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Toxics, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant known to be neurotoxic, particularly [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Chlorpyrifos- and Dichlorvos-Induced Oxidative and Neurogenic Damage Elicits Neuro-Cognitive Deficits and Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Wild-Type Rats
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
The execution of agricultural activities on an industrial scale has led to indiscriminate deposition of toxic xenobiotics, including organophosphates, in the biome. This has led to intoxication characterized by deleterious oxidative and neuronal changes. This study investigated the consequences of oxidative and neurogenic
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The execution of agricultural activities on an industrial scale has led to indiscriminate deposition of toxic xenobiotics, including organophosphates, in the biome. This has led to intoxication characterized by deleterious oxidative and neuronal changes. This study investigated the consequences of oxidative and neurogenic disruptions that follow exposure to a combination of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and dichlorvos (DDVP), on neuro-cognitive performance and anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats (150–170 g) were randomly divided into four groups, orally exposed to normal saline (NS), DDVP (8.8 mg/kg), CPF (14.9 mg/kg), and DDVP + CPF for 14 consecutive days. On day 10 of exposure, anxiety-like behavior and amygdala-dependent fear learning were assessed using open field and elevated plus maze paradigms, respectively, while spatial working memory was assessed on day 14 in the Morris water maze paradigm, following three training trials on days 11, 12, and 13. On day 15, the rats were euthanized, and their brains excised, with the hippocampus and amygdala removed. Five of these samples were homogenized and centrifuged to analyze nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total reactive oxygen species (ROS), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the other three were processed for histology (cresyl violet stain) and proliferative markers (Ki67 immunohistochemistry). Marked (p ≤0.05) loss in body weight, AChE depletion, and overproduction of both NO and ROS were observed after repeated exposure to individual and combined doses of CPF and DDVP. Insults from DDVP exposure appeared more severe owing to the observed greater losses in the body weights of exposed rats. There was also a significant (p ≤0.05) effect on the cognitive behaviors recorded from the exposed rats, and these deficits were related to the oxidative damage and neurogenic cell loss in the hippocampus and the amygdala of the exposed rats. Taken together, these results provided an insight that oxidative and neurogenic damage are central to the severity of neuro-cognitive dysfunction and increased anxiety-like behaviors that follow organophosphate poisoning. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Xenobiotics in Developmental Neurotoxicity)
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Open AccessArticle Early, Subclinical Hematological Changes Associated with Occupational Exposure to High Levels of Nitrous Oxide
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine whether exposure of operating room personnel to inhalation anesthetics, nitrous oxide, isoflurane, and sevoflurane was associated with any hematological changes. This historical cohort study was performed in 2018 at a large public hospital in Shiraz, where 52
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This study was undertaken to determine whether exposure of operating room personnel to inhalation anesthetics, nitrous oxide, isoflurane, and sevoflurane was associated with any hematological changes. This historical cohort study was performed in 2018 at a large public hospital in Shiraz, where 52 operating room personnel and 52 administrative staff were investigated. The blood sample was taken from all individuals for Complete Blood Count. Furthermore, demographic information was collected through questionnaires. Mean atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, to which subjects were exposed, were 850.92, 2.40, and 0.18 ppm, respectively. The hematological parameters were within the normal range in both groups. However, the mean values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell count in the exposed group were significantly lower than the control group. No significant differences were noted between the two groups as far as other hematological factors were concerned. These findings provide circumstantial evidence to further substantiate the notion that occupational exposure to inhalation anesthetics, under the exposure scenario explained in this study, is associated with subtle, subclinical, prepathologic hematological changes. Long-term consequence and ramifications of these effects require further investigation. The range of exposure levels to anesthetic gases in operating rooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Sample Preparation for Detection of 10 Phthalates in Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Northern Vietnam
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
A novel method was developed for the sensitive, cheap and fast quantitation of 10 phthalates in non-alcoholic beverages by liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The best results were obtained when n-hexane was used as extraction solvent.
[...] Read more.
