition that affects nearly a quarter of the United States population. Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two major forms of arthritis associated with severe joint pain and reduced quality of life. Various pharmacological interventions may be utilized for arthritis treatment when non-pharmacological therapy is insufficient. However, pharmacological therapy can be associated with serious side effects and high costs. Therefore, alternative therapies have been under investigation. Herbal medications have shown the potential for safe and effective management of arthritis. For this review, we attempt to summarize the mechanisms, safety, and efficacy of herbal treatments for OA and RA. After searching electronic databases, we identified nine herbs among 23 clinical trials used for the treatment of OA or RA patients. Improvement of OA and RA symptoms, pain, and inflammation was demonstrated. The herbs exhibited strong anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, contributing to a reduction in inflammation and tissue damage. Several herbs elucidated new mechanisms for OA and RA treatment as well. Though these herbs have shown promise for OA and RA treatment, more studies and clinical trials are required for determining safety and efficacy, bioactivity, and optimal bioavailability. Full article
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