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Comparative Assessment of Tungsten Toxicity in the Absence or Presence of Other Metals

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2018, 6(4), 66;
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
PDF [798 KB, uploaded 9 November 2018]


Tungsten is a refractory metal that is used in a wide range of applications. It was initially perceived that tungsten was immobile in the environment, supporting tungsten as an alternative for lead and uranium in munition and military applications. Recent studies report movement and detection of tungsten in soil and potable water sources, increasing the risk of human exposure. In addition, experimental research studies observed adverse health effects associated with exposure to tungsten alloys, raising concerns on tungsten toxicity with questions surrounding the safety of exposure to tungsten alone or in mixtures with other metals. Tungsten is commonly used as an alloy with nickel and cobalt in many applications to adjust hardness and thermal and electrical conductivity. This review addresses the current state of knowledge in regard to the mechanisms of toxicity of tungsten in the absence or presence of other metals with a specific focus on mixtures containing nickel and cobalt, the most common components of tungsten alloy. View Full-Text
Keywords: tungsten; cobalt; metal mixtures; nickel; toxicity tungsten; cobalt; metal mixtures; nickel; toxicity

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Wasel, O.; Freeman, J.L. Comparative Assessment of Tungsten Toxicity in the Absence or Presence of Other Metals. Toxics 2018, 6, 66.

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