A novel method was developed for the sensitive, cheap and fast quantitation of 10 phthalates in non-alcoholic beverages by liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The best results were obtained when n-hexane was used as extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to select the most appreciated operating condition. The method performance was evaluated according to the SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines and was linear in the 0.1 to 200 µg/L range for 10 phthalate compounds, with r2 > 0.996 and individual residuals <15%. Repeatability (RSDr), within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDwr), and the trueness range were from 2.7 to 9.1%, from 3.4 to 14.3% and from 91.5 to 118.1%, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was between 0.5 to 1.0 ng/L and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was between 1.5 to 3.0 ng/L for all 10 compounds. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of non-alcoholic beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Impact of Maternal Air Pollution Exposure on Children’s Lung Health: An Indian Perspective
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Air pollution has become an emerging invisible killer in recent years and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. More than 90% of the world’s children breathe toxic air every day. India is among the top ten most highly polluted countries
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Air pollution has become an emerging invisible killer in recent years and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. More than 90% of the world’s children breathe toxic air every day. India is among the top ten most highly polluted countries with an average PM10 level of 134 μg/m3 per year. It is reported that 99% of India’s population encounters air pollution levels that exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline, advising a PM2.5 permissible level of 10 μg/m3. Maternal exposure to air pollution has serious health outcomes in offspring because it can affect embryonic phases of development during the gestation period. A fetus is more prone to effects from air pollution during embryonic developmental phases due to resulting oxidative stress as antioxidant mechanisms are lacking at that stage. Any injury during this vulnerable period (embryonic phase) will have a long-term impact on offspring health, both early and later in life. Epidemiological studies have revealed that maternal exposure to air pollution increases the risk of development of airway disease in the offspring due to impaired lung development in utero. In this review, we discuss cellular mechanisms involved in maternal exposure to air pollution and how it can impact airway disease development in offspring. A better understanding of these mechanisms in the context of maternal exposure to air pollution can offer a new avenue to prevent the development of airway disease in offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Exposure to Toxics and Risks in Infants)
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Open AccessArticle Premature Puberty and Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccination: A Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Studies suggest a relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupters, such as mercury (Hg), and premature puberty. Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine, administered at specific intervals within the first six months of life, and the child’s long-term risk of being diagnosed with
[...] Read more.
Studies suggest a relationship between exposure to endocrine disrupters, such as mercury (Hg), and premature puberty. Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine, administered at specific intervals within the first six months of life, and the child’s long-term risk of being diagnosed with premature puberty (ICD-9 code: 259.1), was retrospectively examined, using a hypothesis-testing, longitudinal case-control design on prospectively collected data, in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). Cases diagnosed with premature puberty were significantly more likely to have received increased exposure to Hg from hepatitis B vaccines preserved with Thimerosal given in the first month after birth (odds ratio (OR) = 1.803), first two months after birth (OR = 1.768), and first six months after birth (OR = 2.0955), compared to control subjects. When the data were separated by gender, the effects remained among females but not males. Female cases, as compared to female controls, were significantly more likely in a dose-dependent manner to have received a greater exposure to Hg from hepatitis B vaccines preserved with Thimerosal, given in the first six months after birth (OR = 1.0281 per µg Hg). The results of this study show a dose-dependent association between increasing organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered within the first six months of life and the long-term risk of the child being diagnosed with premature puberty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Exposure to Toxics and Risks in Infants)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Comparative Assessment of Tungsten Toxicity in the Absence or Presence of Other Metals
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
Tungsten is a refractory metal that is used in a wide range of applications. It was initially perceived that tungsten was immobile in the environment, supporting tungsten as an alternative for lead and uranium in munition and military applications. Recent studies report movement
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Tungsten is a refractory metal that is used in a wide range of applications. It was initially perceived that tungsten was immobile in the environment, supporting tungsten as an alternative for lead and uranium in munition and military applications. Recent studies report movement and detection of tungsten in soil and potable water sources, increasing the risk of human exposure. In addition, experimental research studies observed adverse health effects associated with exposure to tungsten alloys, raising concerns on tungsten toxicity with questions surrounding the safety of exposure to tungsten alone or in mixtures with other metals. Tungsten is commonly used as an alloy with nickel and cobalt in many applications to adjust hardness and thermal and electrical conductivity. This review addresses the current state of knowledge in regard to the mechanisms of toxicity of tungsten in the absence or presence of other metals with a specific focus on mixtures containing nickel and cobalt, the most common components of tungsten alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
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Open AccessReview Heavy Metal Mixture Exposure and Effects in Developing Nations: An Update
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
The drive for development and modernization has come at great cost. Various human activities in developed and developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have given rise to environmental safety concerns. Increased artisanal mining activities, illegal refining, use of leaded petrol, airborne dust,
[...] Read more.
The drive for development and modernization has come at great cost. Various human activities in developed and developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have given rise to environmental safety concerns. Increased artisanal mining activities, illegal refining, use of leaded petrol, airborne dust, arbitrary discarding and burning of toxic waste, absorption of production industries in inhabited areas, inadequate environmental legislation, and weak implementation of policies, have given rise to the incomparable contamination and pollution associated with heavy metals in recent decades. This review evaluates the public health effects of heavy metals and their mixtures in SSA. This shows the extent and size of the problem posed by exposure to heavy metal mixtures in regard to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
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Open AccessArticle Pressurized Solvent Extraction with Ethyl Acetate and Liquid Chromatography—Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Selected Conazole Fungicides in Matcha
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
The extraction of powdered nutraceuticals is challenging due to the low water content and high concentration of matrix components that can lead to significant matrix effects in liquid chromatography-positive ion electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI+-MS/MS). In this study we assess the
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The extraction of powdered nutraceuticals is challenging due to the low water content and high concentration of matrix components that can lead to significant matrix effects in liquid chromatography-positive ion electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI+-MS/MS). In this study we assess the feasibility of using pressurized solvent extraction with ethyl acetate to reduce the co-extraction of polar matrix components. Pigment attributed to chlorophyll was removed with in-cell clean-up utilizing Anasorb 747, Florisil®, and C18. Visible inspection of the extracts showed that pigment was removed from matcha, a powdered green tea sample. Pressurized solvent extraction with in-cell clean-up can be utilized to remove pigments from powdered samples such as nutraceuticals. Average matrix effect of the 32 target analytes that observed mass spectrometric signal suppression or soft MS signal enhancement was −41 ± 19% with the majority of analytes having a protonated molecular ion with m/z of 250 to 412. As generally moderate signal suppression was observed for conazole fungicides and structurally related compounds analyzed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS, it is recommended that matrix matched or standard addition calibration is used for quantitation. Catachins, other polyphenols, and caffeine are expected to contribute to the matrix effects observed in LC-ESI+-MS/MS. Diniconazole, fenbuconazole, and tebufenozide were the only target analytes with severe MS signal enhancement. Low levels (0.002–0.004 mg/kg) of prothioconazole-desthio and flusilazole were detected, along with trace levels of tebuthiuron in matcha. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
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Open AccessArticle Toxic Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Brainstem Nicotinic Receptor Expression: Primary Cause of Sudden Unexplained Perinatal Death
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Among the neurotoxicants contained in tobacco smoke, if absorbed during pregnancy, nicotine significantly affects α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which play essential roles in the development of the brainstem regions receiving cholinergic projections in perinatal life. Immunohistochemical procedures for analysing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brainstem samples
[...] Read more.
Among the neurotoxicants contained in tobacco smoke, if absorbed during pregnancy, nicotine significantly affects α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which play essential roles in the development of the brainstem regions receiving cholinergic projections in perinatal life. Immunohistochemical procedures for analysing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brainstem samples from 68 fetuses and early newborns, with smoking and non-smoking mothers, who died of known and unknown causes, were carried out in order to determine if nicotine had activated the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. High α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression levels were only observed in the victims with smoking mothers. Frequently, these findings were associated with the hypoplasia of the brainstem structures controlling vital functions. The results of this study indicate that the exposition to nicotine in pregnancy exerts a strong direct effect on α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity especially in perinatal life and may be one of the primary risk factors leading to the sudden unexplained death of fetuses and newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prenatal Exposure to Toxics and Risks in Infants)
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Open AccessArticle The Toxicity Assessment of Iron Oxide (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles on Physical and Biochemical Quality of Rainbow Trout Spermatozoon
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of different doses (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/L) of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) at 4 °C for 24 h on the kinematics of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of different doses (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/L) of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) at 4 °C for 24 h on the kinematics of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792) spermatozoon. Firstly, Fe3O4 NPs were prepared at about 30 nm from Iron (III) chloride, Iron (II) chloride, and NH3 via a co-precipitation synthesis technique. Then, the prepared Fe3O4 NPs were characterized by different instrumental techniques for their chemical structure, purity, morphology, surface properties, and thermal behavior. The size, microstructure, and morphology of the prepared Fe3O4 NPs were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The thermal properties of the Fe3O4 NPs were determined with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis techniques. According to our results, there were statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in the velocities of spermatozoon after treatment with 400 mg/L Fe3O4 NPs. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significant (p < 0.05) decrease after 100 mg/L in after exposure to Fe3O4 NPs in 24 h. As the doses of Fe3O4 NPs increases, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total glutathione (tGSH) significantly (p < 0.05) increased at doses of 400 and 800 mg/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles Toxicity and Impacts on Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Sub-Nanomolar Methylmercury Exposure Promotes Premature Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Neural Precursor at the Expense of Their Proliferation
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is known to be neurotoxic, particularly during fetal development. However, the mechanisms responsible for MeHg-induced changes in adult neuronal function, when their exposure occurred primarily during fetal development, are not yet understood. We hypothesized that
[...] Read more.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is known to be neurotoxic, particularly during fetal development. However, the mechanisms responsible for MeHg-induced changes in adult neuronal function, when their exposure occurred primarily during fetal development, are not yet understood. We hypothesized that fetal MeHg exposure could affect neural precursor development leading to long-term neurotoxic effects. Primary cortical precursor cultures obtained from embryonic day 12 were exposed to 0 nM, 0.25 nM, 0.5 nM, 2.5 nM, and 5 nM MeHg for 48 or 72 h. Total Hg accumulated in the harvested cells in a dose-dependent manner. Not all of the concentrations tested in the study affected cell viability. Intriguingly, we observed that cortical precursor exposed to 0.25 nM MeHg showed increased neuronal differentiation, while its proliferation was inhibited. Reduced neuronal differentiation, however, was observed in the higher dose groups. Our results suggest that sub-nanomolar MeHg exposure may deplete the pool of neural precursors by increasing premature neuronal differentiation, which can lead to long-term neurological effects in adulthood as opposed to the higher MeHg doses that cause more immediate toxicity during infant development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mercury and Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity and Toxicity Evaluation of Xanthone Crude Extract on Hypoxic Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Xanthone is an organic compound mostly found in mangosteen pericarp and widely known for its anti-proliferating effect on cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of xanthone crude extract (XCE) and α-mangostin (α-MG) on normoxic and hypoxic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2)
[...] Read more.
Xanthone is an organic compound mostly found in mangosteen pericarp and widely known for its anti-proliferating effect on cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of xanthone crude extract (XCE) and α-mangostin (α-MG) on normoxic and hypoxic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and their toxicity towards zebrafish embryos. XCE was isolated using a mixture of acetone and water (80:20) and verified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both XCE and α-MG showed higher anti-proliferation effects on normoxic HepG2 cells compared to the control drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 50.23 ± 1.38, 8.39 ± 0.14, and 143.75 ± 15.31 μg/mL, respectively). In hypoxic conditions, HepG2 cells were two times less sensitive towards XCE compared to normoxic HepG2 cells (IC50 = 109.38 ± 1.80 μg/mL) and three times less sensitive when treated with >500 μg/mL 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). A similar trend was seen with the α-MG treatment on hypoxic HepG2 cells (IC50 = 10.11 ± 0.05 μg/mL) compared to normoxic HepG2 cells. However, at a concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, the α-MG treatment caused tail-bend deformities in surviving zebrafish embryos, while no malformation was observed when embryos were exposed to XCE and 5-FU treatments. Our study suggests that both XCE and α-MG are capable of inhibiting HepG2 cell proliferation during normoxic and hypoxic conditions, more effectively than 5-FU. However, XCE is the preferred option as no malformation was observed in surviving zebrafish embryos and it is more cost efficient than α-MG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminant Effects on Zebrafish Embryos)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of MS/MS Product Ions for the Differentiation of Structurally Isomeric Pesticides by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Received: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
Structural isomeric pesticides are used in agriculture and may be challenging to differentiate for accurate identification in pesticide monitoring programs. Due to structural similarity, isomeric pesticides are difficult to separate chromatographically, and thus, their accurate identification may rely solely on mass spectrometric analysis
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Structural isomeric pesticides are used in agriculture and may be challenging to differentiate for accurate identification in pesticide monitoring programs. Due to structural similarity, isomeric pesticides are difficult to separate chromatographically, and thus, their accurate identification may rely solely on mass spectrometric analysis (MS). In this study, we challenged the ability of high-resolution quadrupole-orbitrap (Q-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry to produce and evaluate the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ions for the selected five pairs of isomeric pesticides from different classes: Pebulate and vernolate, methiocarb and ethiofencarb, uniconazole and cyproconazole, sebuthylazine and terbuthylazine, and orbencarb and thiobencarb. The use of Q-Orbitrap instrument with a mass error <3 ppm allowed proposed elucidation of the product ion structures with consideration of the ion formulae, data interpretation, and literature searches. Product ions unique to pebulate, vernolate, methiocarb, ethiofencarb, and uniconazole were observed. Elucidation of the observed MS/MS product ion structures was conducted, and the fragmentation pathways were proposed. This information is valuable to increase selectivity in MS/MS analysis and differentiate isomeric pesticides, and thereby reduce the rates of false positives in pesticide monitoring programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
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Open AccessArticle Pattern of Paracetamol Poisoning: Influence on Outcome and Complications
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
Acute paracetamol poisoning due to a single overdose may be effectively treated by the early administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antidote. The prognosis may be different in the case of intoxication due to multiple ingestions or when the antidote is started with
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Acute paracetamol poisoning due to a single overdose may be effectively treated by the early administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antidote. The prognosis may be different in the case of intoxication due to multiple ingestions or when the antidote is started with delay. The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome of paracetamol poisoning according to the pattern of ingestion and determine the factors associated with the outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis over the period 2007–2017 of the patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital for paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity. Inclusion criteria were: accidental or voluntary ingestion of paracetamol, delay for NAC therapy of 12 h or more, liver enzymes (ALT) >1000 IU/L on admission. Ninety patients were considered. Poisoned patients following multiple ingestion were significantly older (45 ± 12 vs. 33 ± 14) (p = 0.001), with a higher incidence of liver steatosis (p = 0.016) or chronic ethanol abuse (p = 0.04). In comparison with the subgroup of favorable outcome, the patients with poor outcome were older, had higher values for ALT, bilirubin, lactate, and lower values for factor V and arterial pH. In multivariate analysis, the arterial lactate value was associated with a bad prognosis (p < 0.02) (adjusted odds ratio 1.74 and CI 95:1.09–2.77). The risk of poor outcome was greater in the subgroup with staggered overdose (p = 0.02), which had a higher mortality rate (p = 0.01). This retrospective analysis illustrates the different population patterns of patients who were admitted for a single ingestion of a paracetamol overdose versus multiple ingestions. This last subgroup was mainly represented by older patients with additional risk factors for hepatotoxicity; arterial lactate was a good predictor of severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Monitoring of Tetraselmis suecica in A Saline Environment as Means of Early Water Pollution Detection
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Biological water pollution, including organic pollutants and their possible transportation, via biofouling and ballast water, has the potential to cause severe economic and health impacts on society and environment. Current water pollution monitoring methods are limited by transportation of samples to the laboratory
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Biological water pollution, including organic pollutants and their possible transportation, via biofouling and ballast water, has the potential to cause severe economic and health impacts on society and environment. Current water pollution monitoring methods are limited by transportation of samples to the laboratory for analysis, which could take weeks. There is an urgent need for a water quality monitoring technique that generates real-time data. The study aims to assess the feasibility of three sensing techniques to detect and monitor the concentrations of the model species Tetraselmis suecica in real-time using eleven samples for each method. Results showed UV-Vis spectrophotometer detected increasing concentration of Tetraselmis suecica with R2 = 0.9627 and R2 = 0.9672, at 450 nm and 650 nm wavelengths, respectively. Secondly, low-frequency capacitance measurements showed a linear relationship with increasing concentration of Tetraselmis suecica at 150 Hz (R2 = 0.8463) and 180 Hz (R2 = 0.8391). Finally, a planar electromagnetic wave sensor measuring the reflected power S11 amplitude detected increasing cell density at 4 GHz (R2 = 0.8019). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Is It still a Conundrum?)
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